Philosophical Thought - rubric Philosophy of science and education
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Philosophy of science and education
Surovyagin D.P. - Reduction of term in scientific theory pp. 1-14


Abstract: The subject of this research is the concept of reduction in logics and methodology of science. On the one hand, reduction is understood as a relation between the term and its defining expression within the scientific theory; while on the other – it represents the relation between two theories. Since the extension of theory is possible through introduction to its vocabulary of new terms by means of nominal definitions, the reduction represents an inverse operation – removing the terms from the vocabulary of the theory. At the same time, the theory itself is defined in accordance with the theoretical-multiple approach as a class of sentences closed in relation to derivability. The scientific novelty consists in examination of semantic and epistemological aspects of the formal definition of reduction. Particularly, the explication of reduction relation between two theories leans in the concept of functional equivalence of the theories. It is established that the list of basic terms of the theory can be set only conventionally. All terms introduces by the means of nominal definitions turn out to be reducible. Therefore, a distinctive feature of theoretical terms is the possibility of its reduction.
Lavrentyeva S.V. - Counterfactual Thinking and the Identity Problem: The Casus of Communication about Genetic Risks pp. 10-22



Abstract: The subject of this article is counterfactual thinking as a tool in geneticist-patient communication under conditions of uncertainty. The article focuses on the use of the counterfactual narrative as one of the main components of doctor-patient communication in the framework of making decisions about future treatment. The conditions for the use of the counterfactual narrative are considered, taking into consideration two features: the logic of predetermination and the influence of overpersonal forces and notions of kinship that contribute to the deindividualization of the patient. Based on A.S. Karpenko's formulation of the concept of possibility, a heuristic approach to sketching possible scenarios for treatment during genetic counseling is outlined. The novelty of the study lies in the analysis of the problem of self-future identity, constructed by the patient in the counterfactual narrative. This problem is examined using two thought experiments. The first thought experiment (concerning the fate of the unborn child - D. Bunin) reveals the identity problem itself. The second (concerning non-derministic behavior of a flipped coin - C. Dorst) shows how this problem is disclosed under conditions of uncertainty. It is shown that in creating possible scenarios of disease and its treatment with counterfactuals it is important to take into account "necessary properties" (U. Eco) of the patient, focusing on qualitative, not numerical identity. In the last section of the article this conclusion is justified in the light of the concept of narrative identity, through which the counterfactual can be revealed.
Volkova V., Kainova A. - Knowledge management as a modern educational trend pp. 46-57



Abstract: This article discusses the essence of the educational process. The subject of the study is knowledge management as an emerging trend of systematization of effective factors in the development of education. Philosophical ideas of self-organization and involvement of holistic thinking, contextual vision of the situation in the educational process play a special role. The perspective of the development of education is connected with the peculiarities of the influence of globalist and postmodern worldviews on approaches to educational activities and knowledge management in general. The methodological basis of the study is a holistic approach to education. The formation of the unity of the educational process is connected with the distribution of educational initiatives on an equal footing between the teacher and the students of the higher school. The results of the study emphasize the need for the teacher to master the position of a creative manager in taking into account the many positions of self-education of students in the space of social communication management. In response, students as students need philosophical and psychological preparation for managing their education and a high level of reflection in controlling their ways of mastering knowledge and accompanying social relations. The novelty of the work lies in determining the role, necessity, area of responsibility and list of competencies of a creative manager an expert in educational activities. It arises when there is a figurative connection among students and their adjustment to a contextual vision of the situation. The scope of application of the results is any educational process in which students are involved from higher education to corporate training. The modern educational system must meet the challenges of digital reality with its ubiquity of information. The approach to student education should be refocused on the constant exchange of teacher-student roles between student and teacher. For the competent implementation of the exchange of roles, students must be properly prepared. The quality of education should be monitored by a special expert with the necessary competencies in the field of knowledge management.
Beregovaya O.A. - Analytical philosophy of education: a short overview pp. 51-58


Abstract: The subject of this research is the analytical tradition of the philosophy of education, which is based on the analytical tradition in philosophy in the spirit of logical positivism as the language analysis leaning on the logics. It forms a set of ideas aimed at the pragmatic analysis of expressions of the natural language, identifying of the rules of their application in life, norms of functioning of the language, its various forms in contexts of non-scientific areas of culture – in everyday life, politics, art, education, etc. The starting works became “The Language of Education” by Israel Scheffler (1960, United States) and “Ethics and Education” by R. S. Peters (1966, Great Britain). The article represents a review of this direction in the context of its disciplinary and institutional establishment and evolution in the United States and Great Britain since the middle of the XX century. The author analyzes the periods of development of the philosophy of education and their peculiarities, and underlines the origination of reception of the analytical tradition of the philosophy of education, an attempt of its comparison with other postmodern trends, as well as progressing transformation into the post-analytical philosophy. Reference of the analytical philosophy to the relevant questions of modernity disputes the established stereotype as a conservative and purely academic discipline that is artificially isolated from the social and cultural life.
Timoshchuk E.A. - Phenomenology in modern education pp. 67-72


