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MAIN PAGE > Journal "Philosophical Thought" > Rubric "Philosophical anthropology"
Philosophical anthropology
Goncharuk E.A. - Why Is the Suffering Such a Topical Issue? pp. 1-14


Abstract: The author tries to show why in our era of globalization and a celebration of information society suffering continues to paint life of many people that does this problem actual for the philosophical analysis. The author connects the reason of so intensive interest to this subject with transformation of a philosophical and anthropological paradigm. The classical philosophical anthropology considered the person as the mortal creation urged by all experience of the life to overcome vital tests. Therefore the suffering was treated as the inevitable satellite of human life and as a peculiar expression of a human nature. However in the conditions of consumer society the anthropological subject found other meanings. In public consciousness the belief became stronger that the suffering is simply negative experience and he need to avoid, achieve that life answered ideals of hedonistic ethics. The analysis method in article is subordinated to the historical principle. The author seeks to show that the subject of suffering was a judgment subject during various eras and contained different meanings. Besides, the author relies on methodology of philosophical anthropology. The subject of suffering is, as a rule, treated according to a philosophical and anthropological paradigm. Novelty of article consists in attempt to show basic distinction in treatment of suffering in classical and modern philosophy. Modern concepts of a deantpropologization and debiologization of the person are subjected to the critical analysis. Supporters of transhumanity without critical analysis advertize ideas of human immortality, release from all sufferings and a hedonism celebration.
Rakhimova M.V. - Second code and biology of destiny: what does epigenetics say about the textual nature of a human? pp. 1-11


Abstract: This article discusses the problem of human textuality as an interdisciplinary philosophical problem. Within the framework of the claimed problem, human is textual on biological, as well as social levels of matter patterning. The author leans on the analogy between genome and book, language, scenario, library, text that is often use by Western genetic scientists to explain the biochemical processes taking place at the genetic level. Attention is given to the second (epigenetic) code that is responsible for independence and individuality of the cells, their cellular “memory” (epigenetic program, epigenetic switches). The article also considers the problem of human biological destiny controlled by the second epigenetic code. The author underlines the dependence of the second code from external factors that can affect a human (epigenetic landscape). The scientific novelty is defined by examination of the textual nature of a human as holistic nature, which include genetic, epigenetic, social, and cultural levels. It is assumed that Human is a text that is infinitely written by the Nature, as well as Human himself at all levels of matter patterning.
Belyaev V.A. - Criticism of religious mind of J. Habermas as part of criticism of cultural mind. pp. 20-64


Abstract: This article presents critical analysis of the article by J. Habermas "Religious tolerance  - the pacemaker for cultural rights". On one hand the author analyzes the strategy of cultural tolerance, which according to J. Habermas starts with the religious toleration mindset and it is finally reflected in the logic of the modern constitutional democratic society. On the other hand, the author continues his discussion with J. Habermas by speaking of the theory of interculture as a social and cultural strategy for the formation of the new European world.  Finally, the discussion concerns the logic of formation of the new European social and cultural area in the perspective of a widely perceived tolerance program, which in turn is widened to the extent of the logic of formation of interculturalism.  The author regards the position of J. Habermas as continuation of Kant's criticism of the rational mind, and considers it possible to add to his range of ethical terms the system of terms and connections, which allows for uniting the widely interpreted tolerance strategy with the elements of the European culture, which are expressed by the terms "naturalism" and "rationalism".  With such a widened understanding of the tolerance program the new European naturalism and rationalism are connected by the inner logic with the strategy of peaceful co-existence of variety of cultural worlds. They turn out to be the consequence of the direction towards the tolerant formation of the common world to live in.  In this sense, regarding the new European world as an embodiment of the "criticism of cultural mind" the author regards the position of J. Habermas as part of this criticism.
Vorokhobov A.V. - Philosophical and anthropological analysis of the structure of human personality in the works of Reinhold Niebuhr pp. 37-50


