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Vodyasova L.P. - The semantic features and functional load in the novel by A.M. Doronin The Shadow of the bells pp. 1-13


Abstract: The subject of analysis are in the article the comparison related to the type of semantic change based on analogy and assimilation. The object of study is their semantic features and functional load in the novel famous Mordvin writer A. M. Doronin The shadow of the bells. This artistic-Visual tool attaches to the product of stylistic diversity, expressing in shaped the essence of the subject. System comparisons and how to apply them to reflect the perception of the author, characterizing his idiostil′, aesthetic principles and moral and philosophical beliefs. The main method of research is descriptive, based on comparisons of observations as imagined-expressive means language, their description and classification. On the basis of the carried out research work, the author concludes that in the present work identifies two group comparisons-1) with explicit and 2) implicit bases. The Comparison of the first type include direct name of a characteristic that is common to map events. The second type is a form of comparison with partial and full implicit Foundation, with the first contain the names of those aspects of the subject that are common signs with relevant aspects of reference, the composition of the second such names are not included. Both types perform kompressive and associative function in the novel, bringing dynamic, emotional and expressiveness into the fabric of artistic text.
Makhina L.A. - Negative Judgemental Expressions as Structure Elements and the Meaning of Conflictogenic Texts pp. 1-10


Abstract: The subject of the research is the expressive means of pejorative evaluation and particularities of using these means in conflictogenic German texts. Conflictogenic texts are practically not studied by linguistics as a particular kind of texts that constitute the field of agonal communication. Meanwhile, particular features of such texts include their ability to maintain and escalate the conflict through persuasive influence on recipients for the purpose of changing their communicative pragmatic attitude to the third parties or changing the matter of conversation to the alient one. Such change of the attitude to the 'alien' matter is made, among other things, by creating particular contrast images for the 'ours' and 'aliens' categories. The contrast between 'ours' and 'aliens' is created through polar evaluations of the aforesaid groups: meliorative and pejorative. In her research Makhina anayzes the negative evaluation of the 'aliens' group. The given linguistic analysis is based on lexico-semantic and contextual methods of analysis using the basic German dictionaries. Due the constant growth of tension in socio-political relations, modern linguistics focuses on studying language and speech phenomena that are functionally related t conflict communication situations and confict as a source and consequence of the opposition between participants of speech communication. A lot of researches conducted by Russian and foreign experts are devoted to the linguistic research of conflict situations in the process of communication. These researches are usually devoted to various aspects of the agonal communication, i.e. communication that is based no non-cooperative or dissonance speech actions of communicators. Despite a great number of researches on the matter, none of these researches cast enough light on the origin and structure of conflictogenic texts that are still the object of researches on forensic linguistics. The results of the given research allow to define conflictogenic texts from the point of view of linguistics and describe their main structural and semantic elements. 
Bykova L., Koptyakova E. - Functioning of a Precedent Name 'Munchausen' in Today's Russian Printed Media pp. 1-9


Abstract: The object of the research is a precedent name 'Munchausen'. The authors of the article analyze particularities of that precedent name in today's Russian press. Printed media cannot so fastly respond to the events going on in the world compared to TV, radio or Internet. For this reason, in recent years the main function of press media has been the influence function. The authors pay special attention to what precedent situations related to the name 'Munchausen' have been actualised in Russian press media and what impact it was supposed to made on readers. When selecting material for research, the authors have used the random sampling  method. In the course of processing the obtained corpus of examples, the authors have also conducted a cognitive discourse analysis of precedent phenomena as well as their comparison and classification. The novelty of the research is caused by the fact that for the first time in the academic literature the authors have appealed to studying a particular precedent phenomenon associated with the German culture and how this phenomenon is shown in Russian press media. As a result of the research, the authors demonstrate that the precedent name 'Munchausen' actualises such representations as 'lier' and 'dreamer' while for precedent situations a formal actualisation is more typical. 
Shchepalina V. - Particularities of the Author's Speech Functioning in Alejandro Casona's Drama pp. 1-9