Abstract: The object of this research is the impact of phenomenological method upon modern education. The subject is the conceptual basis of Husserl’s teaching and possibilities of its implementation in education and upbringing: 1) subjectivity of phenomenology; 2) dialogueness of phenomenology; 3) sustainability of phenomenology; 4) principle of individuation in phenomenology. The author leans on the hypothesis that phenomenology of education cannot shift off the antinomies of modern education, such as massification/elitism, normativity/enthusiasm; routinization/ practical orientation. At the same time, despite all antinomies of the modern educational process, phenomenology can provide a student with understanding of life in the context of personal world, so that through cleansing the experience from overlaying of perceptions, he will be able to derive the most valuable for the future. The article attempts to reveal the phenomenology of education as a positive experience of self-individuation. The main axiological conclusions of phenomenology of education are the following: 1) individual genesis of a human that develops personal qualities, as well as forms the destiny through the sense of experience; 2) harmonization of the lifeworlds is possible through understanding of the strategy of description and hermeneutics of the Other; self-individualization shifts off the contradictions of the creative and formal, global and regional, humanitarian and technical; 4) procedures and practices of phenomenology of education is rooted in horizon of a lifeworld. The scientific novelty lies in application of the methodology of phenomenology (intentionality, lifeworld, reduction) to the realities of modern Russian education in form of the Unified State Exam, competent approach, academic standards, institutionality of education. The area of implementation of the results is the phenomenology of education, phenomenology of culture, and cross-cultural communication.
Dianov S.A., Lesevitskii A.V. - Methodological Aspects of the Process of Digitization of the Education System in the XXI Century pp. 84-97



Abstract: The author discusses methodological aspects of digitalization of the education system in Russia. The author's research team focuses on the philosophical-anthropological and socio-pedagogical dimensions of the studied phenomenon of the XXI century. It is shown that in the field of education, the first steps towards digital literacy of all participants in educational relations were made back in the late 1990s. During this period, this process was called "informatization" of the educational environment of educational institutions. The transition to the introduction of a wide range of information and computer technologies into the pedagogical process took place during the implementation of the first national project "Education" (2005-2010). In the 2010s, big data analytics, the all-encompassing use of artificial intelligence and the Internet of Things, testing the possibilities of virtual and augmented reality, the use of 3-D printing in teaching these and other new technologies allowed us to move to a new stage in the development of the Russian education sector. The formation of the educational environment in the context of digital transformation encourages understanding of the prospects and significant risks that the digitization process brings to the consumer society. The use of philosophical and anthropological analysis allowed the authors to identify the following risks: the risk of the formation of an individual with a "one-dimensional consciousness" in the educational environment, the tendency of the destruction of the ideological matrix of personality under the influence of digitisation, the risk of destructive transformation of the role of the teacher with the subsequent replacement of the latter with "gadgets" and software shells with "artificial intelligence", the risk of dictate from the "technocrats-developers" of educational content, the risk of worsening the health of students due to the adverse effects of digital technologies.
Markovtseva O.Y., Borodina N.V., Leontieva L.S. - Metaphysics of pedagogical technologies in the Medieval era (on the example of Chartres school) pp. 86-94


Abstract:   This article describes the relevance of metaphysical problematic of specificity of pedagogical technologies on the example of Chartres school. Specialization of the set by this research goals and tasks forms the phenomenological area of the object and subject of this work – the metaphysics of educational technologies. They manifest in certain, but constantly relevant innovational historical circumstances. The scientific strategy of description of metaphysical integrity pertains to the development and changes in pedagogical alongside general cultural policy of the society. In the innovational work of Chartres educational center, we can observe the utmost manifestation of such policy. The article describes the specificity of these innovations, as well as metaphysical conditions for their institutionalization. The created methodological-thematic and structural-subject area is heuristic to the structured upon its foundation model of explication and depiction of the metaphysical and pedagogical experience of Chartres school. The conclusions attained during the course of implementation of the research strategies of the authors are diverse. Let us highlight the key one, which is general in content of the work: in Medieval era, the theological-metaphysical conditions of formation of the pedagogical-technological experience did not allow combining the theoretical and practical areas of their pedagogical culture into the integral structure; it happened later. However, Chartres educational center was able to realize such convergence.  
Grevtsev A.V. - Interpretation of the Concept of Social Constructivism by L. S. Vygotsky through the Semiotics of Education, the Theory of Transcendence in Education and the Theology of Personality by V. N. Lossky pp. 87-106



