Статья 'Основные направления развития промышленности Хакасии в середине 1920-х – начале 1940-х гг. ' - журнал 'Genesis: исторические исследования' - NotaBene.ru
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Genesis: Historical research
Reference:

The Main Directions of Industrial Development in Khakassia in the Mid-1920s – Early 1940s.

Shadrin Aleksei Vladimirovich

ORCID: 0009-0009-4756-195X

Postgraduate, Department of History, KhSU named after N.F. Katanov

655017, Russia, Republic of Khakassia, Abakan, Lenin Ave., 90

alexej.shadrin287@yandex.ru
Tuguzhekova Valentina Nikolaevna

ORCID: 0009-0009-4756-195X

Doctor of History

Professor, Department of History, N.F. Katanov Khakass State University

655017, Russia, Republic of Khakassia, Abakan, Lenin Ave., 90

vtuguzhekova@yandex.ru

DOI:

10.25136/2409-868X.2023.3.39850

EDN:

AYZHRZ

Received:

26-02-2023


Published:

31-03-2023


Abstract: The search for ways of effective economic development of modern Russia calls for a deep understanding of the economic aspect of Russian history. A special place and importance in this regard is occupied by the history of Russia of the XX century, with the exception of the 1990s, since it was during this era that the modernization of the country's industry took place. The study of the industrial development of the country in general and Khakassia in particular in the mid-1920s – early 1940s contributes to the disclosure of controversial issues in domestic and regional history, namely industrialization, cooperation. This will allow us to summarize the historical experience of those years (positive and negative), which can help in overcoming difficulties in the Russian economy through appropriate conclusions that can be made by authorities at various levels. It will also make it possible to predict the further development of the region, and then the country according to the most optimal option. Based on archival documents and literature, the author analyzes the main directions of industrial development in Khakassia in the mid-1920s – early 1940s. In particular, attention is paid to the dynamics of development and structural changes in the industry of the region, which during this period were contradictory. To a greater extent, there were positive trends: the emergence of new types of production, the combination of high quantitative indicators of development with the progressive development of qualitative ones. The technical equipment of industrial enterprises in the region has significantly increased. Negative aspects in the industrial development of the region were manifested in the disproportion in the sectoral structure of the industry (the predominance of extractive industries), lagging growth rates of qualitative indicators compared with quantitative, technical backwardness of a number of industries.


Keywords:

industry, Khakassia, dynamics of development, structural changes, economic policy, quantitative indicators, quality indicators, stock ratio, electrification, Siberia

This article is automatically translated. You can find original text of the article here.

 Introduction

The search for ways of effective economic development of modern Russia calls for a deep understanding of the economic aspect of Russian history.

A special place and importance in this regard is occupied by the history of Russia of the XX century, with the exception of the 1990s, since it was during this era that the modernization of the country's industry took place.

The study of the industrial development of the country in general and Khakassia in particular in the mid-1920s – early 1940s contributes to the disclosure of controversial issues in domestic and regional history, namely industrialization, cooperation. This will make it possible to summarize the historical experience of those years (positive and negative), which can help in overcoming difficulties in the Russian economy through appropriate conclusions that can be made by authorities at various levels. It will also make it possible to predict the further development of the region, and then the country according to the most optimal option.

The main partSince the mid-1920s, Khakassia has entered a new stage of industrial development, the beginning of which was associated with the implementation of the course of industrialization, as well as the construction of new industrial facilities and the reconstruction of existing enterprises.

Considerable material resources were invested in the regional industry. So, only in 1931-1934. investments in the industry of the Khakass Autonomous Region amounted to 24884.4 thousand rubles. [1]. This fact caused its subsequent growth. By 1940, the gross output of the entire industry of Khakassia exceeded the level of 1913 by 22 times [2, p. 22]. In the USSR, this indicator increased by 7.7 times in 1913-1940 [3, p. 81]. Consequently, the pace of industrial development in Khakassia was higher than in the country.

The reasons for this trend are as follows. The industry of the region realized the growth opportunities associated with the possibility of developing rich natural resources. Its development was based on the relevant resolutions of the party and the Soviet authorities at various levels, i.e. it was initiated "from above". The following factors also contributed to the industrial development of Khakassia during this period: the level of industrial development achieved in previous periods, demographic changes, urbanization, transport development of the territory.

The share of industrial products in the economy of Khakassia increased to 49.6% by 1938, which was one of the signs of the establishment of an economic structure characteristic of an industrial-agrarian society in this territory [4, p. 184].

