Статья 'Проблемы становления промышленного потенциала Приднестровья в составе МССР (1940 – 1941)' - журнал 'Genesis: исторические исследования' - NotaBene.ru
по
Journal Menu
> Issues > Rubrics > About journal > Authors > About the Journal > Requirements for publication > Editorial collegium > The editors and editorial board > Peer-review process > Policy of publication. Aims & Scope. > Article retraction > Ethics > Online First Pre-Publication > Copyright & Licensing Policy > Digital archiving policy > Open Access Policy > Article Processing Charge > Article Identification Policy > Plagiarism check policy
Journals in science databases
About the Journal

MAIN PAGE > Back to contents
Genesis: Historical research
Reference:

Problems of the Formation of the Industrial Potential of Pridnestrovie as Part of Molodavia (1940 – 1941)

Kulbidiuk Ruslan Viktorovich

Postgraduate Student of the Department of History of neighboring countries, Faculty of History, Lomonosov Moscow State University

125047, Russia, Moscow, 2nd brestskaya str., 30, office 1

kulbidiuk@mail.ru
Other publications by this author
 

 

DOI:

10.25136/2409-868X.2023.1.38863

EDN:

CNOVVO

Received:

30-09-2022


Published:

31-01-2023


Abstract: The author discusses the first steps of the Soviet government to restore and create the industrial complex of Moldovia after the liberation of the right-bank regions of Moldavia – Bessarabia - from the power of Royal Romania in the period from June 28, 1940 to June 1941. The purpose of the study is to characterize and evaluate the actions of central and local authorities in the first months after reunification on the nationalization of fixed assets and collectivization of agriculture, restoration, launch and establishment of industrial enterprises in the territory of the MSSR, as well as to identify the main directions of industrial development in the region during this period, the features of the formation of industrial potential taking into account the ongoing nationalization, the analysis of attracted resources and their characteristics, comparison with the industry of Royal Romania. The author presents an analysis of the main activities of local authorities on nationalization, as well as identifies the main financial sources allocated for the development of industry. The initial economic and cultural level, from which the formation of a new way of life for the Moldovan people began, after the reunification of the population of Bessarabia with the population of Transnistria (MASSR), is analyzed. The conducted research allowed us to conclude that it was the help of the peoples of the USSR that allowed the population of the republic to eliminate inequality in economic, political, cultural and other areas of life in a historically short period of time. According to the results of the study, the fundamental role of Pridnestrovie (MASSR), on whose socio-political and economic basis the reunited Soviet Moldavia was formed, also became obvious. The diverse production base created earlier in Pridnestrovie (MASSR) from scratch, together with thousands of trained highly qualified workers, provided invaluable assistance in the state, economic and cultural revival of Bessarabia. The study used such methods of historical research as retrospective analysis, comparative analysis, as well as a systematic approach and the method of expert assessments.


Keywords:

Transnistria, industry, nationalization, Romania, left - bank Moldova, right - bank Moldova, Bessarabia, MSSR, MASSR, Soviet Moldavia

This article is automatically translated. You can find original text of the article here.

The workers and peasants of Bessarabia have been fighting for their liberation and reunification with the Soviet Motherland for 22 years under the leadership of underground communist organizations. The Khotyn uprising in January 1919, the Bendery uprising in May 1919, the Tatarbunar uprising in September 1924, and hundreds of other workers' and peasants' protests were actively supported by the Soviet people. The government of the USSR, which never recognized the seizure of Bessarabia, but true to its policy of peace, stubbornly sought a peaceful settlement of the Bessarabian question. It has repeatedly stated this, exposing the Romanian invaders and their patrons in the face of the United States, England, France and demanded that the issue of Bessarabia be resolved in accordance with the will of its people.

In June 1940, the stubborn struggle of the Soviet Union and the workers of Bessarabia for the liberation of the region from the Romanian occupiers and local exploiters ended in victory. On June 26, 1940, the Soviet Government sent a note to the Romanian Government stating: "Now that the military weakness of the USSR has receded into the realm of the past, and the current international situation requires the speedy resolution of unresolved issues inherited from the past in order to finally lay the foundations for lasting peace between the countries, the Soviet Union considers it necessary and It is timely, in the interests of restoring justice, to proceed together with Romania to immediately resolve the issue of the return of Bessarabia to the Soviet Union" [1, p. 261]. On June 28, 1940, the hopeless past of the region was ended forever. Soviet power was restored throughout the territory of Bessarabia. The Dniester ceased to divide the people into two parts, it became a Soviet river, and the state border of the USSR was moved to the Prut and the Danube.