Abstract: The subject of the work is the theses of the concept of developmental learning, semiotics of education, theory of transcendence in education, and theology of personality. The aim of the research is to develop a practical pedagogical method based on the discussed concepts. The author demonstrates the key positions of the concept of developmental learning, such as the zone of proximal development and scaffolding; reveals the understanding of education as a semiotic system and the participation of transcendent reality in it; and outlines the main theses of the theology of personality by V.N. Lossky. Then the author combines the aforementioned theories to create a pedagogical method, which he defines as an integration of the developmental learning approach with the position of the theology of personality. The author's special contribution is the generalization of scattered concepts into unified conclusions and the development of a practical pedagogical method, which includes a number of theses, specific components of a case for conducting a lesson as a template, and instructions for implementing the case in accordance with the generally accepted stages of a lesson also in the form of a template. The author concludes that the developed case is universal and can be applied at different levels of education. The author also notes the value of the material based on which the method was developed for further study of each of the presented areas of science. The author emphasizes that the application of the method is not limited to the religious context, as the method was developed based on non-religious research, and the positions of Orthodox theology of personality correspond to the presented theories of modern philosophy of education.
Zvonova E.E. - Students experience of critical situations associated with studying: philosophical-psychological analysis pp. 89-99


Abstract: The object of this research is the critical situation that has emerged and develops due to studying; the subject is its experiencing by the students. The article provides related to romanticization of cognition and suggesting self-transcendence version of establishing semantic correlation between consciousness and being of a student in the indicated critical situation for the purpose of increasing the meaningfulness of life. Its realization would allow achieving the synthesis of intelligence and affect in education, unity of education and upbringing due to acquisition of ethical meaning. Research methodology is based on the achievements of logotherapy, namely the principle of indererminism of human existence and humanistic psychology. The scientific novelty consists in the analysis of critical situations related to studying, which have not been previously viewed from the existential perspective, in the context of the theme of existential crisis. The article also proposes an original method for overcoming critical situations through romanticization of cognitive activity.
Iashin B.L. - Ethnomathematics and ethnologic pp. 119-130


Abstract: The subject of this research is the problem of universality (singularity) and uniqueness (plurality) of the “first” or “experienced” mathematics and ordinary logic of reasoning. The article discusses the possibility of application of the sociocultural approach that efficiently functions in ethnomathematics, studying of the logical reasoning within the historical context. The author demonstrates that in modern history and philosophy of mathematics, there are two opposing points of view: supporters of the first one substantiate the singularity, universality of the “first” or “experienced” mathematics, while supporters of the second uphold the idea of plurality of mathematics, explained by the impact of sociocultural factors upon its development. It is underlined, that at present time, a similar situation can be noticed with regards to the problem of universality of the logic of reasoning. The scientific novelty consists on presentation of comparative analysis of the two opposing points of view pertaining to the universality/plurality of the logic of reasoning if compared with the analogous circumstances in mathematics. The following conclusions are made: 1) the question of universality, i.e. singularity for the entire population of the Earth, or uniqueness, plurality, close interconnection of the logic of ordinary reasoning (as the “first mathematics” with the culture that it emerges within and produces significant impact, remains relevant for the modern science and philosophy; 2) such question in many way correlates with the problem of occurrence of the abstract reasoning, as well as reasoning in general; 3) it would be appropriate at present stage to introduce the notion of “ethnologic” for assigning the area of research that examine the role of sociocultural factors in establishment of the ordinary logic in historical development.
Rozin V.M. - Self-Determination and Opposition as a Way of Life in a Modern World pp. 142-182


Abstract: The article discusses the opposition between the teaching community and reformers of the Russian system of education. From the point of view of the former, we are now having the destruction of schol and degradation of the system of education. According to the latter, the system of education is not degradating but being reformed. In this regard, the author of the article analyzes the current situation and shows that the institution of education, in fact, consists of the three different institutions: traditional education aimed at formation of a well-educated person and specialist, a new institution of education (the author calls it 'limited liability education') aimed at providing educational services, diplomas and other social symbols rather than training specialists (including so called educative simulacrums), and a new 'additional' institution providing the second and the third educational degree. The latter includes 'business education' and a whole range of new forms of education. The author also explains the difference between 'personal actions' and 'social actions' and offers a definition of the 'leading type of sociality' and 'general conditions'. The final part of the article is devoted to the opposition itself and possible behaviour of individuals based on the aforesaid differences and definition of the term 'society' as well as discussions with V. Belyaev. 
Borisov S.V. - Introduction or Birth of Classical Science pp. 190-230


