Genesis: Historical research - rubric History and Economics
Genesis: Historical research
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History and Economics
Babkina N. - Stages of development of the basic methodology for transitioning companies to new terms of operation in the period of USSRs economic reform of 1965 pp. 1-8


Abstract: The subject of this research is the process of development of methodology used for transitioning companies to new system of planning and economic incentive in terms of the economic reform of 1965 in Soviet Union. The article determines the two key stages of this process, as well as emphasizes the peculiarities of each one. The author analyzes the major differences of every new edition of the framework document (from the standpoint of transitioning) – methodological guidelines from the previous version. Particular attention is given to the process of their approval and subsequent amendments. The study leans on the principle of historicism (historical-genetic method) that allows examining each state in connection with the preceding and succeeding. The author also applies the system method for viewing methodology as an element of the unified system that affects its establishment and development. The main conclusion of the research consists in comprehension of the importance of Interdepartmental Commission of the State Planning Committee of the USSR in development of the practical aspects of the conducted reforms, as well as high role of the methodology for transitioning companies to new system of planning and economic incentive with regards to the question of implementation of the provisions of economic reform of 1965.  
Bochkareva I.A. - On the formation of the first Soviet industrial service of dosimetric control at the Ural nuclear plants (19451960) pp. 1-12


Abstract: The subject of this research is the process of organizing dosimetric service on the example of the Ural nuclear complex, primarily, the most powerful plutonium plant, the pioneer of the domestic nuclear industry – “Mayak” chemical plant in the 1945 – 1960. In the course of development of complex and hazardous for people and nature nuclear technologies, the problems of radiation protection of personnel at the first nuclear facilities became urgent, as most employees have been exposed to radiation. This required a set of emergency measures to create of safe working conditions and organize dosimetric control of nuclear energy workers. Based on the declassified archival documents, a substantial part of which is being introduced into the scientific discourse for the first time, as well as the reminiscences of the Soviet nuclear project participants, the article describes the peculiarities of formation of the first domestic service of industrial dosimetry, and provides periodization of this process. This defines the scientific novelty of the research. The use of historical and genetic method allowed outlining the prerequisites for the creation of the service of dosimetric control of the nuclear energy workers, its conditionality by the specificity of implementation of the Soviet uranium project, and a range of attendant problems. The method of historical periodization determined the key stages in organizing the dosimetric service in the context of establishment of the nuclear industrial complex. The historical-retrospective method allowed assessing the results of the activity of the scholars, leadership of the chemical plant “Mayak”, experts of dosimetric service aimed at solution of the issues related to radiation protection from the standpoint of time distance. The conclusion is made that the first domestic dosimetric service formed during the difficult period of the development of plutonium production in the Ural Region and committed work of its employees considerably contributed to ensuring safety of working conditions and preserving health and lives of thousands of the participants of the crucial for the country nuclear project
Ganin M.A. - Historiography of industrial technology transfer in the first third of the XX century. pp. 1-14



Abstract: The article examines the historiography of the transfer of industrial technologies in the first third of the XX century. This historical period is of particular interest to researchers. It was at this time that the Soviet model of forced industrial modernization was taking shape. In order to achieve the set goals in the shortest possible time, the Soviet state most actively used the mechanisms of scientific and technical cooperation with foreign countries. Thanks to the scientific and technical policy pursued by him, this cooperation soon acquired a complex, systematic character and, ultimately, took a stable form of technology transfer. The work is based on the provisions of modernization theory, according to which technology transfer is considered as one of the key mechanisms of technological modernization of production. The scientific novelty of the study lies in the fact that no detailed research of historiography on the topic has been conducted to date. The author attempts to eliminate this obvious gap. In addition, one of the goals of this study is to promote the further development of the concept of technological transfer, which involves the transition to a systematic analysis of certain facts of scientific and technical cooperation of the USSR with foreign countries. The paper concludes that despite the extensive historiography on the topic, there are still numerous gaps that have yet to be filled by scientists. At the same time, at the current stage, of particular importance is not the search for factual material itself, which is already very extensive, but the reinterpretation of existing facts from the point of view of the provisions of the theory of modernization and the concept of technological transfer. This will make it possible to bring a systematic approach to the ongoing research on the topic and to make a comprehensive study of the state's scientific and technical policy in the first third of the XX century.
Mikheev M.V., P'yankov S.A., Simonov M.A., Tyushnyakov S.M. - Postwar industrial development of the Ural Region as reflected by statistics (1945-1955) pp. 8-23


Abstract: The subject of this research is the implementation of the regional economic policy of USSR with regards to the industrial Ural in 1945-1955. Based on the records on industrial output and transport statistics, the article examines the peculiarities of postwar development of the Ural industry, describes the industrial growth rates. Determines the structural changes in production during the first postwar decade. The relevance of the study is substantiated by the more profound understanding of the transformation process of industrial production of Ural Region after the end of the Great Patriotic War. Systematization and analysis of statistical data allow concretizing the existing historical-economic knowledge on the efficiency of postwar economic policy in USSR. Statistical method of collation and grouping help systematizing the quantitative data on the industrial growth rates, determined the development trends of Ural industry, as well as demonstrate changes in the structure of production. The use of descriptive method allows characterizing the transformations in the industrial development. Historical-genetic method reveals the factors of disproportions in economic development. Historical-systemic method views the process of implementation of economic policy in the Ural Region comprising its industries as a whole, as well as in broad ties and relationships with the neighboring territories.  The scientific novelty lies in conducting a special scientific research dedicated to postwar industrial development of the Ural Region involving the previously unused archival documents. The conclusion is made that the plans on creation a “closed cycle” production in Ural were not implemented to full extent. Despite the significant success of industry and high growth rates of gross figures, the economic development in the region retained substantial disproportions of development.
Zadorozhnyaya O.A. - River companies of Ob-Irtysh water basin (1860-1918): forms of pool of capital pp. 12-24


Abstract: The relevance of this research consists in the fact that modern historical literature describes an overall picture of evolution of business companies, although prevalence and peculiarities of organizational-legal form demonstrates the level of development of economic relations in the Russian Empire in a time of capitalist modernization. The subject of this research is the organizational-legal forms of river companies of Ob-Irtysh water basin over the period from 1860 to 1918 as an independent factor in development pf capitalist relations. The goal of this work is to determine the main forms of organization of river companies of Ob-Irtysh water basin, considering attraction of family and “borrowed” capital. In the course of this research, the author applied the method of modeling of commodity-money relations of Ob-Irtysh water basin, which allowed revealing the dynamics and specific characteristics of development of entrepreneurship in a separate region. The method of historical-comparative analysis illustrated the trends of choice of one or another form of pool of capital, considering the combination of family, geographical, economic, social and administrative aspects. The research results display the dynamics of distribution of various forms of business companies in the sphere of river transportation in Ob-Irtysh water basin, which describes a more objective picture of commodity-money relations in Western Siberia. The presented materials can be utilized in studying particular business companies of Ob-Irtysh river system as an institutional paradigm. The scientific novelty and conclusions lie in determination of the forms of organization of river companies of Ob-Irtysh water basin in accordance with the Russian legislation. This allows tracing the dynamic of emergence of steamship companies due to retention of strong influence of family ties in the business world.
Sukiasyan A.A. - The evolution of state investment policy in Russia during the late 1980s 1990s: historical context pp. 14-24