The Soviet Army units were warmly and joyfully welcomed by the workers of Bessarabia.

In Chisinau, Balti, Izmail and other cities and villages of Bessarabia, soldiers and commanders of the Soviet Army were greeted with shouts of "Long live the Red Army". Residents of the city of Bendery shouted "Long live Soviet Bessarabia", "Long live Comrade Stalin" rushed to the bridge over the Dniester River, along which the first columns of Soviet troops were moving [2]. At a citywide rally dedicated to this event in Chisinau, worker Shevchenko, expressing gratitude to the Soviet government in the person of the first Secretary of the Central Committee of the CP (b) U. N.S. Khrushchev and People's Commissar of Defense of the USSR S.K. Timoshenko, said: "We will work tirelessly for the benefit of the socialist Motherland" [3, p.11].

The reunification of the population of Bessarabia with the population of the Moldavian ASSR was unanimously welcomed by the workers of the whole country. Thus, in the resolution of the 25-thousandth meeting of workers and engineering and technical workers of the Moscow Automobile Plant, it was said: "We ... met the message with great enthusiasm and joy… on the peaceful resolution of the conflict on the issue of Bessarabia… We will spare neither strength nor funds for further, even greater strengthening of the economic and military power of the world's first socialist state" [3, p.12]. The words of support to the Moldovan people were sent by thousands of teams of the Gorky Automobile Plant, the Dnepropetrovsk plant named after V.I. Lenin, the Ukrkabel plant and many other enterprises of the multinational country.  

Councils of Workers' Deputies were established in all localities. In total, 1,133 village councils, 54 district councils, 3 city (republican subordination) and 6 county executive committees of the Soviets of Workers' Deputies were formed in the liberated areas [4, p.19]. The restoration of Soviet power on the territory of Bessarabia radically changed not only the economic, political and cultural situation of the workers, but also the entire socio-economic appearance of the region.

However, at the beginning of August 1940, the autonomous republic was abolished. On July 10, 1940, the SNK of the USSR and the Central Committee of the CPSU (b) sent a proposal to the Supreme Soviet of the USSR to create the Moldavian SSR. On August 2, 1940, "The VII session of the Supreme Soviet of the USSR on August 2, 1940 passed a decision on the formation of the Union Moldavian Soviet Socialist Republic" [5, p.3] Bessarabia was reunited with Soviet Moldavia and became part of the Soviet Union.

The Law adopted by the session states: "Meeting the wishes of the workers of Bessarabia and the workers of the Moldavian ASSR on the reunification of the Moldavian population of Bessarabia with the Moldavian population of the Moldavian ASSR and guided by the Soviet principle of the free development of nationalities, the Supreme Soviet of the USSR decides: To form a Union Moldavian Soviet Socialist Republic" [4, p.27]. In accordance with it, six counties of Bessarabia and six districts of the MASSR formed a new Union Republic of the USSR, and eight districts of the MASSR were incorporated into the Odessa region of Ukraine [6]. The Moldavian SSR united about 2.7 million people of the population. The area of the republic is over 34 thousand square kilometers [4, p.27]. In terms of population density, the MSSR ranked first among the Union republics. The capital of the republic became the city of Chisinau. The text of the Law on the Formation of the Union Moldavian Soviet Socialist Republic was published in the 28th issue of the Vedomosti of the Supreme Soviet of the USSR [7].

It is important to note that, despite the generally positive perception by the population of both banks of the Dniester of the very fact of the liberation of the region from the Romanian occupiers, the accelerated annexation of Bessarabia to the MASSR (Transnistria) was primarily a managerial and political decision. Its implementation was contradictory from the point of view of the legislation in force in the MASSR, the Ukrainian SSR and the USSR. A referendum of the population of the autonomy was not held, as required by the constitutions of the Ukrainian SSR and MASSR. In addition, this resolution contradicted the USSR Constitution of 1936, according to which the territory of the Union republics cannot be changed without their consent (Article 18), and the form of government of a new member of the Union is clearly defined (Article 14, paragraph B), namely republican. Arbitrary creation by dismemberment and annexation was not provided for by the current legislation. Also, when creating the united national republic, the demographic composition of the population, territorial and historical features of the lands, and the economic state of the regions were not taken into account. In addition, the inclusion of the MSSR populated mainly by Slavs (mainly ethnic Ukrainians and Russians) Transnistria (MASSR) created prerequisites for ethnic problems in the future. After only 50 years, this political decision of the Soviet government, aimed primarily at demonstrating the effectiveness of the Soviet model of government to Western countries, led to a protracted conflict between the two banks of the Dniester.