Abstract: The subject of the research is the functioning of the author's speech in plays of a Spanish playwright Alejandro Casona. The author of the article examines the mechanism of reinforcing imagery and suggestiveness of a play by using expressive potential of the author's speech. Among other particularities of Casona's dramatic style, the author of the article underlines poetic equivalence of a stage dialogue and author's speech, functional and linguostylistic variety of remarks, their impressive nature and dialogue with an interpreter. In her article Schepalina provides a wide illustrative material that allows to prove the theoretical concepts of the research. The author has also applied methods of context, component, discursive and stylistic analysis, observation, generalisation and description. The scientific novelty of the research is caused by the fact that Alejandro Casona's plays are understudied in Russia. The author of the article makes a contribution to the concept of the Spanish theatre and genre features of plays. The author's analysis of Casona's comedies allows to conclude that the author's speech does not only place the action in a micro- and macro-situational context but also serves as a poetic sign.    
Vodyasova L.P. - Metaphorical Modeling of the Concept of Religion in Alexander Doronin's Novel The Shadow of the Bells pp. 9-20


Abstract: The subject of analysis is the concept of religion which represents the problem of man's self-consciousness and his place in society. This is one of the most important concepts in the linguistic world-view of almost any nation because, in spite of the general level of religiosity, people practice different kinds of confessions. It is also one of the most complex concepts due to its contradictory nature and theological orientation because not only representatives of different linguistic communities, but also bearers of the same culture who follow different confessions, for example, may have different attributes of the aforesaid concept. Due to the enormous differential field of the concept, the article considers the representation of the concept “religion” basing on the novel by A.M. Doronin “The Shadow of the bells”. Research objectives: 1) to define of lexical units Corps-religionims, used by the author for the category of sacred objects, and classify them by thematic groups; 2) to selected of among lexical units to identify those with metaphoric values; 3) to installe of contexts, that reveal the nature of metaphorical concept. As a method of research was defined based on the descriptive observation of religionims and their functioning in certain contexts. Based on our investigation we concluded that, A.M. Doronin embodies the Orthodox world-view. The basic concept is getting the concept of "religion", which feature is its metaphorical notion that finds its linguistic confirmation text works. A characteristic feature of the language of the work is the presence of a large number of religionyms associated with the people’s life (rituals, prayer, fasting, religious holidays). Among the most significant substantive components of concept 10 contexts. They contain emotional, aesthetic and artistic elements, are a testament to the metaphorical concept, its contents can be stated as an objective individual and collective spiritual relationship of God and man, based on faith in God and man worship him. 
Merzlyakova K. - Particularities of Modality Realization in Spanish Gender Media Discourse (the Case Study of Cosmopolitan and Telva Magazines) pp. 10-16


Abstract: The subject of this research is functional and semantic particularities of expression modality in Spanish glamour magazines. The author of the article pays special attention to theoretical aspects of modality studies and various approaches to the matter because despite the growing interest in it, modality still remains one of the most multi-sided and contradictory phenomena in linguistics. The aim of this research is to define relationship between persuasion and illocutive modality in a media text. The author also analyzes the influence of utterances produced by a media discourse on gender construction. In her article Merzlyakova also presents results of popular Spanish glamour magazines analysis (Cosmopolitan and Telva) selected by using continuous sampling method. The novelty of the research is caused by the fact that Merzlyakova views the persuasion function in addition to illocutive force of a produced utterance as especially important functional characteristics of media texts that can be used to analyse the position of an addressant in a media discourse and his or her relationship with the audience. Analysis of the implicit manifestation of an addressant's opinion makes it clear how media manipulates values, assessments and opinions of recipients. 
Vodyasova L.P. - The Functions of Metalexemes in the Literary Text (Based on the Works of Mordovian Writers) pp. 11-19