Abstract: This article is dedicated to the historical experience of the establishment of state investment policy in Russia at the initial stage of market reforms. The subject of this research is the complex of conceptual, legal and social components on the Russian investment policy during the late 1980’s – 1990’s. The goal consists in description of the role of the Russian investment policy in the context of formation of the new sociopolitical and economic space of the country, including the peculiarities of the process of establishment of state investment strategy, as well as demonstration of the importance of investment problematic for the Russian business press, national business community, and others. The article is conducted on the basis of the principles of historicism, use of systemic analysis, methods of retrospect and actualization, and interdisciplinary approach. As a result, the author restores the image of the establishment and implementation of state investments policy in Russia during the late 1980’s – 1990’s. The scientific novelty lies in determination of the role and place of investment policy in the context of modernization transit of the 1990’s. The author comes to a conclusion that the indicated period in the history of Russian investment policy is characterizes by the intense creation of program documents and legal acts, the practical implementation of which was hindered by the fragmentariness of development of the market system as a whole. Herewith, the priorities of the modern Russian investment policy were formulated in the 1990’s.
Liu Y. - Economic legal system of PRC as the context of establishment of the Chinese investment law pp. 20-28


Abstract: This article analyzes the Chinese normative, doctrinal, and historical legal material regarding the questions associated with the establishment of the investment law in PRC. The author determines the states of economic development of China, key positions and spheres of the open policy reform, peculiarities of China’s economic development, trends of development of China’s economic legal system, as well as normative legal foundation of the investment law. Due to the differences in prevalence of one or another ideology affecting the development of economic system at various stages, in the structural sense, content, and management of economic and legal systems, the mechanisms of implementation alongside the impact of economic legal system significantly vary at each stage. The author underlines that since the establishment of People’s Republic of China in 1949, the Chinese economic legal system has undergone multiple and constantly transforming stages, which illustrate different peculiarities at each of the stages that manifest as a result of interaction between the changing economic system and legal ideology. For the first time in Russia is examined and generalized the experience of legal development of the investment legal relations in China, which are of great importance for the assessment and improvement of PRC’s legislation in the field of investment activity.
Zykin I. - Timber industry activity of the GULAG correctional labor camps of the OGPU-NKVD of the USSR in the late 1920s - 1937 pp. 21-33



Abstract: The article examines the activity of correctional labor camps specializing in timber industry in the Soviet Union in the period from the late 1920s to 1937, singled out as the first stage of development of this group of camp complexes. The definition of the concept of "forest" correctional labor camps is given. For the first time, an analysis of the timber industry activity of the camps was undertaken. "Forest" camps functioned in the areas of the largest Soviet cities (Moscow and Leningrad), in the European North, the Urals and Siberia. Their main function was reduced to the development of woodlands, timber harvesting, mechanical processing of forest resources developed to a lesser extent. Conclusions are drawn about the gradual expansion of the scale of the timber industry activity of correctional labor camps in the period from the late 1920s to 1937. However, at this stage, the volumes of harvesting and mechanical processing of wood by "forest" camps were insignificant against the background of the development of the forest industry in the country. The first multiindustry "forest" camp appeared - the White Sea-Baltic Combine, which had a strong influence on the development of the timber industry in the autonomous Karelian Republic. With the help of prisoners' labor, the construction of a pulp and paper enterprise in the Urals was carried out. The experience of using prisoners in the timber industry in the period from the late 1920s to 1937 was a significant groundwork for further enhancing the role of the Main Directorate of Camps of the NKVD of the USSR in the industry.
Nadekhina Y.P., Kostrikova K.E. - The role of the Ministry of Finance of Tsarist Russia in the creation of professional periodicals in the interests of domestic entrepreneurs pp. 23-31


Abstract: The Ministry of Finance of tsarist Russia, after its formation in 1802, played an important role in the life of the country, was one of the most influential in the government. The authors show that the needs of Russia's economic development have pushed the information aspect to one of the leading places in the activities of the government of tsarist Russia. Based on the study of historiographical materials of the Soviet and postSoviet periods, as well as with the involvement of pre-revolutionary materials, the article examines the active role of the Ministry of Finance of tsarist Russia at the turn of the XIX - XX centuries, which contributed to the development of professional periodicals in the field of trade, industry and finance, which played a certain role in the formation of the domestic entrepreneurial class and reflected the development of capitalism in our country. The Ministry of Finance provided the domestic business community and the interested public with high-quality periodicals covering commercial and industrial activities in the country and abroad. One of such publications is the "Trade and Industrial Newspaper". The article examines the prerequisites for the emergence and stages of formation of one of the popular publications of prerevolutionary Russia - a Trade and industrial newspaper, which not only fulfilled its main mission by providing information of a commercial and financial nature, but also gradually turned into an authoritative socio-political publication. This publication is the most important source for the study of various aspects of the financial, economic and socio-political life of the Russian Empire during this period.
Andreeva E.V. - Development trends of service industry in Yakutia in the late XIX century pp. 27-36


Abstract: The object of this research is the establishment of service industry in Yakutia, while the subject is its development trends in the second half of the XIX century. Attention is focused on examination of the documents from the National Archive of Sakha Republic (Yakutia), namely content of the documents of Yakut regional administration for the period from 1850s to 1900s, reports of the town governors of the Yakut region, and comparison with the existing research on the history of Yakutia of this period. The author explore the peculiarities of service industry as a social and historical process; determine natural-climatic and historical factors impacting the development of service sector in Yakutia; review social composition of the participants, as well as headmost services in Yakutia in the late XIX century. The conclusion is made that in the late XIX century, service sector in Yakutia was at its infancy, and characterized by a contradictory tendency, which on one hand combined limitedness of the content and types of services due to immaturity of the craft, state control and initiative in this sphere; and on the other –  engaged the representatives of different social groups, set vector towards the forming consumer requests, rudiments of legal culture and civil society. The author makes an assumption that due to the historical and political development of our country, the indicated contradiction was not resolved in subsequent periods and retains certain effect on the current state and development of service sector in Yakutia. The novelty of this work consists in attraction and examination of the extensive archival material that allows broadening the knowledge on the establishment of service sector in Yakutia.
Shadrin A.V., Tuguzhekova V.N. - The Main Directions of Industrial Development in Khakassia in the Mid-1920s Early 1940s. pp. 31-39



Abstract: The search for ways of effective economic development of modern Russia calls for a deep understanding of the economic aspect of Russian history. A special place and importance in this regard is occupied by the history of Russia of the XX century, with the exception of the 1990s, since it was during this era that the modernization of the country's industry took place. The study of the industrial development of the country in general and Khakassia in particular in the mid-1920s early 1940s contributes to the disclosure of controversial issues in domestic and regional history, namely industrialization, cooperation. This will allow us to summarize the historical experience of those years (positive and negative), which can help in overcoming difficulties in the Russian economy through appropriate conclusions that can be made by authorities at various levels. It will also make it possible to predict the further development of the region, and then the country according to the most optimal option. Based on archival documents and literature, the author analyzes the main directions of industrial development in Khakassia in the mid-1920s early 1940s. In particular, attention is paid to the dynamics of development and structural changes in the industry of the region, which during this period were contradictory. To a greater extent, there were positive trends: the emergence of new types of production, the combination of high quantitative indicators of development with the progressive development of qualitative ones. The technical equipment of industrial enterprises in the region has significantly increased. Negative aspects in the industrial development of the region were manifested in the disproportion in the sectoral structure of the industry (the predominance of extractive industries), lagging growth rates of qualitative indicators compared with quantitative, technical backwardness of a number of industries.
Kulbidiuk R.V. - Problems of the formation of the industrial potential of Pridnestrovie (1917 - 1940). pp. 34-48