Despite the political nature of the adopted Law, it is important to note that the economic potential of the new political entity was based on the sufficiently developed industry and agriculture of the MASSR (Pridnestrovie), recreated over the previous 16 years. So in paragraph 3 of the Law, it was said about the transfer "to the disposal of the Union Moldavian Soviet Socialist Republic of industrial enterprises located on the territory of Bessarabia and the Moldavian ASSR, with the exception of a small number of enterprises of all-Union importance" [7]. Taking into account the real state of the industrial sector of these regions, the dominant role of Pridnestrovian (MASSR) industrial giants (by the standards of that time) in the total volume of industry of the created region is obvious. It was the Transnistrian (MASSR) industry that became the basis of the future industrial sector of Socialist Moldova, without which the very fact of Moldova's existence as a national unit and an economic entity could not take place. 

An important exception was also the preservation of a part of the Pridnestrovian (MASSR) enterprises for the Union center, which at that stage of the development of the USSR economy, as well as on the eve of a possible war with the West, were of strategic importance in terms of the assortment and volume of products. This allowed both to develop these areas for the future production success of the Moldovan industry, and led to significant investment and personnel injections of the union center needed by the new entity.

The initial economic and cultural level, from which the formation of a new way of life of the Moldovan people in the liberated territories began, was extremely low. This was primarily due to the fact that for 22 years Bessarabia was actually a colony of Royal Romania, which, being an agrarian country that depended economically and politically on large imperialist states, sought to improve the situation by plundering the occupied territories [8, p.39]. The Romanian government, actively pursuing a colonial policy, actually suspended the "development" of the industry of the occupied region. Its industry was decaying, it was dominated by small artisanal enterprises based mainly on the use of manual labor. The industry of Bessarabia during the years of occupation not only did not make a step forward, but on the contrary, regressed. According to the certificate "On the results of the nationalization of industrial enterprises and municipal enterprises of Moldova" dated September 26, 1940 [9, p.82-85], many enterprises needed major and current repairs, some did not work due to the partial lack of necessary equipment, some were in disrepair and were completely unusable.

A characteristic feature of the industry of the liberated areas was the scanty amount of technological equipment and its poor quality. Only 7.8 percent of all enterprises used mechanical engines [10, p.24]. And these insignificant production capacities were not fully used. According to the Federation of Bessarabian Chambers of Commerce, in 1937, the production capacity in the milling industry was used by 30-34 percent, in the fat–and–oil industry – by less than 50, textile - by 20, metalworking by 5, leather by 4-5 percent [10, p.24]. Often, discriminatory non-market mechanisms were applied to Bessarabian enterprises, such as disproportionately inflating railway tariffs for the transportation of certain goods produced in Bessarabia, a ban on the sale of certain types of products, etc. They significantly hindered industrial growth and limited the export opportunities of local producers. For example, in 1939, the production of a traditional agricultural crop for the region – sunflower - accounted for 70 percent of the total gross harvest of Romania, and the capacities of oil mills and creameries were used only by 40 percent. The reason is the high railway tariffs for the transportation of vegetable oil [8, p.40].

Analyzing the export of cattle from Bessarabia to foreign markets, the press organ of the bourgeois National Tsarist party "Vyatsa Basarabia" in its issue of January 9, 1937 reported that "it was experiencing a deep crisis and was practically stopped in countries such as Egypt, Austria, Greece, etc. Minor exports were carried out only to Germany. In 1939, meat products were exported abroad only by the Kishinev factory of Kowalski" [8, p.40].

The owners of metalworking, textile, knitting and other industries, working on imported raw materials, demanded equal market conditions with the Romanian business of the metropolis, as they were forced to purchase the necessary resources at higher prices, which automatically made their goods less competitive. As a result, Bessarabia with its fertile lands and favorable climate was used by the occupation authorities only as a profitable source of cheap raw materials and practically free labor.

In addition, the already degraded industry of Bessarabia, the outgoing Romanian authorities and the military, as well as the landowners and capitalists who fled with them, grossly violated the most important points of the adopted agreement between the USSR and Romania on the preservation of valuables, caused significant material damage. "In total, material values totaling 2.5 billion lei were destroyed or taken to Romania" [11].