Abstract: The subject of analysis in the article is the metalexeme as the class of words with the highest level of generalization. Research objectives include: 1) to define the class of metalexemes; 2) to describe the main features thereof; 3) to determine the functions that they perform in the literary text. According to the author, metalexemes have the following features: broad conceptual basis allowing to relate it to a wider class of denotations; absence of a definite denotative meaning and high level of abstraction generalized in the language system; indirect nominaton and, consequently, sinsemantia. The descriptive research method was used based on observations of metalexemes and their functioning in the literary texts written by Mordovian writers in Erzya. Based on the research results the author concluded that the marked words are often used by writers for shorter names of a detailed written fact, phenomenon, or a whole episode for its generalization, summarization and qualification . These words generally reflect the author's evaluation of the reported and repeat the previous part of the text or any of its component at a higher level of abstraction (anaphoric replacement) and can also be used in the exposition, thus organizing all further description or narration (cataphoric replacement).
Suvorova N.N. - The Morphological Content of Advertising Slogans in the Field of Education pp. 11-16


Abstract: The article is devoted to the study of text ad from the point of view of morphology of the Russian language. The author addresses to this subject because it allows to consider an extensive language material, is interseting from the point of view of the Russian language and the lack of research in this area. This author of the article describes content words, peculiarities of their use and frequency of use in advertising slogans representing educational services. The object of the research is content words in advertising slogans representing the sphere of education. The purpose of the research is to describe peculiarities and to analyze how frequent content words are used in advertising slogans of education. The practical basis of the research involves advertising slogans in the sphere of education. To achieve the goals, the author has used data processing data including mathematical and statistical methods. During the analysis of advertising material of the education sector the author has revealed that such parts of speech as nouns, adjectives and verbs are more common than others. Nouns perform their basic function (naming) and come first. Verbs bring dynamics into an advertising slogan, attracts and holds attention of a consumer while adjectives decorate an advertising message or clarify a service. They are used mostly with the same frequency. Other parts of speech such as numerals, pronouns and adverbs, are met less frequently but perform very important functions, too, in particular, they make a reference to the item being advertised, clarify a service or present an advertising feature.  
Matveeva A.A. - Textual Functions of Pluperfect in Terms of Precedence (the Case Study of Literary Works of the XVIth - XIXth Centuries) pp. 12-20


Abstract: The subject of the research is the textual functions of the pluperfect tense in the French language that appear from the meaning of precedence. These functions include reconstruction of the cronological order of events as well as participation in the anaphoric reference to events that have been described earlier. In her research Matveeva analyzes pluperfect semantics in comparison with other forms of the past tense. She also analyzes changes in the way the pluperfect tense had been used in the period since the XVIth till the XIXth centuries. Matveeva offers her own classification of contexts where this tense has the aforesaid functions. To analyze cases of using the pluperfect tense, the author has used the functional interpretation of the psychosystemic theory of the verbal tense. The tense is studied by the author taking into account particularities of the personal psychological time. The main conclusions of the research relate to the classification of contexts of using the pluperfect tense. While the XVIth-century texts make the anaphoric reference using the purperfect tense only if there was an additional indicatory component, the XIXth-century texts make such a reference without the indicatory component. As for the function of keeping the chronological order of events, it had stayed the same throughout the research period. 
Nilogov A.S. - 'Snipping' as the Name (Antilanguage Methodology in Aid of DNA-Genealogy) pp. 18-25