Abstract: The article is devoted to the analysis of the problems of the formation of the industry of Pridnestrovie in the period after the Revolution of 1917 and before the creation of the MSSR in August 1940. The purpose of the study is to characterize the actions of local authorities to restore and establish industrial enterprises on the territory of the MASSR, as well as to identify the main directions of industrial development of the region during this period, the features of the formation of industrial potential, the analysis of attracted resources, comparison with the industry of the occupied part of Moldova - Bessarabia. The study used such methods of historical research as retrospective analysis, comparative analysis, as well as a systematic approach and the method of expert assessments. As a result of the research, the author came to the following conclusion: the industry of modern Pridnestrovie is characterized by a broad industry structure due to the titanic work on its creation in the era when the territory of the modern PMR was part of the MASSR/ MSSR, as well as the needs of the internal market of the USSR in the interwar period. Its foundation was laid under the leadership of the Communist Party and thanks to the help of the fraternal peoples of the USSR in 1920-1930. Against the background of the impoverished Bessarabia, the MASSR, relying on the historically developed specialization of the region, created a developed industry in a relatively short time, and also formed a working class of many thousands. During the same period in Bessarabia, as a result of a sharp decline in the number of industrial enterprises, the working class also declined, the agrarian character of the region became even more pronounced. The economy of Bessarabia during the years of occupation by Boyar Romania was brought to a complete decline and got a chance to recover only after the creation of the MSSR. After the reunification of both banks of the Dniester, the industrial potential of the MASSR became the basis for the development of the united Soviet Moldavia. According to the results of the study, the assessment of the process of formation and development of industrial enterprises of the region, the specifics of their functioning, helped to better understand the process of formation and development of self-identity of the region.
Lozin D.I., Bolotova E.Y. - On the role of foreign experts in the development of Soviet industry during 19291933 (on the example of Stalingrad industry) pp. 37-45


Abstract: The goal of this research is to reveal the role of foreign experts in the period of industrialization of the Soviet economy (1929–1933) on the example of the development of Stalingrad industry. Using the data from the State Archive of Volgograd Region and scientific literature, the author discloses the factors of engaging foreign experts in Stalingrad enterprises, forms of their employment, size, and qualitative characteristics. The subject of this research is the foreign experts involved in the industrial enterprises in Stalingrad. The article is based on the systemic approach, which views foreign experts as part of the labor resources of Stalingrad industrial enterprises; as well as on structural-functional analysis, which reveals the vectors and scope of activity of the foreign employees. The novelty of this research consists in introduction of new archival data into the scientific discourse, as well as in comprehensive analysis of the reminiscences of some foreign specialists about the specificity of their work. The following conclusions were made: the reason for inviting foreign expert to the USSR during the Industrialization period was substantiated by shortage of competent personnel and engineering-technical workers, who would have been capable to accomplish the tasks of building the new type of enterprise; hundreds of foreign specialists were brought to the factories of Stalingrad via legal or illegal methods’; over the period from 1930 to 1933, the number of foreign experts has gradually decreased due to increase in the number of the local qualified personnel; despite this fact, foreign employees and their experience in engineering, construction oversight, introduction of new methods of production to the Soviet workers became the starting point for the rapid development of Stalingrad industry.
Panasuk V.V. - Stolypin land management in Kaluga governorate during the World War I (July 1914 June 1917) pp. 41-52


Abstract: The object of this research is the implementation of agrarian reforms in Kaluga governorate in the early XX century, while the subject is the analysis of Stolypin land management in the region during the World War I. The chronological framework this research cover the period from the beginning warfare until the end of June 1917, when Stolypin land management has been officially completed. Research methodology leans on the principles of scientific objectivity, historicism, and problematicity, which contributed to establishment of causal links, as well as study of the events, phenomena, and processes in their development. The author concludes that the World War I has interrupted the progressive development of Stolypin land management in Kaluga governorate that was purposed prior to the war. The long-running military conflict led to gradual curtailment of the entire process of land management (formation of homesteads, issuance of loans, etc.), and the Provisional Government that came to power during the February Revolution made the final call on its termination. The scientific novelty consists in the fact that his is the first work within Russian historiography dedicated to this topic. The article introduces new archival materials into the scientific discourse, which allowed reconstructing the course of events, phenomena, and processes, as well as provide their assessment. The acquired results can be valuable for wide audience and historians, used in preparation of lectures on history, textbooks, and practical classes.
P'yankov S.A. - Agrarian agents of development: activity of agronomical and statistical services of Ural municipalities in the late XIX early XX centuries pp. 42-62


Abstract: This article, based on the example of statistical and agronomical services of the Ural municipalities, analyzes the activity of intelligentsia aimed at cultural and socioeconomic development of a village. The author examines the process of establishment and development of the county statistics and agronomy under the conditions of Russian province of the late XIX – beginning of the XX centuries, as well as demonstrates the place of Ural governorates in this process. Special attention is given to the social origin, activity, and sociopolitical views of the prominent representatives of municipality, who were the founders of the county agronomical and statistical services. The work illustrates the mechanisms of interaction between the intelligentsia and peasantry and describes the difficulties that emerged on the path of implementation of the new agrarian technologies into the practice of peasant agriculture. Using the example of the county surveys, the author provides the options of peasants’ attitude towards the representatives of the county intelligentsia. Presented in the article process of transformation of the agrarian sphere are viewed in the context of modernization theory, which allows examining the agrarian development from the perspective of continuity, including separate aspects of the village life with consideration of specific historical peculiarities of the regional development. The conclusion is made that despite the evident complications in interaction between the intelligentsia and peasantry, the new agrarian technologies were gradually implemented into the practice of agriculture. Multidivisional agronomic service was established in the Ural governorates over the period of several decades; statistical research allowed the county specialists to systematize the data about economic need of the regional agriculture. An important role in formation of the principles of the work of county agronomy was played by the public views of the leaders, who considered their activity as the way “to serve the community”.
Tushkanov I.V. - Multi-sector economy of average size as the basis of agrarian entrepreneurship of the Lower Volga Region over the period of 1861-1899 pp. 43-52


Abstract: This article is dedicated to the agricultural entrepreneurship in Lower Volga Region over the period of 1861-1899. The subject of this research is the modernization process of the former landed estates (both, remained in the right of noblemen, as well as fully or partially passed into the hands of the representatives of other social classes) and open market of production distribution. The object of this research is the diverse economies (differ in size, belonging to the owners of various social classes), as well as the key statistical indexes of agrarian sector of the Lower Volga Region. The author turns attention to the development of primary industries (crop husbandry, animal husbandry, and forestry) in the conditions of post-reform Russia. Among the main conclusions is the evidence of transformation of the former serfdoms into the fairly profitable economies. The scientific novelty consists in describing and comparing the economies of various size and owners of different social classes, which allows talking about the objective character of agrarian modernization process.
Volodin S.F. - Experience of Material Incentives for Workers of Military Factories in the Early Years of the NEP (on the Example of the Tula Cartridge Factory) pp. 44-57



Abstract: Based on the methodology of the activity approach, the article examines the processes of material incentives for workers in the early years of the NEP. It deals in detail with the issues of material incentives for workers in the conditions of the NEP economy on the example of a large industrial enterprise - the Tula Cartridge Factory. How did the gradual tightening of rationing took place at this time? How did this process affected different groups of workers? What practices at the workshop level were used to regulate earnings? The purpose of the article is to clarify these and other interrelated issues affecting the stimulation of labor. In his research, the author proceeded from the principle of historicism and the methodology of the activity approach, according to which attention is focused on the practical activities of people, the mechanisms of their interaction. The scientific novelty of the study is determined by the fact that it comprehensively highlights the process of organizing financial incentives for employees at a large military enterprise in the early period of the NEP, which is of particular relevance in the context of modern challenges. In the initial period of the NEP, the Tula Cartridge Factory underwent a general improvement of production processes. An important part of this work was to restore the effectiveness of material incentives in relation to labor productivity, primarily by increasing production standards. As it appears on the example of the TPZ, within the historical context of the early NEP, a relatively acceptable level of material incentives for industrial labor was achieved in Soviet industry.
Veselov S.I. - Construction of the TobolskYuzhny Balyk highway: the emergence and overcoming of state-departmental and interdepartmental conflicts (19801991) pp. 44-62