With the restoration of Soviet power in the right-bank regions of Moldova, socialist transformations began in all areas: politics, economy, culture. The authorities and management bodies established by the Romanian occupiers were liquidated. They were replaced by county and city executive committees consisting of advanced workers, working peasants and intellectuals of the liberated territories, as well as Komsomol members, communists and other active fighters for the power of the Soviets in the region. To help eliminate the age-old backwardness of the right-bank districts, the executive committees also included prominent party functionaries sent by the Moldavian Regional Committee of the Communist Party, as well as the fraternal republics of the USSR.

The elimination of the consequences of the Romanian occupation in right-bank Moldavia took place in conditions significantly different from the period of the beginning of socialist construction on the left bank of the Dniester, characterized by armed clashes and the absence of a strong centralized government. By 1940, the MASSR, thanks to the efforts of the fraternal peoples of the USSR, and above all the Ukrainian SSR, had turned into a wealthy industrial-collective farm republic. Machinery and equipment, food and medicines, qualified personnel, etc. were sent here from all regions of the country. It was the selfless help of the peoples of the Soviet Union that allowed the population of the autonomous republic to eliminate inequality in economic, political, cultural and other areas of life in a historically short period of time, and to take a prominent place among the republics of the USSR.

Having created a powerful production base and educated thousands of highly skilled workers, the MASSR (Pridnestrovie) had the necessary number of trained and experienced personnel who, sharing their experience with the workers of the liberated areas, provided invaluable assistance in the state, economic and cultural revival of Bessarabia. They set an example and led the population of the liberated regions of the republic. This greatly facilitated the restoration work and allowed, as soon as possible after the liberation of this part of Moldova from boyar Romania, without any armed clashes, not only to restore Soviet power, but also to begin the industrial "revolution". People began to treat work in a completely different way, they realized that in a socialist state, the free labor of free people is genuine creativity. From a heavy burden, he turned into an honorable cause.

Despite the fierce, at times aggressive and criminal opposition of the remaining bourgeois-landowner and pro-Romanian elements, expressed, among other things, in open terror against pro-Soviet activists, as well as subversive work in all spheres of life, the Soviet authorities had clear successes in the field of economic recovery in the region. The party set a goal for the speedy elimination of "the age-old backwardness of the region and raising it to the level of the advanced Soviet republics" [3, p.16]. Taking into account the active involvement in this process of a large army, "starved" for the work of workers and peasants from the right bank of the Dniester, a period of rapid recovery and development of the economy and culture began in the history of the Moldovan state. To achieve it, all the funds of the republic's budget allocated for the development of industry were sent to the regions of right-bank Moldova, and significant funds from the union budget were used for the same purposes. The main source of income in the republic's economy was on-farm savings. And first of all, they came from socialist enterprises of industry, transport, collective farms, MTS and others. The elimination of private ownership of tools and means of production and its transformation into a national treasure had a decisive impact on the nature, size and pace of accumulation in the Moldavian SSR [12, p.60].

Compared with 1940, the republic's budget for 1941 has more than doubled. It consisted of 467 million rubles in revenue, and 466 million rubles in expenses, including: 97 million rubles or 21 percent for the national economy, and 295 million rubles or 63.5 percent of the budget for social and cultural events. The total amount of capital investments in the national economy of the Moldavian SSR is 194 million rubles, of which 28.5 million rubles for the economy of republican subordination [4, p.37].  From the very first days after liberation, all production facilities began to function in the right-bank areas, including those that were inactive during the occupation.

Unemployment was practically eradicated, and the number of workers in the liberated areas increased significantly. About 80 thousand unemployed people, who have been living in poverty for many years, got a job and a secure income. In Chisinau alone, by the day of liberation, there were 13 thousand unemployed people who were employed during the first three months [4, p.20].

One of the first and important events of the Soviet government, in which the working class, the working peasantry, representatives of the progressive intelligentsia took an active part, was the struggle for the preservation of material values that were subject to transfer into the hands of the people [8, p.44]. Relying on the rich experience and assistance of the Union republics, including the workers of the left bank of Moldova, the Soviet authorities formed in the liberated territories carried out painstaking work on accounting and monitoring the safety of objects and property previously owned by landlords and capitalists of occupied Bessarabia. In order to normalize their work and prevent sabotage by anti-Soviet elements, including entrepreneurs and former owners, people's commissariats, administrations, committees, party, Komsomol, trade union and other organizations of workers of the region were created in the liberated areas.