Abstract: In article the problem of allocation of new snips (one-nucleotide polymorphisms) as a lingvo-philosophical problem of the name ("onomafication") of our far ancestors is considered, still, it is possible, not having own names, but which it is possible to allocate/distinguish on the basis of assignment of serial number of snips as in any biological (in this case - genetic) of taxonomy. To us the problem of a "snipping"/snipping as the name "/antroponimofication" of far ancestors seems essential: from Y-chromosomal Adam through all nodal points (gapgroups / snips) to documentary confirmed factology of classical genealogy. The following methods are used in the research: anti-language, genetic (Y-chromosomal DNA testing), genealogical, DNA-genealogical, source study, heuristic method. The novelty of research is caused by the fact that the author establishes the interdisciplinary connection between two modern methods of scientific knowledge: anti-language methodology and by the DNA methods - genealogy (genetic genealogy). This allows to fulfil an opportunity as DNA genealogy due to expansion of anthroponimia factology when the documentary and source study base of classical genealogy, and anti-language methodology by means of inclusion of new types of anti-words in structure DNK-genealogisms is settled. 
Dzakhova V.T., Dzodzikova Z.B. - Phraseological Units as the Reflection of the Nation's World View (the Case Study of the Analysis of Phraseological Units with UD/DUSHA (Soul)/SEELE in Ossetian, Russian and German Languages) pp. 20-25


Abstract: The subject of this research is the phraseological units with such components as Ud/DUSHA (Soul)/SEELE in Ossetian, Russian and German languages. The purpose of the analysis is to define universal and specific features of these terms in the languages being compared. As the authors assumed in the very beginning, these are the most important terms for Ossetian and Russian languages spoken by Christians. Germans demonstrate less commitment to religion which is reflected in the term Seele which means the core of instruments or items. Appealing to the seminal and grammatical methods of analysis, the authors of the article describe a grammatical structure and internal form of phraseological units through comparing the meaning of phraseological units to the literal meaning of their components. The novelty of the research is caused by the fact that for the first time in the academic literature the authors compare phraseological units of three IndoEuropean languages, two languages (Ossetian and Russian) being closely connected with each other for many centuries, and the third language (German) being used only in the process of teaching the German language to Ossetians or Russians. 
Paramonova M.K. - Lexical Synonymy of Religious Lexis: Particularities and Types pp. 23-28


Abstract: The subject of the research is the synonymy of religious lexis. In the course of her research Paramonova has discovered that religious lexis typically has excessive synonymy that creates more means of describing the same phenomenon. The main feature of synonymy of religious lexis is the relationship of absolute synonymy. The author describes the sources of absolute synonymy (word-formative processes, foreign vocabulary, words with different inner form, etc.) as well as particular features of synonymic pairs and rows (depending on the scope of application, styles and expressivity). The research material involved about 150 synonymic pairs and rows selected from the edition 'God, Religion' of the Russian Topical Vocabulary, analyzed and classified. Quite frequently religious lexis has been studied by researchers as part of the linguistic world-image, Orthodox discourse and vocabulary reflection, however, there are very few researches of this systemic linguistic phenomenon. Successive analysis of synonymic relations in religious lexis allows to describe features and patterns that have never been described before. 
Mel'dianova A.V. - Functional Peculiarities of the Continuous Form in Modern English pp. 26-31


Abstract: The article is devoted to the peculiarities of functioning the continuous form in the English language. The semantics of this form does not allow to use some verbs the meaning of which contradicts the idea of process. Recently there has been a tendency towards increase in the number of such verbal forms used in the continuous form and this is what makes this study perspective. The aim of the article is to analyze the semantic selectivity of the continuous forms and lexical and grammatical factors under which some verbs of different semantics acquire the possibility to be used in the continuous form. Lexical and grammatical factors are discribed in the article and their contribution to the general meaning of the sentence is pointed out. In her research Meldianova applies the following research methods: description used to define, interpret and classify the meaning of verbs under study; and comparison used to analyze various semantic groups of verbs. Linguists have quite contradictory views on the meaning of the continuous form of verbs. Some of them believe that continous verbs denote a specific kind of verbs and describe an action that is being performed at the moment. Others believe that the continous form expresses a temporal meaning, in particular, simultaneity with some point in time or action. Researchers haven't come to the agreement regarding semantics and particular functions of the continous form in modern English. Moreover, the number of verbs that can be used in the continuous form is constantly growing and their meanings change under the influence of various intra- and extralinguistic context. This creates the novelty of this research. The results of the research prove that verbs of different semantics can be used in the continous form in modern English.
Pilyugina N.Y. - Textual Functions of Phraseological Units (the Case Study of the 'Any Way' Phrase) pp. 38-46