Abstract: The subject of this research is the problem of understanding of the nature of human personality in the philosophical and religious heritage of Reinhold Niebuhr. The object of this research is the philosophical-religious works of R. Niebuhr in his anthropological dimension. The author contextualizes Niebuhr’s comprehension of human based on the intellectual situation of the early XX century and its challenges that to a certain extent led to devaluation of human. Special attention is given to the logics of structuralizing the representations on human as a unique integral being from the perspective of the multiple components that comprise this unity. For achieving the set foal is used the method of analytical reconstruction. Comprehensive approach in analyzing the anthropological categories of R. Niebuhr becomes the basic instrument in contemplation of Niebuhr’s concepts of personality as such. The scientific novelty of this article is substantiated by suggesting of the concept that generalizes Reinhold Niebuhr’s understanding of human at the level of his ontological structure. The anthropological problematic represents the center of the thinker’s works. Starting point of perception of the nature of personality for R. Niebuhr lies in the opposition to materialistic and idealistic concepts. All that belongs to the body is related to nature, which is characterized by vitality. The nature identifies personality. For controlling the natural vitality, a person uses the mind, which is a conceptual force that generates consciousness. This connection is viewed as dialectical, rather than dualistic within the framework of a monistic understanding of human. Spirit is the integrative function of personality. Namely the sphere of spirit is correlated with the human ability to self-transcending. The common human feature, associated with the ability to self-transcending, is his freedom that helps to supersede the sphere of the natural. Human consciousness is not only the transcendence of natural processes, but also of oneself, which stimulates the endless changes and development of the abilities that characterize human existence. The human essence is in neither his natural vitality, his ability to reasoning, nor ability to self-transcending, being just the constituent parts. The essence consists in the relations arising between these parts. Personality is incogitable without its socio-historical surrounding, which suggests the paradoxicality of its existence. Human freedom is the basis for his memory, through which he incorporates himself with the society, and sublimates himself above the determinism of natural processes and becomes the source of interpretation of the world, history and society. Relations between the personality, history and society, according to Niebuhr’s system, are interpreted using the concepts of "organism", "artefact" and "drama". Personality in the works of R. Niebuhr is a unique inseparable combination of the matter, animal component and spirit, conditioned by the natural and socio-historical context.
Spektor D.M. - Reversibility: drastic reassessment of radicalism of the symbolic exchange pp. 42-56


Abstract: The subject of this research is the symbolic exchange and its correlation with the death (in Jean Baudrillard’s rendition). The article demonstrated that the fundamental thoughts of Baudrillard, contained in critical refutation of the dominant positivism of accumulation through opposition to the metaphysically interpreted “death”, and apologies of “reversibility” of the fundamental vital processes, are deep and rightful in its way. In addition to that, Baudrillard is confused in his radicalism, nearly always disproving himself. The article attempts to separate the wheat from the chaff, i.e. contradistinguish Baudrillard’s criticism of nihilism from the resulting from it consequences. The method of this works is associated with the analysis and theoretical reconstruction of the notion of “reversibility” compared to the category of “reversion”. The abstractness of formal structures is being gradually counterpoised with the dialectics of attainment of the form (life) through destruction-rebirth (death). The scientific novelty consist in formulation of the category of “reversibility” in the areas of communication (language), transgressive transformation-dedication, and temporal cycle. The “reversibility” (authentic) is being put in contrast with the “rotation” (temptation) that is primarily views in modifications of transformation, which are close to reversibility and simultaneously inheriting the magical substitution, as well as seduction, perversion, and other remarks of the fall.
Shazhinbatyn A. - Ethnos and Human Nature pp. 47-75