Defining the tasks of industrial development of right-bank Moldova, the Communist Party proceeded from the presence of a powerful industrial base of the country, relying on which it was possible to develop primarily those branches of large industry for which, due to natural and geographical conditions, the availability of raw materials, sufficient labor resources, relevant traditions and skills of the population, the most favorable opportunities were available [13, p.142-143]. The inclusion of Bessarabia into the socialist economic system of the USSR opened up unlimited possibilities for the accelerated development of productive forces and made it possible to eliminate the disastrous consequences of the occupation for the national economy in the shortest possible time.

An important component of socialist construction and the creation of the foundation of the socialist economy was also the need for the rapid nationalization of the main means of production and the collectivization of agriculture. At the same time, the rapid development and active inclusion of the economy of new territories into the all-Union system required legislative support and legal registration. At the initial stage, legislative activity was built on the basis of Soviet laws and was mainly aimed at streamlining the material sector of the economy and creating a stable base for deep transformations in all spheres of society.

On August 15, 1940, the Presidium of the Supreme Soviet of the USSR adopted a decree "On the nationalization of Banks, industrial, commercial and other enterprises, railway and water transport, communications facilities of Bessarabia" [14]. By joint efforts and in a short time, this Decree was promptly implemented. Despite the fact that most of the nationalized enterprises lagged significantly in all technical and technological parameters from the level of industrial development of the MASSR (Pridnestrovie) and the USSR as a whole, they immediately entered the socialist system of the national economy of the country.

At the end of August 1940, the Central Committee of the CPSU (b) and the Council of People's Commissars of the USSR adopted a resolution "On measures for Bessarabia and Northern Bukovina". It provided for the restoration and construction of industrial enterprises in these areas, providing them with equipment, setting the volume of capital investments, allocating vehicles [8, p.47].

In early September 1940, the Council of People's Commissars of the MSSR adopted a resolution "On measures to implement the resolution of the Council of People's Commissars of the USSR and the Central Committee of the CPSU (b) for Bessarabia and Northern Bukovina" [15, p.83], which approved a production plan (for the main types of products) for the state industry of republican subordination for September-December 1940 a year in the amount of 3.1 million rubles and a capital investment plan for People's commissariats and departments in the amount of 5 million rubles [8, p.47]. And already on September 27, taking into account the territorial specifics and specialization of the region, in order to accelerate the recovery and development of the industrial sector of the republic, as well as to increase the range and volume of products in the interests of the socialist economy, the Soviet government additionally allocated another 1 million rubles for the restoration of food industry enterprises [8, p.47].

At first, the industry of the liberated areas was transferred to the People's Commissariats of the MASSR (Pridnestrovie), and since August 1940 – to the People's Commissariat of the Union Republic. Due to the availability of large resources for the wine and canning industry in the republic, the Moldavian Canning Trust was organized, which united the canning industry enterprises of the whole republic, and the Bessarabian Champagne Factory of union subordination. Then the Main Directorate of the Construction Materials Industry, the People's Commissariats of the Light and Forestry Industries were formed in the republic. Later, in order to further develop urban and district industry and increase the output of consumer goods, Industrial plants were organized in all cities of the republic by Decree No. 407 of November 5, 1940 [9, p.186]. Centralization and concentration of all the main industrial production in the socialist sector were of fundamental importance for the further economic and social development of the republic.