The growth of industrial production in Khakassia was largely due to the commissioning of new facilities. So, from the mid-1920s to the beginning of the 1940s, a concentrating factory was established at the Tuim mine administration, Ust-Abakan sawmill, Abakan meat processing plant and other enterprises [5, pp. 28-33]. Also, the above-mentioned growth was ensured by increasing the level of concentration of industrial production through the centralization of small and medium-sized enterprises. So, in 1931, the regional industrial union was created, which included the Abaza Metalist industrial cartel. In the following years, promartel expanded its production, producing up to 100 tons per year. consumer goods [6, p. 14].

The analysis of qualitative indicators of industrial development of Khakassia in the mid-1920s – early 1940s is of interest.

Due to the growth of labor productivity in the region in the specified chronological framework, the following average annual growth rates of industrial production were obtained: 121.6% – from 1930 to 1932, and 53.6% – in the years of the second five-year plan [7]. The all-Union indicator for the same period of time was 19.2% in the years of the first five-year plan and 17.1% in the years of the second five-year plan, respectively [8]. As we can see, both in the country and in Khakassia, the average annual growth of industrial production was ensured primarily by increasing labor productivity.

From the mid-1920s to the early 1940s, the growth rates of labor productivity in the region's industry changed. This can be judged on the basis of data from the enterprises of the food industry of Khakassia. Thus, at the Abakan meat processing plant, labor productivity in 1932-1933 increased by 90%, and in the Masloprom trust from 1932 to 1934 it increased by 14% [9]. This all-Union indicator for the entire industry increased by 158% during 1928-1937 [10].

High growth rates were observed in relation to such a qualitative indicator of the development of the Khakassia industry as the labor capital ratio. From 1930 to 1934 . it has increased by 120% [11]. The all-Union indicator increased by 104% during 1932-1937 [12].

In the mid-1920s – early 1940s, one of the most important qualitative indicators of the development of the region's industry was its electrification. During this period, 83% of the total number of power plants in Khakassia supplied electricity to industrial enterprises [13]. In 1924, the first power plant with a capacity of 25 kW was built in the village of Ust-Abakan, and already in 1930, 4 million kWh of electricity was generated in the region [14, p. 17]. Also at this time, the production of electricity at mining enterprises increased. So, in 1932, the gold mines had an energy of 1028 kW/h, and in 1935 already at 4239 kW/h. [4, p. 109]. Based on this, it can be assumed that the regional coefficient of electrification of industrial power processes (in terms of power) was equal to the all-Union one (by 1937 it reached 82.8%) [15, p. 19].

To identify the main trends in the development of the Khakassia industry in the mid-1920s – early 1940s, it is necessary to focus on the study of the sectoral and territorial structure.

During the period under study, the industrial production of Khakassia underwent serious changes in the industry structure.

Table 1

Industrial structure of Khakassia in the 1930s[16]

onethousandninehundredthirtytwo

onethousandninehundredthirtyeight

The place of the industry in the structure of industry (by gross output in thousand rubles)

Branch

Share (%)

The place of the industry in the structure of industry (by gross output in thousand rubles)

Branch

Share (%)

1

forest

28%

1

forest

26%

2

promo operation

22%

2

pishchevkusovaya

25%

3

coal

16,6%

3

promo operation

18%

4

pishchevkusovaya

16,4%

4

coal

16%

5

other industries

11%

5

other industries

11%

6

local industry

6%

6

local industry

4%

In the second half of the 1920s, a new industry emerged - forestry. In 1926, the first logging enterprises were established in the region – the Iussky (in the Saralinsky district) and Tashtypsky forestry enterprises [4, p. 103]. In the 1930s, the forestry industry took the first place in terms of specific weight in the total volume of gross output. However, its share in the sectoral structure of the industry during this time decreased from 28% to 26%, which was due to the development of other industries.

In 1932, industrial cooperation took the second place in the sectoral structure of the region's industry (it included such industries as: metalworking, forestry, etc.), which occupied a share of 22%, but already in 1938 the food industry was in this place. Its share was 25%. This state of affairs was explained by the steady pace of development of the food industry, since in 1932-1938 its gross output increased by about 6 times [17].

The third place in 1932 in the industrial structure of Khakassia was occupied by the coal industry, whose share was 16.6%, but in 1938 it fell to the fourth position with a share of 16%. Industrial cooperation has fallen in its place, the share of which has decreased to 18%.