Abstract: The article is devoted to critical analysis of the anthropological concept of sociobiology. Sociobiological intepretation of human is directly connected with interpretation of a phenomenon of ethnos. A well-known sociobiologist Pierre Vandenberg came to a conclusion  that weakness of theoretical equipment in studying of ethnos is caused by insufficient attention to a sotsiobiologiya. In his opinion, genes work selectively and as a result of their combination culture phenomena are born. In article it is shown that participate in historical destiny of ethnos not only genes, but also cultural factors which aren't a direct reflex of the gene nature. The ethnos considerably appears cultural construct. In article the methodology of philosophical anthropology is used. Critical analysis of a sotsiobiologiya which rejects basic distinction of animals and people is given. The philosophical anthropology opens huge value of social life in formation of ethnos. The author of article pays attention to new meanings which were found as a result of globalization. Former representation of many modern philosophers consists that ethnoses are hostages of traditions, so-called the primordial stereotypes that doesn't allow them to join in the general process of deleting of antiquity. However the problem was more difficult. In many cases ethnoses aren't hostages of the traditions at all. They look for new parameters of the identity which would allow them to combine own identification kernel with a new vital context. In article identification is considered as sharp, difficult saturable need of the person.
Khlebnikova O. - Gender discourse of the Good in the context of modern nonclassical philosophy pp. 49-59


Abstract: This article is dedicated to examination of the separate principles of philosophical problematization of the classical topic of Good by the modern gender discourse. Particular attention is turned to interaction between the basic theses of gender discourse and the global presumptions of nonclassical philosophy. The article reviews the vectors of the relevant gender deconstruction of the concept of Good, grasped as a relative scale of all future ontological certainties. The author reveals critical potential of the category of “gender” in correlation to reflection with regards to indifference of “Self, otherness of the female if compared to male, pursuance of the new forms of sociocultural representation of a human. The foundation of the conducted analysis is the postmodernist paradigm with its core idea of the need for drastic deconstruction of the signature cultural meanings. The scientific novelty of the author’s approach consists in demonstration of the essence of gender discourse as a version of nonclassical conceptualization of the continuity of life occurrences. The author’s special contribution lies in studying the establishment of gender representations on insignificance of the Good as an existential model, producing reevaluation of the perception of Good as a measure of sufficiency and God as a repressive instance. The article describes the interaction of gender discourse with the modern socio-critical and psychoanalytical theories of the pathological essence of rationality. The author reveals the logics of perception on the possibility of true deliverance of a human through his gender-based corporeality. The conclusion is made on the ambiguous character of the impact of gender discourse upon the stereotypes of socially important sensemaking.
Boyko M. - Simulation of pain and the typology of virtual realities pp. 54-61


Abstract: This article analyzes the problems of philosophical nature associated with simulation of pain in electronic virtual reality (EVR). Unlike other sensations, pain is characterized by certain threshold value, which results in neurogenic shock with possible fatal outcome (for example acute cardiac insufficiency). The author reviews the possibility of neurogenic shock in EVR and the caused by it death of an individual in generating reality. It is demonstrated that the solution of problem depends on the method of simulation of pain used in generating of the electronic virtual reality. A comparative analysis of the possible ways of simulating pain is conducted. Film art dedicated to the problem of virtual reality serves as a spectacular example. The author suggest the typology of EVR depending on the method of simulation of pain; the three main types are determined: 1) with equivalent simulation; 2) with modified simulation; 3) with transgressive simulation. Mathematical algorithm of modified simulation of pain in electronic virtual reality with the “virtual invulnerability” and “virtual immortality” is proposed.
Novikova . - Game as a phenomenon of gender identification pp. 56-63