Abstract: The article is devoted to the study of the historical experience of the construction of the Tobolsk Yuzhny Balyk highway, which connected the North and South of the Tyumen region in the context of the departmental nature of the transport development of the territory. The purpose of this article is to analyze the conditions for the emergence and overcoming of state-departmental and interdepartmental conflicts on the construction of the Tobolsk Yuzhny Balyk highway. The object of the study is the development of the regional road network of the Tyumen North, its design, construction and operation in the conditions of oil and gas development. The subject of the study is the process of construction of the Tobolsk Yuzhny Balyk departmental highway and its inclusion in the regional network of public roads and the unified transport network of the RSFSR/Of the Russian Federation. The novelty of the research lies in the fact that the author of the article comprehends the horizontal ties of the party-Soviet authorities from the perspective of D. Hough's concept, and the vertical ties of the general contractor and subcontractors within the framework of the approach of Sh. Fitzpatrick. The main conclusions of the study include the identification of two opposing interest groups for the construction of a highway. On the one hand, it is the Ministry of Oil Industry of the USSR, which is periodically in opposition to the regional elite and their ally, the contractor for the construction of the highway Minavtodor of the RSFSR. On the other hand, the opponents of financing the highway are Mingeologiya and Mingazprom of the USSR. A special contribution of the author to the study of the topic is the introduction into circulation of new sources that reveal the features of the functioning of departmental world-economies of the West Siberian oil and gas complex.
Bespal'ko D.N. - Post-graduate student, the department of Psychology, North Ossetian State Pedagogical Institute pp. 49-58


Abstract: The subject of this research is the economic experiment aimed at rationalization of the muskrat hunting activity in the middle of the XX century on the territory of the Kalarsky District of Chita Region. Through a special decree, the regional authorities push the muskrat and other color peltry industry towards autonomous balance with right to procure in the territories assigned to them. The decision led to creation of two competing peltry and fur procurement offices in the region, and correspondingly, sharp conflict of economic interests between them. The muskrat industry had to become the first experimental industry in the north of Chita Region, developing based on original accounting models. The applied measures qualitatively improved the management structure and economic results of the industry, while the planned innovative solutions had to take the barely functioning industry into the forward positions of the Socialist economy. The main conclusions consists in the following positions: the muskrat industry must develop autonomously, based on cost accounting; proper organization of labor and planned industrialization of production sectors is the cornerstone for successful implementation of economic development program of an industry.
Kosykh E.S. - Joint companies in Soviet economy and foreign policy of the 1920s pp. 50-57


Abstract: The subject of this research is the activity of foreign concessions in form of the joint communities in Soviet economy of the 1920’s. The materials from central archives are used in the course of this work. It is noted that in terms of the political and economic boycott by Western countries, the solution was found in organization of joint companies. The author underlines that the joint companies were established in economic branches with highest profit ration – trade, forest industry, and transport. Using the comparative-historical and problematic-chronological methods, the author was able to determine the peculiarities of practical activity of joint companies in Soviet economy of the period of the New Economic Policy. The scientific novelty consists in demonstration of close correlation between the political and economic tasks in policy of the Soviet State pertinent to the joint companies. As a form of concessional entrepreneurship, the joint company implied the involvement of the state alongside the foreign entrepreneurs. A contract was signed with a foreign company, which defined the principal terms of its activity. Formally, the joint companies were established almost on the parity basis, but factually, the Soviet party was in privileged position. The activity of joint companies was strictly regulated; the profit ratio was established by the government. They played a role in breaking the economic blockade of 1920’s, as well as acquisition of deficit commodities and newest technology. Concession has existed until it was beneficial for the government. The majority of joint companies were liquidated beforehand.
Zadorozhnyaya O.A. - River agencies Association of Western Siberian Shipping and Trade and organization of its activity in the Ob-Irtysh River Basin pp. 50-58


Abstract: The subject of this research is the process of formation of the model of river agency in the Ob-Irtysh River Basin on the example of “Association of Western Siberian Shipping and Trade”. The sources demonstrate the process of establishment of shipping lines through capital of the old and new entrepreneurial names, which strived for establishing the monopoly right over a specific sphere of activity. At the initial stage, the assistance of the local governments ensured such advantage, but the development of capitalist relations incited the distribution of competition. It necessitated finding a new way for remaining the largest shipping carrier, but by means of the separate production branches at the local level, strengthening their financial situation, increasing the staff and expanding administrative opportunities. The modern historical literature practically does not cover the problem of structural departments of river agencies of the Ob-Irtysh River Basin during the post-reform period, which is reflected on the unilateral approach to analyzing the activity of entrepreneurial organizations of the suburbs of the Russian State. The entrepreneurial companies of Western Siberia represented a fairly complicated type of the forming entrepreneurial organization due to the strong influence of both, family traditions and process of establishment of state capitalism upon the business world.
Anshin D.V. - Historical stages of the evolution of state regulation of banking activity in the USSR: 1920s - early 1930s pp. 56-72


Abstract: The article examines the evolution of state regulation of the banking sector in the initial period of socialist construction in the USSR. The development of the monetary system and the banking sector is considered in relation to the tasks facing the national economy of the country in the 1920s and 30s. The dynamics of these tasks determined the development of regulatory influences, the emergence of appropriate forms and mechanisms. The stages of the implementation of the credit reform of 1930s and its results are analyzed. The sequence of preparatory measures of the reform is considered, which concerned both the creation of prerequisites for the transition of enterprises to work in new monetary conditions, and the strengthening of the role of the State Bank as the main conductor of the reform. The analysis of the dynamics of the sectoral structure of lending and the changes that occurred as a result of the transition of the economy to new operating conditions. From the standpoint of a systematic approach, the structure of the system of state regulation of banking activity after the completion of the credit reform is studied. This structure is considered on the basis of the proposed organizational and functional model. The layout of the organizational and functional modeling of state banking regulation proposed by the author allows to consider the forms and mechanisms of regulation and interaction of participants in this process from the standpoint of a systematic approach. The Soviet experience of creating a system of state regulation is also interesting with a certain sequence of transformations: the preparation of preliminary measures distributed over time, then the implementation of a radical basic transformation (credit reform proper), the adjustment of decisions and practices based on the analysis of the actual results of transformations. Such an approach and aspect of the reform has been little studied in historical studies, but its understanding for modern Russian realities could be useful.
Brovina A. - The Soviet Academy of Sciences and industrial modernization of the country: historical experience of the development of near-Arctic territories of Russia (1920s 1930s) pp. 57-65


Abstract: The subject of this research is the historical role of the Russian Academy of Sciences in academic exploration of the near-Arctic territories of the European North of Russia during the 1920’s and 1930’s. The author analyzes the sociopolitical reforms that led to inclusion of the Academy of Sciences into the Soviet industrial-political project. Special attention is given to the expeditionary work of the Academy of Sciences that unfolded in the 1920’s – 1930’s on the territories of Kola Peninsula and Northern Krai and led to a number of discoveries, valuable for the development of separate disciplines and geography overall, as well as nature and population of the northern territories of the country. The article proves that the industrial development of the North within the framework of industrial modernization of the country is considered one of the tasks that was proclaimed by the Bolshevik authorities and “imposed” upon the Soviet Academy of Sciences. The academic community of the country proposed and implemented a number of interdisciplinary promising projects on the Kola Peninsula and Northern Krai that resulted in discovery of the immense mineral deposits in the European North, opening the vast prospects for the economic and cultural development and potential status of one of the important economic regions of the country.    
Omel'chenko N.A., Kovalev D.V., Kazarova N.A. - Trends and dynamics of modernization changes in the agrarian system of post-reform Russia pp. 59-68