By joint efforts and under the leadership of the party organization, Moldovan workers carried out work on the restoration and technical re-equipment of previously inactive factories and plants in a short time. Among them: the Chisinau Tobacco Factory, the Balti Sugar Factory, a number of creameries and other food enterprises. Work has been carried out on the consolidation of small handicraft industries. Thus, the Chisinau knitting Factory was organized out of 4 small knitting industries, one factory was also organized out of 4 cotton enterprises, a leather goods factory was created out of three leather and haberdashery workshops, a shoe factory was created out of two shoe workshops with 50 workers, the shoe factory "June 28" was created, with two shifts of 300 workers [4, c.44]. In less than six months, 52 larger ones were created out of 119 small artisanal enterprises, with a significant increase in the number of workers involved by more than 2 times [16, p. 38]. 43 alcohol enterprises, 353 mills, 24 churns, about 300 bakeries and several dozen points of primary winemaking for processing grapes were restored [16, p.38]. As a result, the average number of workers per right bank enterprise in 1940 increased significantly and averaged 33 people. At the same time, in comparison with the left bank, where the average number was 117 people per enterprise, these figures indicate a significant backwardness of the industry of the previously occupied territories [4, p.44]. On October 5, 1940, the bureau of the Central Committee of the CP (b) of Moldova was held, which considered the issue "On the results of the nationalization of industrial and municipal enterprises of the Moldavian SSR" [9, p.113]. It was noted that "the work on the nationalization of these enterprises was carried out in accordance with the Decree of the Presidium of the Supreme Soviet of the USSR dated August 15, 1940, but most of them are in an extremely neglected state and require immediate overhaul" [16, p. 37]. As a result of its implementation, by the beginning of October 1940, according to various sources, from 260 [16, p. 37] (of which 79 were on conservation [9, p.113]) to 487 industrial enterprises [17, p.185] were nationalized, and by the beginning of 1941 more than 500 industrial enterprises were nationalized and municipal enterprises [8, p.44], which employed 3064 people [16, p. 38]. These were mainly food industry enterprises, such as mills, mills with churns, oil mills, breweries and soap factories, etc. ("On the nationalization of food and other enterprises of Bessarabia") [9, pp.86-89].

Such a short period of nationalization of the main part of the Bessarabian industry is primarily due to the peaceful nature of the solution of the Bessarabian issue, as well as the use of the previous experience of the Soviet, and above all the Pridnestrovian and Ukrainian working class in establishing control over enterprises of different orientation. The active participation of the broad masses of workers has become a fundamental factor in the success of the preservation and subsequent launch of the industry of the occupied territories.

In November 1940 The Supreme Council Moldavian Autonomous SSR in connection with the formation of At its extraordinary session, the Moldavian SSR created a Constitutional Commission to draft the Constitution of the Moldavian SSR and appointed elections to the Supreme Council of the newly formed Union Republic [18].

On February 10, 1941, the main version of the Constitution was adopted by the Supreme Council of the MSSR. Based on the principles and provisions The Constitution of the USSR of 1936, the Constitution of the USSR of 1937, as well as the Constitutions of the MASSR of 1925 and 1938, it consisted of 11 chapters and 125 articles and basically did not differ from the constitutions of the other Soviet republics, but took into account the peculiarities and realities prevailing in the occupied part of Moldova. As a result, state ownership of nationalized factories and plants, tools and means of production, land, mineral resources, water, forests, etc., that is, national property, was secured at the state level, which gave an additional impetus to the active development of the industrial sector. All workers were guaranteed the right to work, rest, education and material security [19, p.69]. A distinctive feature of this Constitution was the preservation of the right of private ownership of residential buildings and agricultural implements (in April 1952, at the Second Session of the Supreme Soviet of the Moldavian SSR of the third convocation, it was abolished). As a result, along with socialist enterprises, the capitalist sector continued to exist in the economy of the right-bank regions of Moldova, represented by small artisanal enterprises that occupied an insignificant share in industrial production. Their activities were limited to the tax policy and other measures of the Soviet state.

The nationalization of the means of production made it possible to liquidate private ownership of land. In order to limit the kulaks, a law was adopted on the marginal land use norms for one peasant yard, which allowed the elimination of landlessness and landlessness among working peasants. They received free land and hundreds of thousands of pieces of agricultural equipment. More than 250 thousand hectares of landowner, monastery and Kulak land, about 20 thousand heads of cattle, as well as 8 million rubles of credit [12, p. 78]. In the liberated areas, marginal land use norms were established for one peasant yard: for the Kagul and Bendery counties – 20 hectares per yard, for the rest of the counties – 10 hectares. The maximum rate of orchards and vineyards per peasant yard is set at no more than two hectares [4, p.21]. With the help of the peoples of the fraternal republics, and above all the Ukrainian SSR, MTS began to be created on the liberated territory, the collective farm movement began.