Abstract: The author of the article analyzes the syntactic functions of phraseological units. The object of the research is phraseological units that begin to perform syntactic functions typical of official words, and at the same time retain their original properties to a greater or lesser degree. The aim of this research is the analysis of functioning of one of such phraseological unit, "any way". The "any way" phrase may play different roles in a text structure such as the role of absolute beginning or absolute end of the sentence, or internal position. Within the framework of this research the author tries to answer the question whether there a correlation between syntactic position and scope of this phraseological unit. The author of the article describes the semantic structure of the text, in which there the 'any way' phrase, and the scope of application of this unit. Based on the analysis of facts the author has concluded that in the initial position this phraseological unit performs the textual function that always goes beyond one statement. This unit indicates an uncontested situation which unfolds against the background of two and more variables. The author has also analyzes the means of explication of the text semantic structure which consists of actual lexical tools (based on the antonymy of meanings), and function markers (conjunctions, and introductory modal words).
Shelomentsev M.A. - Dynamics of the Reality Presentation in the Presidential Addresses to the Federal Assembly of Russia pp. 39-49


Abstract: The object of our research is the metaphors that can be found in the political discourse. The subject of our research is the dynamics of the reality representation in Vladimir Putin's Presidential Addresses to the Federal Assembly of Russia for 2000 and 2016. The aim of the article is to define dynamics in the reality representation in the Presidential Addresses to the Federal Assembly of Russia. As the material to study such dynamics, the author uses the analysis of metaphors in the Presidential addresses to the Federal Assembly of Russia based on the idea that metaphors perform the cognitive function and reailty categorization function. Analyzing texts of the aforesaid Addresses, the author defines the qualitative and quantitative contents of metaphors and describes changes in the contents in these reality representations. The methodological basis of this research involves George Lakoff's and Mark Johnson's idea about the conceptual metaphor based on the cognitive discourse padarigm. According to the author, the number of metaphors denotes not only what Vladimir Putin says in his Presidential Addresses to the Federal Assembly of Russia but also his attitude to what he says. This allows to speak of changes in his approach and thinking in terms of cognitive sciences. 
Antonova T.V. - Extralinguistic Factors and Their Influence on the Translation of Culture-Bound Items pp. 46-52


Abstract: The author of the article examines extralinguistic conditions in the translation of culture-bound items from English into Russian. They are dealt as the subject of the research. The aim of this work is to systematize and clarify extralinguistic factors. The novelty of the research is an attempt to analyze the interaction between linguistic and extra-linguistic factors in the process of the translation of culture-bound words (the evidence — from the press). To reach the goal we are to apply the comparative method of linguistic study. The author reveals the content of such factors as temporary, sustainable, regional, cross-cultural and social information. The author comes to the conclusion that the balance of the factors depends on their interaction, but their explicit expression depends on a particular speech situation. So, any newspaper text is composed so as to inform its reader about the latest events. That is why this factor determines the process of translation Thus, extra-linguistic factors should be considered from the point of view of the things discussed in a speech or piece of writing and from the point of view of the communicative situation as well. The theoretical relevance of the research relates to the translation model for culture-bound items while the practical relevance relates to proper translation of socio-cultural information.
Varfolomeeva Y.N., Lenkhoboeva T.R. - Specific Features of Media Texts (on the Basis of Journalistic Texts of Online Newspaper VSGUTU-Online) pp. 50-56