Abstract: The subject of this article is the agrarian policy of Russia, conducted after the abolition of serfdom. Specifically, we are talking about the modernization of agriculture in Russia at the turn of the XIX and XX centuries. It is no secret that, despite the lingering remnants of feudal-serfdom relations, the peasant reform of 1861 gave a noticeable impetus not only to the development of agriculture, but also to the economic development of Russia as a whole for several decades. The object of the study is the analysis of the state of agriculture in Russia, the level of development of which largely determined the state of the economy as a whole. The authors place special emphasis on the comparison of the American and Prussian ways of developing the agrarian system, as well as on the analysis of P.A. Stolypin's policy. The article presents two ways of developing the agrarian system the Prussian and the American. If the Prussian way was typical for Russian agriculture in the first two decades after 1861, the American way became a reality in the early twentieth century. The novelty of the conducted research lies in the fact that in modern historiography there is no consensus on the question of the correlation of types of agrarian evolution in Russia. In the "old", serf-like areas, of course, the "Prussian" way of development prevailed. The "American" way of developing capitalism in rural areas, or rather, its potential, has become a historical reality where the level of development of landed proprietorship was low or it was absent as such. Despite the fact that the reforms initiated by P. A. Stolypin were curtailed, the trace of Stolypin's evolution of peasant farming on capitalist principles turned out to be quite noticeable in the agrarian policy of some regions. So, in those provinces where the remnants of serfdom did not have a significant impact on the socio-economic development of the village, there was a lot of free land and there was an active process of colonization, the colonists created separate farms. Modernization was actively underway in these regions: the most developed, mature forms of capitalism in agriculture emerged using large capital, mass wage labor and improved tools and machines. It is no coincidence that after 1917, bran and farmsteads often existed until complete collectivization.
Moreeva S. - Analysis of the foreign trade activity of Russia since beginning of the World War I until lifting of the economic blockade pp. 61-72


Abstract: The subject of this research (carried out based on the results of scientific research work on the topic “Economic and legal aspects of foreign trade activity of Russia since the beginning of the XX century: past, present, and prospects”) is Russia’s foreign trade over the period from the mid 1914 until the early 1921. The author analyzes the transformation of the Russian foreign trade policy and transactions associated with the country’s participation in the World War I, as well as domestic events of the following years, trade and "golden” embargo of Soviet Russia from the side of the Western countries. The work traces the sequential changes in state regulation of the foreign trade activity: transition from the limited meddling of the government into foreign trade activity, towards the prohibitive-permissive system of regulation with the further establishment of state monopoly in foreign trade right after the October Revolution. Using the acquired statistical data, the author demonstrates how the participation in the WWI alongside the following domestic events affecter the trade balance of the country, volume and structure of export and imports, as well as the list of Russia’s trade partners.
Kulbidiuk R.V. - Problems of the Formation of the Industrial Potential of Pridnestrovie as Part of Molodavia (1940 1941) pp. 62-75



Abstract: The author discusses the first steps of the Soviet government to restore and create the industrial complex of Moldovia after the liberation of the right-bank regions of Moldavia Bessarabia - from the power of Royal Romania in the period from June 28, 1940 to June 1941. The purpose of the study is to characterize and evaluate the actions of central and local authorities in the first months after reunification on the nationalization of fixed assets and collectivization of agriculture, restoration, launch and establishment of industrial enterprises in the territory of the MSSR, as well as to identify the main directions of industrial development in the region during this period, the features of the formation of industrial potential taking into account the ongoing nationalization, the analysis of attracted resources and their characteristics, comparison with the industry of Royal Romania. The author presents an analysis of the main activities of local authorities on nationalization, as well as identifies the main financial sources allocated for the development of industry. The initial economic and cultural level, from which the formation of a new way of life for the Moldovan people began, after the reunification of the population of Bessarabia with the population of Transnistria (MASSR), is analyzed. The conducted research allowed us to conclude that it was the help of the peoples of the USSR that allowed the population of the republic to eliminate inequality in economic, political, cultural and other areas of life in a historically short period of time. According to the results of the study, the fundamental role of Pridnestrovie (MASSR), on whose socio-political and economic basis the reunited Soviet Moldavia was formed, also became obvious. The diverse production base created earlier in Pridnestrovie (MASSR) from scratch, together with thousands of trained highly qualified workers, provided invaluable assistance in the state, economic and cultural revival of Bessarabia. The study used such methods of historical research as retrospective analysis, comparative analysis, as well as a systematic approach and the method of expert assessments.
Motrevich V.P. - To the question about the role of individual household in the incomes of collective farmers of Sverdlovsk Region during the period of 1940s 1950s (according to the data of examination of the household budget) pp. 63-74


Abstract: The scientific novelty of this research consists in examination of the incomes of collective farmers of Sverdlovsk Region over the period of 1941-1958 based on the materials of budget inspection. The article provides the data on gross agricultural outputs within the individual households in value terms, dynamics, and structure of the annual average working hours of a family of collective farers, and time expenditure when working in the individual household. The author characterizes the structure of sowing in household plots, indicates the dynamics of agricultural production in the households of collective farmers, as well as defines the role of individual household in income in kind and cash of a peasant family. Methodology of the work suggests structuring the dynamic rows of the key indexes in functionality of peasant household on the basis of calculations of the annual average household budgets in accordance with the five-year circuit. This allowed grading the significant inclination of indexes of the peasant households in different timeframes, caused by the changes in the state agrarian policy alongside the natural climatic factors, as well as determining the trends of their development. The analysis of budget inspections testifies to the fact that throughout the indicated period, individual household in Sverdlovsk Region was the main source of income in kind and cash in a peasant family. Public economy satisfied the needs of the collective farmers only in cereal and fodder grain. Major portion of potato, vegetables, meat, dairy, and eggs came from the household plots. At the same time, most of the working time among the labor force accrued for the public economy. In the second part of 1950’s, due to the changes in Soviet agrarian policy, took place a noticeable growth in the incomes of collective farmers from the work in collective farms alongside the machinery and tractor stations; this resulted in decrease of the role of individual household in the village.
Morzheedov V.G. - Economic aspects of the Anglo-French confrontation during the Napoleonic Wars pp. 65-79



Abstract: The article deals with the problem of economic confrontation between France and Britain during the Napoleonic Wars. The subject of the study is the nature and conditions of the Anglo-French confrontation through the prism of economic processes. The object of the study are those measures and actions that were taken by France and Britain in order to establish their own economic superiority, special attention is paid to the Continental Blockade introduced by Napoleon I Bonaparte. The purpose of the study is to analyze the causes and consequences of Anglo-French rivalry, as well as the peculiarities of the development of national economies in wartime conditions. The article discusses the measures that have been taken to overcome the crisis phenomena by the governments of France and Britain in connection with the conduct of a policy of mutual blockade. The special role of the naval force and the smuggling trade is noted. The author uses chronological, historical-comparative and historical-system research methods in his work. The results of the study may be of interest to specialists in economic or military history, as well as in the theory and history of international relations. There are still conflicting assessments of the effectiveness and consequences of the economic measures taken by the French and British governments to establish their own hegemony on the European continent. The novelty of the study consists in a comprehensive examination of the nature of the economic confrontation between the two European "superpowers" in the early XIX century. The relevance of the study is determined by the fact that the instrument of economic blockade, the policy of sanctions and counter-sanctions, as well as trade wars remain one of the most important elements of the military-political confrontation of various modern states.
Pu J. - Contribution of the Soviet specialist into the restoration and development of PRC in the late 1940s 1950s: stages and their main characteristics pp. 66-72