Soviet laws on labor and wages, social insurance, etc. were distributed in the liberated areas. The Soviet government cancelled the huge debt of the peasantry to usurers, banks, landlords and the state, amounting to billions of lei. By the resolution of the USSR Council of People's Commissars of August 15, 1940, Soviet tax legislation was extended to the territory of Bessarabia with the application of all benefits provided by law. In this regard, the tax policy in rural areas has changed: 130 thousand poor households (31% of the total number of farms) they were completely exempt from paying agricultural taxes [4, p.22]. This made it possible, already in the first year of the existence of the united Moldavia, thanks primarily to the assistance of the Soviet state, to successfully cope with the priority work on the restoration and socialist restructuring of industry, crop care, harvesting and threshing.  In a short time, the plan for the delivery of bread to the state was completed and the autumn sowing plan was exceeded [20].

The interim results of the work carried out in the first months were noted at the first Congress of the Communist Party of Moldova in February 1941. As of February 1, 1941, there were 498 enterprises in the republic. Of these, 47 enterprises of the food industry of the Union subordination (Narcomp of the USSR food Industry), 245 enterprises of the food industry – republican subordination, subordinated to the People's Commissariat of the MSSR – 90, the People's Commissariat of the MSSR – 5, Glavvino (wine points for processing grapes) – 39, Moldvintrest – 47, Moldvintrest (alcohol-processing points) – 25 [16, p.41]

The largest enterprises of the young republic were mainly enterprises of the left bank, such as: Tiraspol Cannery. Tkachenko, numbering 887 workers, the Mikoyan Clay Plant – 494, the Rybnitsa Sugar Plant – 409, the Rybnitsa lime Plant – 305 and Sakhkamen - 295. Of the enterprises on the right bank of the Dniester, it should be noted that the Balti Sugar Factory with 465 workers has been restored and put into operation, the Balti Engine–building Plant - 235, the Chisinau Shoe Factory "named after June 28" – 317 and the Chisinau meat Processing Plant - 200 workers [16, p. 42].

The main share in the output of gross output was occupied by the food industry, which accounted for 91.9 percent of the total gross output of industrial enterprises of the republic [16, p. 42]. Already in 1940, this industry gave the country 65 million conventional cans of canned food, which is about 7 percent of all canned products of the USSR [4, p.43].

Later, at the second session of the Supreme Soviet of the Moldavian SSR, held in April 1941, the results of the year's journey were summed up. In less than 1 year, the republic has made a significant breakthrough in socialist construction. The delegates of the congress noted: "Less than a year has passed since the liberation of Bessarabia and the formation of our republic, and how unrecognizable our region has become… Where hunger, poverty and disenfranchisement raged, where enterprises were destroyed, unemployment grew and cities were devastated, creative creative work is now underway to build socialism" [16, p.45].

In a short time, a lot of creative work has been done in Bessarabia to raise the entire national economy, and, in particular, industry. The volume of production increased by 22 percent [10, p.25]. Many factories that were inactive during the occupation were reconstructed and put into operation. The process of restoring enterprises was accompanied by their consolidation, which made it possible to significantly increase production capacity. Thus, out of 119 small enterprises of local industry with the number of 874 employees, 53 enterprises with the number of workers (in 1941) 4,366 people were created. In total, there were 389 industrial, 79 municipal enterprises and 238 artels in Moldova at the end of 1940. Industrial enterprises and artels in 1940 produced gross output in the amount of 173,996 rubles [21, p.42]. As a result, already in the draft State Budget of the MSSR for 1941, adopted by the Supreme Council of the MSSR, the planned excess of income over expenses was 5,747 thousand rubles [22]. However, despite these facts, the level of industrial development of the right-bank areas lagged far behind the level of the left-bank part of the MSSR [4, p.44].

 

Thus, after the liberation of the right-bank regions of Moldova, under the leadership of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union, the workers of the left bank and Bessarabia jointly embarked on the path of socialist transformation. The presence of a powerful industrial base in the country, combined with the achievements of the MASSR (Pridnestrovie) in the development of the industrial sector of the region, as well as the unbreakable unity of the Soviet peoples at that time, allowed already in the first months after the liberation of the right-bank areas to receive huge assistance for their revival and further economic development.

Relying primarily on the industrial potential of the region, including the Ukrainian SSR, the Soviet authorities, in contrast to Royal Romania, were able to create a kind of "showcase" of socialism in a short time – Soviet Moldova. The commissioning of many previously inactive industries, the consolidation and creation of new enterprises, an increase in the total volume of gross output, as well as an increase in the number of the working class, improving the conditions and quality of life of the region's workers – these are the first successes in the development of industry in the right-bank areas after liberation. This made it possible to achieve significant success in the development of industry in the right-bank regions of the republic, which eventually became the basis for further industrialization of the region.