The fifth position in the sectoral structure of the region's industry both in 1932 and in 1938 was occupied by other industries (this group includes the gold mining industry, electric power, woodworking, etc.) with an unchanged share of 11%.

The sixth place in the industry structure of Khakassia in the years under review was for industries related to local industry (enterprises for the production of building materials (brick, alabaster), mining (barite), etc.). Their share in the industry structure decreased from 6% to 4%, which is explained by the development of industries included in the state and cooperative industries of the region [18].

Having considered the sectoral structure of the Khakassia industry, we will analyze its territorial structure.

Table 2

Territorial structure of Khakassia's industry in the 1930s[19]

The place of the territory in the structure of industry (by gross output in thousand rubles)

Territory

Share (%)

The place of the territory in the structure of industry (by gross output in thousand rubles)

Territory

Share (%)

1934

1939

1

Chernogrsky Village Council

33,05%

1

Shirinsky district

25%

2

Ust-Abakan district

32,11%

2

Tashtypsky district

23,8%

3

Ust-Abakan Village Council

11,67%

3

Bogradsky district

15,6%

4

Askizsky district

8,51%

4

Saralinsky district

13,1%

5

Tashtypsky district

7,03%

5

Askizsky district

10,4%

6

Shirinsky district

4,86%

6

Baysky district

7,5%

7

Bogradsky district

2,77%

7

the city of Chernogorsk

4,6%

In 1934, the leading role in the industrial potential of the region was occupied by the Montenegrin Village Council, since 5 enterprises located on its territory produced 1/3 of the gross output of Khakassia. In 1939, the first place in the industrial potential of Khakassia was occupied by the Shirinsky district, which produced 1/4 of the gross output of the region.

If in 1934 the second place belonged to the Ust-Abakan district, whose enterprises produced slightly less than 1/3 of the gross output of the region, then in 1939 this place already belonged to the Tashtypsky district.

The three leaders in 1934 were closed by the Ust-Abakan Village Council, followed by other districts. In 1939, this place belonged to the Bogradsky district, which increased its contribution to the industrial potential of the region by almost 6 times [19].

The analysis of the dynamics of the development of individual industries in the region is of interest.

In the mid-1920s – late 1930s, as already noted, the forestry industry began to develop among the dominant industries of Khakassia. According to V.N. Tuguzhekova, I.N. Troshkina, V.K. Shulbaev, G.M. Shaposhnikov, O.L. Tokhtobina (Lushnikova), "during the period from 1930 to 1935, 7 million 432 thousand rubles were invested in the development of this industry" [2, p. 34]. The forestry enterprises began to receive cars, tractors, loaders, roads and power plants were built. In 1932, the third lespromkhoz – Sonsky entered service. This made it possible by 1933 to bring up to 927 thousand cubic meters of business timber, although as early as 1926 this figure was over 30 thousand cubic meters, in 1928 – 63 thousand cubic meters, and in 1930 – 280 thousand cubic meters. [4, pp. 103, 110].

As a result, the Khakass forest went to the most important construction sites not only of local importance, but also of the all-Union.

Together with the development of the timber industry in the mid-1920s – early 1940s, the woodworking industry emerged. Her firstborn was the Ust-Abakan timber mill. The plant had four buildings: sawmill, consumer goods, waste disposal and standard houses. The enterprise was equipped with modern equipment. According to V.K. Shulbaev, "23 machines were installed in the woodworking shop, the first products were chairs" [1, p. 16]. The plant has also mastered the production of standard houses. In the first years, about 400 units were manufactured, of which 63 houses were allocated to Kuzbass [4, p. 110]. In addition to the Ust-Abakan plant, several shpalozavod were created. In 1933, a furniture factory was launched in Abakan.

In the late 1920s - early 1930s, the food and beverage industry became an independent industry on the scale of the country and Khakassia. The largest enterprise in this industry was the Abakan meat processing plant with a capacity of 300 thousand cattle per year. It was built in 1932. In the year of its foundation, the company produced gross output in the amount of 124,900 rubles, and in 1933 – 815,000 rubles. In just a year, gross output increased 6.5 times, and labor productivity increased 1.9 times [20].