Abstract: This article generalizes the data and materials regarding the main characteristic and peculiarities of contribution of the Soviet specialists to China during the second half of 1940’s – a950’s, based on which the author determines the stages in the work of Soviet specialists, as well as the USSR’s aid to China altogether. The overall situation in the field of personnel training in PRC; the stay of the Soviet specialist in China and certain difficulties emerged in the course of their activity are described. The article contains the archival materials collected by the author in the Russian State Archive of Socio-Political History, compilations of the published documents and materials, as well as examines the historiography of the topic. A conclusion is made on the existence of stage-by-stage approach applied by the Soviet specialists in providing aid to China. The first stage (second half of 1940’s) marks the sporadic nature and latent character in the help of Soviet specialists; the second stage (first half of 1950’s) notes a large volume of the invited specialists from USSR and significant coverage of the areas they were involved within; the third stage (second half of 1950’s) the number of the invited specialists is replaced by the quality of their selection and involvement into the solution of high-tech tasks of the China’s industrial sector.
Bespal'ko D.N. - The problems of labor management in the hunting and fishing industry in the northern Chita Region during the 1930s beginning of the 1950s pp. 66-76


Abstract: The subject of this research is the initial period of establishment of the hunting and fishing industry in the territories of northern Chita Region. The harsh climatic conditions and mountain-taiga landforms substantiated the specific development of the new economic branches, among which stood out the most ancient industry – hunting. The importance of the development of the riches fur resources encouraged the vigorous activity of Soviet people, and the subsequent collectivization led to the creation of regional system of planned use of all assigned to communal farms hunting areas. One of the urgent problems throughout the entire chronological timeframe examined in the article was the management of hunting labor, which affected all indexes of the extraction of down and fur raw materials. This article is the first to introduce into the scientific discourse of the previously unstudied archival materials from the State Archive of Zabaykalsky Krai, as well as the comprehensive approach towards examination of the problems of history of the development of hunting and fishing industry in the region. Based on a broad circle of sources, the author concludes on the erroneousness of the initial hunting establishment and its consequences.
Yanik A.A. - Arrival of young reformers towards administration of the Russian economy: analysis of coincidences and regularities pp. 74-113


Abstract: The subject of this research is the analysis of events which resulted in the ascent of the community of young economists towards the management of the Russian reforms, who were later called the “young reformers”. A special attention is given to the examination of the facts within a broad historical context that helps to avoid falling into a trap of the popular narratives that lead to mythologization of ideas associated with the complicated processed of the Russian history of the late XX century. The goal of this work is to explore by what means the chain of events will gradually transform into a consistent and historically inevitable outcome, when the initial endless pi of the personal trajectories subsequently leads to the only possible way of realization of the collective historical drama. The author comes to a conclusion that under the conditions of crises, drastically increases the demand for the scientific knowledge on the management of public and economic development, and thus the responsibility for the quality of the events belongs to both, the government and the expert community. The history shows that by the end of 1991, only the “young reformers” were ready to operate in emergency conditions, which required increased efficiency and the ability to present scientific ability as the “product” for practical implementation.
Aleksandrova I.N. - Formation of the commitment to importance of the socially useful labor among youth during the time of Thaw pp. 75-91


Abstract: The object of this research is the Soviet youth (mostly the citizens of 14-30 years of age residing in the European part of Russia). The subject of this research is the efficiency of state youth policy in the area of labor. The Komsomol is viewed as a distinct “ministry of youth” Chronological framework of the study cover the period from the mid 1950’s until the first part of the 1960’s. This is the period of modification in the technique of administration and control over society, which revealed the forms of social creativity from the latent state. The efficiency of state youth policy in the area of labor is being evaluated with the help reminiscences of the veterans, examination of letters of the youth of 1950’s – 1960’s in newspapers, secondary analysis of the sociological surveys of the Institute of Public Opinion of “Komsomolskaya Pravda”. The author concludes that the labor education during the studied timeframe was aimed at increasing of social optimism, and thus, performed the role of adaptation mechanism that encouraged the molding of personality. Not glossing over the flaws in the state youth policy in the area of labor, the author believes that one of its notable positive results consisted in introducing collective labor to the youth, creative self-expression, development of the feeling of involvement into the large-scale social processes, as well as interest in career growth.
Shumakov M.D. - The Significance of the Defense of Tsaritsyn in 1918. Economic and Military-strategic Aspects. pp. 81-95



Abstract: The object of the study is the defense of the city of Tsaritsyn by the Red Army troops in 1918. The subject of the study is the economic and military-strategic importance of this city for the warring parties. The significance of revealing the significance of the defense of this city is due to the fact that I.V. Stalin took active steps to organize the defense of Tsaritsyn in the summer and autumn of 1918. In the following years, this issue acquired special political significance, including in connection with the confrontation between I.V. Stalin and L.D. Trotsky. Their confrontation also concerned the question of the expediency of Stalin's activities in Tsaritsyn and, more broadly, the importance of the defense of this city in general. In this study, the author tried to show that the defense of Tsaritsyn was of great economic and military-strategic importance at the time of the summer-autumn of 1918. Based on the sources associated with food supplies from the outskirts of Russia to its centers, the author emphasizes the food importance of the South of Russia and Tsaritsyn in particular, as the food and industrial center of this region. A separate aspect of the significance of Tsaritsyn is the factor of railways - Tsaritsyn was an important railway junction connecting three branches of railroads. This was important both in the light of the centralization and delivery of food supplies, and from the point of view of the transfer of armed forces. Finally, the author tried to combine economic and strategic importance in the framework of the study. The latter is represented by feedback from participants of various belligerents of the Civil War about the significance of Tsaritsyn.
Zhil'nikov A.M., Danilov I.B. - Prerequisites for the development and implementation 1957 Soviet administrative-economic reform pp. 89-102


Abstract:  The object of this research is the 1957 Soviet administrative-economic reform, while the subject is the prerequisites for the development and implementation of this reform. The goal consists in determination and analysis of the prerequisites for the development and implementation of 1957 Soviet administrative-economic reform. The article examines the activity of the Soviet government and party in the 1950s; identifies the economic and political prerequisites that influenced the course of events. The reform was aimed at weakening the central authority, downsizing of ministries, simplification of the centralized planned system of economic management, and establishment of the new industrial management branches – councils of the national economy of administrative economic districts. The research is based on the principle of historicism, employs the historical-genetic, functional, and formal-legal methods. The chronological framework stretch from 1953 to 1957. The administrative-economic reform is conditioned by the economic and political prerequisites. The authors note the industrial slowdown, as well as the crisis of the state plan system. The political crisis that unfolded in the USSR in 1950s had most considerable impact upon the reform. The reform was of uninstitutionalized nature, and served as the mechanism for strengthening the party authorities. 
Badmaeva E.N., Erdneeva B.A. - Natural and Climatic Conditions of the Territory and Agriculture in Kalmykia (1917-1925) pp. 111-122