At the same time, it is also important to note that, despite the political basis of the decision to create Soviet Moldova, by combining two completely different administrative units, ignoring their historical, geographical, economic and social realities, the emergence of a new national republic significantly enriched the industrial sector of the left bank, which eventually allowed Pridnestrovie, 80 years later, to maintain a relative independence and continue your historical path.

 

References
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.
11.
12.
13.
14.
15.
16.
17.
18.
19.
20.
21.
22.

Peer Review

Peer reviewers' evaluations remain confidential and are not disclosed to the public. Only external reviews, authorized for publication by the article's author(s), are made public. Typically, these final reviews are conducted after the manuscript's revision. Adhering to our double-blind review policy, the reviewer's identity is kept confidential.
The list of publisher reviewers can be found here.

The era of Perestroika led to drastic changes in the life of Soviet society: as one foreign observer wrote, during this period in our country, "everything began to move." Economic difficulties against the background of the crisis of the official communist ideology that prevailed for seventy years led to a deep spiritual deformation of society. The growth of interethnic tensions (Transnistria, Nagorno-Karabakh, South Ossetia, Abkhazia) showed the fragility of the ideological formulation of the "Soviet people" community. The echo of Perestroika is still evident today in a number of nodal problems on 1/6 of the land, which makes it important to study the historical aspects of these issues. These circumstances determine the relevance of the article submitted for review, the subject of which is the dusty potential of the Moldavian SSR in the pre-war period. The author aims to show the circumstances of the annexation of Bessarabia to the Soviet Union and the creation of a new union republic from Bessarabia and the Moldavian ASSR, to determine the industrial potential of Bessarabia as part of royal Romania, as well as to analyze the development of industry in Moldova in the pre-war years. The work is based on the principles of analysis and synthesis, reliability, objectivity, the methodological basis of the research is a systematic approach, which is based on the consideration of the object as an integral complex of interrelated elements. The scientific novelty of the article lies in the very formulation of the topic: the author seeks to characterize the industrial potential of Moldova in the difficult period from the annexation of Bessarabia to the beginning of the Great Patriotic War. Considering the bibliographic list of the article, its scale and versatility should be noted as a positive point: in total, the list of references includes over 20 different sources and studies. From the sources attracted by the author, we note the published documents and normative legal acts, including the Constitution of the Moldavian SSR. From the studies used, we will point to the works of V.I. Tsaranov and L.E. Repida, whose focus is on various aspects of the development of Moldova in 1939-1941. Note that the bibliography is important both from a scientific and educational point of view: after reading the text of the article, readers can turn to other materials on its topic. In general, in our opinion, the integrated use of various sources and research contributed to the solution of the tasks facing the author. The style of writing the article can be attributed to a scientific one, at the same time understandable not only to specialists, but also to a wide readership, to anyone interested in both the history of Moldova in general and the development of its industry in particular. The appeal to the opponents is presented at the level of the collected information received by the author during the work on the topic of the article. The structure of the work is characterized by a certain logic and consistency, it can be distinguished by an introduction, the main part, and conclusion. At the beginning, the author defines the relevance of the topic, shows that "despite the generally positive perception by the population of both banks of the Dniester of the very fact of the liberation of the region from the Romanian occupiers, the accelerated annexation of Bessarabia to the MASSR (Transnistria) was primarily a managerial and political decision." In addition to legal conflicts, the author draws attention to the fact that "the inclusion of the MSSR populated mainly by Slavs (mainly ethnic Ukrainians and Russians) Transnistria (MASSR) created prerequisites for ethnic problems in the future." Using various examples, the work shows that "the Pridnestrovian (MASSR) industry became the basis of the future industrial sector of Socialist Moldova, without which the very fact of Moldova's existence as a national unit and an economic entity could not take place." The main conclusion of the article is that "the emergence of a new national republic significantly enriched the industrial sector of the left bank, which eventually allowed Transnistria, 80 years later, to maintain relative independence and continue its historical path." The article submitted for review is devoted to an urgent topic, will arouse readers' interest, and its materials can be used both in a course of lectures on the history of Russia and in various special courses, There are separate comments to the article: for example, the use of Wikipedia documents as a source of publication seems doubtful. However, in general, in our opinion, the article can be recommended for publication in the journal Genesis: Historical Research.
Link to this article

You can simply select and copy link from below text field.


Other our sites:
Official Website of NOTA BENE / Aurora Group s.r.o.