Abstract: The article discusses the features of journalistic texts on the Internet. The authors have actualized the phenomenon of such a media text which includes the verbal layer close to the traditional format and non-verbal layer that consists of illustrations, infographics, and audio-video materials. In the course of their research the authors have analyzed the site of the student newspaper "VSGUTU-online», its structure, design, and media texts which have been published in the student newspaper. Based on the material represented that included more than 50 articles, the authors cover such characteristics of media texts as its compositional structure, lexical and syntactic structure, availability of multimedia, interactive and hypertextual tools. When working on the article, the authors have used the methods of linguistic observation and description as well as the method of the language analysis. On the Internet media texts acquire new features and therefore becomes a 'unique phenomenon' as some researchers call it. Firstly, mediatexts consist of interchangeable layers, verbal and non-verbal. Secondly, there is an evident change in the verbal 'traditional' layer of the text, first of all, due to transformation of the textual structure which is required to become more fractured. Thirdly, a separate role is given to multimedia, interactive and hypertextual tools. 
Matveeva A.A. - Pluperfect Tense in the Sense of Perfective Aspect and Punctual Past (the Case Study of French Texts of the 16th - 21st Centuries) pp. 51-58


Abstract:  The subject of the research is the semantic features of the pluperfect tense that could be found in French texts of the 16th - 21st centuries. In her research Matveeva analyzes the perfective aspect, punctual past and context parameters that are necessary for implementation of these features. Such parameters include particularities of quoted texts in general, for example, dynamics of the shift in timing templates, syntactic features of text fragments; nature of lexical markers, for example, adjunct of time and place. Illustrative matter is grouped in accordance with the intensity of perfective aspect in ascending order. To analyze empiric material, the author has used the psychosystemic theory of verbal time interpreted in the functional terms. The author of the article studies the tense taking into account psychological particularities of personal psychological time. The main results of the research describe the context parameters necessary for imlementation of the perfective aspect and punctual past. The perfective aspect requires the order of verbs in a sentence to follow the order of the events and the verb in the pluperfect tense must logically relate to the following verb. Punctual past is different because in this case the verb in the pluperfect tense does not logically relate to the subsequent verb. The frequency of cases of the perfective sense and punctual past of the pluperfect tense increases during the period under study. 
Polinichenko D.Y., . - Amateur Linguistic Concepts in Modern Russia (Based on the Example of Mikhail Zadornov's Creative Work) pp. 67-81


Abstract: The article is devoted to historical and linguistic views of a famous Russian satirist Mikhail Zadornov. The authors of the article analyze the principles used by Zadornov in etymologization of Russian and English words. It is shown that the satirist's views are quite similar to moern Russian amateur linguistics.  This is true for both theorizing on linguistic topics (principles of etymologization, original views on morphology and lexical semantics, the priority of the Russian or the Proto-Slavic language and compassion towards dilettant language theories of XIX century) and his particular views, for example, his negative attitude to 'official science' and underlined patriotism. Despite obvious ifluence of other amateur authors on Zadornov's style (A. Dragunkin and S. Alekseev first of all), it is no doubt that he is the author at least of a part of his propagandized ideas. Zadorov plays an important role in modern Russian amateur linguisticsand should be really taken into account.  
Abdullaev I.B. - Interrogative Sentence in the Lezgian Language pp. 82-99


Abstract: This article is devoted to interrogative sentences in the Lezgian language. the author of the article provides an in-depth analysis of all types of Lezgian interrogative sentences possible from the point of view of their semantics and syntaxis. In his research Abdullaev provides a great number of examples from literature and Lezgian study books. He describes new types of interrogative sentences that have never been described in study books before and carries out an in-depth analysis of subtypes of interrogative sentences in the Lezgian language. Abdullaev refers to relevant foreign and Russian researches that have never quoted before. In his research the author uses modern methods of linguistic research such as description, immediate constituent analysis and comparison. The scientific novelty of the research is caused by the fact that for the first time in Russian linguistic science the author makes an attempt to provide a full structured and classification analysis of all types of interrogative sentences in the Lezgian language. BEfore this topic has been touched upon only partially by Russian and foreign researchers. 
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