Abstract: The object of research is agriculture of Kalmykia in 1917-1925. The subject of the study is the development of this branch of agriculture in the specified period. The purpose of the work is to identify the influence of natural and climatic conditions of the territory on farming in the region. To this end, the article: analyzes the development of the agricultural sector of Kalmykia in the early years of Soviet power; characterizes the natural and climatic conditions of the territory, soil features of various natural zones of the region. The novelty of the study is an attempt to identify and analyze the influence of climatic factors, soil characteristics of the territory on the development of agriculture, the quality and quantity of grain products produced in the region. The novelty of the study is an attempt to identify and analyze the influence of climatic factors, soil characteristics of the territory on the development of agriculture, the quality and quantity of grain products produced in the region. The relevance of the article lies in the fact that on the basis of the study, positive and negative experiences of farming on land in extreme conditions of nature and climate of Kalmykia have been identified, which can be used today, since the current agrarians of the region face almost the same problems as their distant ancestors a hundred years ago: drought, degradation and desertification of lands, etc. Taking into account the accumulated experience will certainly help to effectively solve the modern problems of agriculture in the Republic of Kalmykia. The main conclusion made in the article based on the results of the analysis of agriculture of the KAO in the 1920s: the development of this branch of agriculture in the region during this period largely depended on difficult climatic conditions, soil characteristics of the territory. The results of the study can be used in the comparative study of the agrarian development of the regions of the USSR during the period of "war communism" and the NEP.
Chistyakov Y.F. - Foreign trade of the USSR in agricultural products in the period 1941-1945 pp. 115-141



Abstract: The object of the study is the import and export supplies of food products, agricultural raw materials and live animals to the USSR during the Great Patriotic War, the War with Japan and until the end of 1945. The subject of the study is the dynamics, trends and patterns of changes in the volume and structure of import and export of various types of agricultural products into the country and changes in the ratio of various supply channels of these products. The main content of the study is the creation of a statistical database based on a number of archival statistical sources containing data on agricultural imports and exports for the specified period and the analysis of this database. The article provides a brief description of the research on the topic of the work and an analysis of archival sources. When creating a statistical database containing data on the natural volumes of imports and exports of agricultural products, methods of historical, source-based and statistical analysis were used. As a result of reviewing the created statistical sample with data on agricultural imports and exports of the country, the following results were obtained containing elements of scientific novelty: 1. The characteristics of agricultural imports are more complete than in most previous studies. 2. The characteristics of the export of agricultural products for these years are given, which is absent in most previous studies. 3. In connection with the above, a more accurate description of the trends in the characteristics of imports and exports of agricultural raw materials and food during the years of the Great Patriotic War and the War with Japan is given, and the share of imports of a number of types of agricultural products in the total domestic production is calculated in a new way.
Shakhin I. - Impact of the business competition upon the centrifugal processes in Yugoslavia (1952-1963) pp. 118-125


Abstract: This article examines the link between the business competition and disintegration processes in Yugoslavia over the period of 1953-1962 that indicates the two large waves of economic reforms conducted in the country. The subject of this research is the direct competitive relations between businesses and their associations, as well as relations mediated by the participation of the union and republican governing bodies. Particular attention is given to intervention of the republican governments. Methodology of the work leans on the materialistic understanding of history. The author systematically analyzes the economic foundation of the attenuation of the unity of Yugoslavian peoples and aggravation of interethnic tensions. The emerged in the early 1950’s business competition became the factor of this process just because of the existence of certain conditions, among which are the manifestation nationalistic moods within corporate management and protection by the republican government of business in their republics, considering the economic gain. This led to the weakening of economic relations between the republics and disruption of functionality of some economic sectors. At the regional level, it was most noticeable in Slovenia, as well as existed in Croatia and Serbia.
P'yankov S.A. - The Ural agricultural societies in the late XIX early XX centuries: the process of establishment, functions and social structure pp. 137-148


Abstract: This article based on the data of the administrative statistics, country documentation management, and periodical materials, analyzes the mechanisms of organization of the agricultural societies in the Ural region. The author presents the dynamics of formation of the agricultural societies in Russia, as well as demonstrates the place of Ural governorates in this process. The social structure of the founders and rankers of the public associations are being examined. Based on the example of separate societies, the work analyzes the vectors of the work, number of the participants and areas of their activity, ways and nature of interaction with the representatives of authorities and local self-governance. Special attention is focused on the role of county agricultural personnel, which is one of the main actors in the process of establishment of the agricultural societies in the Ural region. The author makes a conclusion that the agricultural societies were in the sphere of influence of the agricultural services of the government and county council. The growth in the number of agricultural societies was not directly linked to the high social activity of the peasant population, and in many ways acted as the result of the reformation process in agricultural sphere from the outside. The established as the result of the external influence agricultural societies performed the interlink function between the agriculturists and peasantry, playing the role of re-translators of the new production technologies.
Sapuntsov A.L. - Settler colonialism during the quasi-state period of the activity of Hudsons Bay Company (1670-1870) pp. 148-157


Abstract: This article is dedicated to the colonial activity of Hudson’s Bay Company (HBC) founded in 1670 by the British for exploitation of fur in North America and conducting geographical surveying un the Northwestern region. The author sets a goal to determine the forms of organization of the European colonial settlements and peculiarities of their cooperation with the Native Americans in HBC trade operations. It is also important to ascertain the reasons for conducting reforms prior to monopolization of HBC in the fur market, as well as within the system of colonial control. The research material contains the colonization theories, archival materials of HBC, travelers’ testimonies, and analysis of the relevant legal documents. The author also applies the methods of cognitive dialectics, historical objectivism, and comparison of multifaceted sources in the context of socio-philosophical observation. The conclusion is made on the dominance of enclave topology in the colonial activity of Hudson’s Bay Company, when the European settlers resided mostly in coastal areas (forts and trading posts), as well as practices exploitative approaches towards relations with the Native Americans. However, the latter got an opportunity to sell beaver pelts to the Europeans through monetary exchange and unqualified labor. After taking over the French competitors, HBC transformed into a quasi-state, incorporating privately operated enterprise with colonial administration. The conclusion is made that the escalated discontent of the British Crown with usurpation of administrative power and business in Hudson’s Bay Company along with its engagement in monopolization of the market, led to disassembling of the aforementioned colonization model in 1870; the power was partially delegated the Canadian government.
Sapuntsov A.L. - Initiatives on privatization of colonial activity within the framework of French East India Company pp. 150-160


Abstract: This article examines the colonial activity of French East India Company, which was a commercial enterprise engaged in international trade founded in 1664. The goal of this research is to determine the prerequisites for its establishment, conditions for the formation of capital and administrative branches, perspectives on expanding the network of trading stations and trade routes. An assessment is given to the directive formation of capital and work of the officials (patrons). The article employs the methods of analysis of the historical documents, testimonies of travelers, synchronism, diachrony and cognitive symbiosis. Attention is given to unattainability of levelling off the profit margin French East India Company through trading exchange and work of transnational corporations. The scientific novelty consists in revealing the causes of unstable situation of French East India Company and insufficient development of market relations within its metropolitan territory, which led to a series of rearrangements and speculations, poor equipment of ships and shipwrecks. The results can be used ib studying trade companies of the early Modern Age, particularly with regards to Iberia and colonization of the West Indies. The conclusion is formulated on the prerequisites for the establishment of a powerful French East India Company that were not implemented; and the unstable economic situation resulted in annulment of the company during the Great French Revolution.
Shumkin G.N., Zubkov K.I. - Timber frontier of metallurgical Ural: development strategy of charcoal metallurgy of the region in the late XIX early XX century pp. 158-169