Abstract: The article 'Introduction or Birth of Classical Science' is the first publication in the series of articles 'Symphony of Science or Science Through the Eyes of Philosophers'. The present article is a sympophonic absorbption in the external and internal polemics regarding the main interpretations of classical science and its scope of problems. Many contradictions and conflicts faced by the modern society derive from blind belief in scientific progress. The social institution of science itself has turned into a series of rituals long ago. This creates numerious illusions about science and its scope of problems and forms an uncritical attitude to the process and outcome of scientific research. The article is written in the form of a dialogue which allows to transform the 'internal' scientific polemics into 'external'. This method also allows to define many contradictions and dramatic moments in scientific development and to see the 'other side' of it behind the beautiful and pretentious facade. 
Przhilenskiy V.I. - Philosophy as Research Programm: Between Epistemology and History of Science pp. 205-228


Abstract: The given article analyses the disciplinary status of Philosophy of Science as the science from the point of it’s regarding to Epistemology. The author of the arti-cle examines the supporter’s arguments according to the including Philosophy of Science into Epistemology as an essential part. The idea of Philosophy of Science and Epistemology examining as two close sciences in methodological and disci-pline meaning, between which there should not be any essential distinctions, is criticizing in this article. The position according to which Philosophy of Science originates from the definite stage of the science development appears as the historical and critical alternative for epistemological projecting of the science development.
Borisov S.V. - Scherzo or Science and Mind pp. 212-332


Abstract: The article 'Scherzo or Science and Mind' is the forth publication of the series 'Symphony of Science or Science Through the Eyes of Philosophers'. The present article is a sympophonic absorbption in the external and internal polemics regarding the main interpretations of classical science and its scope of problems. Many contradictions and conflicts faced by the modern society derive from blind belief in scientific progress. The social institution of science itself has turned into a series of rituals long ago. This creates numerious illusions about science and its scope of problems and forms an uncritical attitude to the process and outcome of scientific research. The article is written in the form of a dialogue which allows to transform the 'internal' scientific polemics into 'external'. This method also allows to define many contradictions and dramatic moments in scientific development and to see the 'other side' of it behind the beautiful and pretentious facade. 
Bazaluk O.A. - Modern understanding of philosophy of education pp. 248-271


Abstract: The subject of the research is the philosophy of education and its reflection on the educational process. Based on the analysis of predecessors’ works the author presented the new structure of the philosophy of education which enriches the understanding of its subject, targets and methods of research.The author presented the philosophy of education as a pyramid, the base of which are generalizing the situation of man as a subject and object of research accumulated in the philosophical anthropology. The first level of the pyramid takes psychology as a science which studies the origin, development and functioning of the psyche. Pedagogy crowns the “pyramid”.The author used the dialectical, system-structural, structural-functional method, as well as methods of comparison, analysis and synthesis.The main conclusion of the study is to prove that the philosophy of education in their new understanding is not only a theoretical understanding of basics and demonstrations of the educational process, but also a practice, the direct embodiment of the theoretical developments in the education in the everyday life. Using historical and philosophical analysis, the author shows that the philosophy of education does not just depend on the state of social philosophy (and philosophy in general), but also through its methodological apparatus it realizes the established philosophical (ideological) paradigm in the different pedagogical practices.
Gryaznova E.V. - The Subject of Philosophy of Science pp. 514-529


Abstract: The article presents materials for giving a lecture 'The Subject of Philosophy of Science' as a part of the course 'History and Philosophy of Science' for post-graduate students. It is suggested that the lecture should be started with discussing the status of science in modern Russia. The article contains statistical data and graphs for carrying out such a discussion. Such approach would allow post-graduate students to understand the purpose of the course and what the course may give to the future generation of scientists. The lecture is a part of the following range of topics: 1. Philosophy of science and its status. 1.1. The Subject of philosophy of science 1.2. Scientific method of philosophy of science. 1.3. Categories of philosophy of science. 1. 4. Patterns of philosophy of science. 1. 5. Basic modern concepts of philosophy of science. The article contains basic information and can be adjusted for any major or speciality.
Smirnova G.E. - Socio-Cultural Area Studies: Concerning the Problem of Method pp. 530-544


Abstract: A typical tendency in science of XX century was the integration of scientific knowledge which was particularly reflected in interaction between sciences, exchange of methods and development of an  interdisciplinary approach to scientific research. As a consequence, different branches and majors have been generalized within one scientific discipline. A good example is socio-cultural area studies which has been formed as a natural result of developing area studies. One of the most important goals related to implementation of socio-cultural area studies into the system of scientific knowledge is to develop the theory of this branch of science, including research methods and tecnniques. The given article is particularly devoted to developing and implementing the method of comparative analysis in socio-cultura area studies. Based on a concrete example , i.e. analysis of the term 'motherland' in Russia and Great Britain, because this term plays an important role in mentality of any nation and serves as one of the most important self-identification tools, the author shows opportunities and prospects of using comparative studies as a research method. 
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