During the study period, the coal industry continued to develop. New mines were being built. In 1930, a new mine No. 7 bis was laid, in 1931, the previously mothballed mine No.3. Coal mining was constantly increasing. If in 1928 120061 tons of coal were extracted, then in 1938 – 643600 tons, i.e. coal production increased 5.4 times in 10 years. The percentage of mechanization of coal mining was growing. If in 1930 it was 15.6%, then in 1938 the level of mechanization was 100%. The energy capacity of coal mines increased from 2200 kW/h in 1933 to 5762 kW/h in 1937 [21].

Since the late 1920s, one of the oldest industries in Khakassia, gold mining, has been rapidly developing. The state invested huge amounts of money in geological exploration, the creation of large gold mining enterprises together with all the services they needed. Project organizations determined the main directions of enterprise development and prepared the necessary documents. Thus, in the "Title Lists for the capital construction of the Abakan, Saralinsky and Kommunarovsky mining administrations for 1932", an impressive list of construction projects is given. First of all, it is the construction of industrial buildings and structures. At the same time, it was planned to carry out geological exploration and mining preparatory works, installation of equipment, creation of transport, heating and storage facilities, construction of housing, public utilities and socio-cultural facilities [22]. During the period from 1930 to 1935, 25 million rubles were invested in the entire gold mining of the region [23]. This made it possible in 1935 to fulfill the plan for the development of the industry by 117.8% [4, p. 152].

During the study period, the electric power industry in Khakassia was actively developing. As of 1933, there were 12 power plants operating in the region. The most powerful were the Montenegrin Central Power Plant (840 kW.) and the Central Power Plant of the Saralinsky main mine Management (900 kW.). It is worth noting that since 1925 at least one station has been put into operation every year [24].

As a result, electricity production increased. So, in the gold industry by 1937, it increased 4.6 times, although in 1932 it was only 982 kWh. In the coal industry, electricity production increased from 2,200 kW/h in 1933 to 5,762 kW/h in 1937 [4, pp. 150-151].

ConclusionThus, the dynamics of development and structural changes in the industry of Khakassia were contradictory.

To a greater extent, there were positive trends: the emergence of new types of production, the combination of high quantitative indicators of development with the progressive development of qualitative ones. The technical equipment of industrial enterprises in the region has significantly increased. But on the other hand, there were some negative aspects: imbalances in the sectoral structure of the industry (the predominance of extractive industries), lagging growth rates of qualitative indicators compared to quantitative ones, the technical backwardness of a number of industries was not overcome.

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The main directions of industrial development in Khakassia in the mid-1920s – early 1940s. // Genesis: historical research In the era of significant changes in the socio-economic development of the country, special attention is paid to the economic history of the turning point period of the 1920s-1930s. Clarifying the prerequisites, conditions and dynamics of the development of the economy of peripheral areas is all the more important. In this regard, the reviewed article will be of interest to different readers, primarily from a specific region, and readers of other administrative parts of the country will be attracted by data allowing for comparative studies. The introduction substantiates the importance of the chosen topic. But it is desirable in this section to reflect the specific historiography of the problem and show how and what innovations in the assessment of the region's industry were reflected in the literature of different historical eras. From methodological premises, the author emphasizes his main thesis that regional economic development was "initiated from above", that is, the development of industry was based on the relevant resolutions of the party and Soviet authorities at various levels. The main content of the article is focused on the content of two interesting tables "The sectoral structure of the industry of Khakassia in the 1930s" and "The territorial structure of the industry of Khakassia in the 1930s." The tables show a new approach to the economic history of Khakassia. The share of industrial products in the economy of Khakassia increased to 49.6% by 1938, which was one of the signs of the establishment of an economic structure characteristic of an industrial and agrarian society in this territory. The growth of industrial production in Khakassia was largely due to the commissioning of new facilities. This growth was achieved by increasing the concentration of industrial production through the centralization of small and medium-sized enterprises. The author concludes that both in the country and in Khakassia, the average annual growth of industrial production was ensured primarily by increasing labor productivity. At the same time, electrification was the most important indicator of the development of the region's industry. When analyzing tables, it would be desirable to pay more attention to the analysis of the processes reflected in the tables, for example, explaining the reasons for the process. Such a text also facilitates the compilation, and most importantly, the perception of new conclusions. A table on the territorial structure of the industry will be more advantageous if you accompany it with a map. The bibliographic list reflects knowledge of both Soviet and modern literature. The publications of the 1930s, which can be attributed to both literature and sources, are involved. Archival documents are widely used, and not only in the form of quotations. The strong point is statistical calculations based on archival data, which allows the author to make his own observations and conclusions. Despite the noted wishes, the article can be published.
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