Abstract: The subject of this research is the projects for colonization of forest of Western Siberia by the Ural metallurgical industry in the late XIX – early XX centuries. During the 1890’s, Ural metallurgy was experiencing the shortage of charcoal, which was the main type of fuel for iron production. As the means for overcoming such problem, the expert community started discussing the strategies of supplying metallurgical plants with charcoal from the forests of Western Siberia, which had to be transported by railways. The projects found their implementation through Tavdinskaya Railroad, which was put into operation during the World War I. The concept of “frontier modernization” serves as the methodological foundation for this research. Applicable to the topic at hand, “frontier modernization” consisted in the attempts to retain the specialty profile of Ural metallurgy and its conventional energy by forming at borders of metallurgical Ural of the new development, but with implementation of new technological solution. This work is first within historiography to provide a comprehensive analysis of the projects on colonization of forests of Western Siberia by the Ural metallurgical industry. The conclusion is made that although the project was implemented, it did not produce the results forecasted by the expert community, namely the creation of free charcoal market and decline of circuit system, as it was implemented too late- in 1917. In the context of profound changed in the principles of organization of Ural metallurgical industry in 1920’s, this project was no longer economically viable.
Kulbidiuk R.V. - Characteristics of the economic potential of the Transnistrian region of Moldova on the eve of the collapse of the USSR pp. 165-181



Abstract: The article examines the main characteristics of the economic potential of the Pridnestrovian region of Moldova, and also describes the latest significant events that occurred in the industrial sector of the republic on the eve of the collapse of the USSR. The purpose of the study is to characterize and evaluate the industry of the Pridnestrovian part of the MSSR, in order to form a more complete picture of the economic potential of the republic. The author presents an analysis of the main directions in the development of industry in the region at the final stage of the existence of a single state of the MSSR within the borders of the USSR, and also analyzes the main directions of development. The conducted research allowed us to conclude that the significant growth of Moldovan industry in the 1980s clearly testifies to the fruitfulness of cooperation and mutual assistance within the Soviet Union and the fundamental role of the Union center in the formation of the industry of the Soviet republics. In the course of the study, archival and statistical data confirmed that the rich economic history of Pridnestrovie, together with regional features favorable economic and geographical location, availability of a sufficient number of highly qualified labor resources, energy saturation - predetermined the accelerated formation of innovative industries in the region, working on imported raw materials and using all the economic potential of the Soviet state available to the republic in within the framework of the sectoral and territorial division of labor adopted in the USSR, as well as industrial and commodity specialization. The industrialization of the MSSR was carried out in an exceptionally short time in less than a quarter of a century. Together with the steady growth in the quality of products and low cost due to the energy self-sufficiency of the region, goods produced in Pridnestrovie have occupied their niche not only in the All-Union market, but also in the world, and above all in Europe. All this, combined with the ongoing changes in the industrial specialization of the region, made it possible to shift the agrarian nature of production and qualitatively enrich the industry of Soviet Moldova.
Chistyakov Y.F. - Development of the Russian grain imports in the XIX early XX centuries pp. 171-188


Abstract:   The object of this research is the Russian imports of grain and grain products (flour and cereal) over the period from 1802 to 1917. The subject of this research is the dynamic processes of changes in the volume and commodity structure of the import of grain and grain products in the XIX – early XX centuries. The article leans on the analysis of sources that contain data on the Russian imports of grain and grain products (annual “Reviews of Russian foreign trade through European and Asian borders”), which characterizes import of grain to the Russian Empire of this period. The study employs the methods of historical, source studies, and statistical analysis. The analysis of sampling relies on the tabular summary of data and graphic representation of data. The novelty lies in the analysis of the key trends in the development of import of grain to the country throughout a prolonged historical period, which is carried out virtually for the first time. Based on examination of the statistical data in the import of grain, the following results were obtained: 1) a significant dependence of the volume of grain imports on the state of domestic grain production and the absence or presence of “lean years” in particular is underlined; 2) the periods of excess of grain imports over exports is determined. 3. The conclusion is made on the significant increase in the volume and transformation of the structure of the Russian grain imports in the beginning of the XX century. It is also indicated that due to insignificant volumes of import, compared to export, the grain imports did not affect the overall level of grain consumption among the Russian population.  
Sapuntsov A.L. - Trading Companies and Distribution of Speculative Bubbles within European Commodity and Stock Markets, 17-18 century pp. 305-317



Abstract: The paper examines the first financial crises based on speculative exchange transactions with overseas goods and securities of trading companies. Based on the study of Tulip mania, as well as the bubble of the South Seas and Mississippi, the features of concluding transactions "for the future" with the supply of assets that do not exist at the moment, the possibility of production or procurement of which was based on skillfully spreading rumors, are described in detail. Attention is paid to the "behavior of the crowd" when, with insufficient regulation on the stock market, the broad masses of the population became participants in exchange trading, investing there not only their own, but sometimes also borrowed assets. The assessment of measures to prevent stock speculation in the context of the abolition of monopoly rights of trading companies and the liberalization of public relations is given. The main conclusion of the author is the dialectical interpretation of speculative crises of the XVII-XVIII centuries as, on the one hand, objectively previously unknown phenomena, for the prevention of which the government did not have enough knowledge and tools. On the other hand, crises became effective tools in carrying out structural transformations in societies of that time, breaking the established foundations, redistributing wealth, stimulating institutional changes, since the adoption of prohibitive measures in relation to speculation on the stock exchange would make it impossible overseas trade and expansion of trading companies abroad, which in fact was accompanied by a profitable robbery of colonies with the corresponding the flow of resources to Europe. Financial crises based on speculation and "air" trading persist to the present and often become global, which, in the author's opinion, is due to the impossibility of introducing total control over new financial instruments for investing abroad and an ambiguous assessment of the profitability of such activities in the future.
Ippolitov V.A. - Activity of Komsomol as a factor of strengthening of a collective-farm system in the first half 1930 x years pp. 408-422


Abstract: In article activity of provincial Komsomol in area organizationally – economic strengthening of collective farms in the first half of the 1930th is analyzed. The following activities of members of the union are considered: elimination of an obezlichka, piecework introduction, strengthening of a brigade form of the organization of work. For studying of historical and Komsomol problems the theory of nationalization of Komsomol according to which the Komsomol is considered as peculiar Soviet "the ministry of youth", a link between the state and youth became basic. The basis of istochnikovy base of article was made by unpublished archival materials of funds of the State Archive of Socio-political History of the Tambov Region. Objectivity of approach of the author was shown in aspiration to overcome ideological stereotypes as in studying of a social and economic situation, and Komsomol, in search of the methods of source study criticism allowing to overcome biased submission of information in official documents. Scientific novelty of article consists in reconsideration of a role of provincial Komsomol in an organizational and economic ukrpeleniye of collective farms at the beginning of 1930 – x years. As a result of research the author comes to a conclusion that Komsomol members played the major role in strengthening of a collective-farm system. As a result of collectivization the provincial Komsomol became the organization collective-farm. Nevertheless, use of All-Union Leninist Young Communist League in various economic campaigns contradicted the main functions of the organization.
Belkovets L., Belkovets S.V. - Economic policy of the Soviet Russia (USSR) during the period of 1920-1930 pp. 560-691


Abstract: The subject of this research is the process of establishment of the Soviet State economic policy during the period of 1920-1930. The author thoroughly examines the legislation on commercial enterprises as the protectors of economic interests of Russia abroad, as well as the consolidation of their status in the international treaties. The author gives characteristic to the new economic policy and concessions as means of attracting the foreign capital into the country. A special attention is given to the fight of the Soviet State for implementation of foreign trade monopolies as one of the ways to preserve the Soviet regime. An objective analysis of the legal acts, international agreements, as well as other diplomatic documents, allowed the author to propose his own unique conception of events associated with the development by the Soviet government of the economic line on the international arena. It became the embodiment of the “socialistic” reforms program in Russia with all characteristic to it positive and negative aspects.  This article creates a close to the objective truth image of historical reality.
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