Abstract: The subject of this research is game as a phenomenon of gender identification. In modern culture we can observe the transformation of gender models, their axiological parameters, and existential manifestations, One of the socio-cultural constructs of the formation of gender identity is the game, in which such existential manifestations of personal being, as love, freedom, spirituality, personal relationship with the world, yourself and others, are realizes with consideration of male and female principle. Despite multiple scientific works dedicated to this topic, its relevance is not subsiding, but reinterpreted with consideration of sociocultural, moral and mental, economic transformations and other basis of being. Synergetic approach, phenomenology of E. Husserl alongside the J. Huizinga’a theory of play allow determining the functional meaning of cultural transformation and self-organization of gender game for a human in everyday culture. The scientific novelty consists in attracting scholars’ attention to a particular type of game practices – a gender game and its transformation in the conditions of current information society. A modern gender game forms in the virtual and real world such human behavioral strategies that endow them with a sense of freedom, possibility to avoid the norms and rules in achieving his dreams and aspirations, as well as confirm their importance and harmonize their reality. Gender game in the virtual world plays outs the situations of priority choice, which expands the boundaries of personal and gender identification.
Belyaev V.A. - Constructing Critical Philosophy of Immanuel Kant as the 'Philosophical Reformation' and 'Critics of Cultural Mind' pp. 60-99


Abstract: What is "philosophical reformation"? And what such "criticism of cultural reason"? "Philosophical reformation" I will call that integrated action which Kant makes the critical philosophy. "Criticism of cultural reason" I will call that integrated action which is made by the new European culture, a modernist style. I will consider a modernist style as the sociocultural project. I will call this project "criticism of cultural reason". (I will hold "Criticism of cultural reason" as already ready conceptual design which essence was developed by me in a number of monographs.) The content of the concepts "philosophical reformation" and "criticism of cultural reason" will reveal on the course of conversation on critical philosophy of Kant. I will conditionally divide its philosophy into criticism theoretical and to critic of practical reason. I will begin with the analysis of criticism of practical reason, assuming that it has to play the central role for all Kant criticism. Through this analysis I will leave to opportunity to express Kant criticism in general through "criticism of cultural reason", I will show restrictions which arise here. Then I will show how the Kant criticism is expressed through "philosophical reformation". I will consider "Philosophical reformation" as option of the Christian Reformation. I will finish with demonstration of that Kant "philosophical reformation", being paradigmalny expression of strategy of Education, is at the same time and one of limit options of a set of "reformations" of which the modernist style consists. I will show that, on the other hand, Kant "reformation" and other "reformations" of a modernist style, are special cases of "criticism of cultural reason" which begins with the answer to an era of religious wars after the Reformation and is way of creation of peaceful co-existence of subjects cultures in isn't removable the pluralistic world.
Rusakov S.S. - Ideas of F. Nietzsche in the context of the concept of subjectivation pp. 65-72


Abstract: The subject of this research is the link between the concept of human in the works of F. Nietzsche and the concept of subjectivation proposed by M. Foucault. The author meticulously describes the problem of seeking the element of the concept of subjectivation in writings of the German philosopher, and demonstrates why F. Nietzsche should be referred to as one of the main critics and reformers of classical concept of a subject. Special attention is paid to correlation of the early and late works of the German critic, which intertextuality leads to understanding of the wholeness of Nietzsche’s doctrine and consistency of his views upon the problem of a human. It is underlined that some of his works feature the practices of self, similar to the classical and Christian culture of self-nurturing. The article applies critical, comparative and intertextual method of analysis of the works of F. Nietzsche and some of his interpreters. The main conclusion lies in establishment of the link between the criticism of Platonism, Christianity and gnoseology of Modern Age through determination of strict sense of human as a subject and his connection with the world reflected in the works of Friedrich Nietzsche. Despite his disagreement with multiple classical and Christian philosophers, he acknowledges some ethical and individual practices proposed by them within the framework of the concept of subjectivation.
Merzlyakov S.S. - The limits of imagination: to the question of creative maximum pp. 68-81


Abstract:  This article examines the process of creation of metaphysical system in the context of influence of the ideal object upon human behavior. Attention is focused on the fact that the key element of the establishment of speculative system is the modeling function of consciousness, or in other words – imagination. The author studies the mechanism if intense work of imagination, causes and effects of its functionality, as well as possible correlation of the response to imaginary object with the “hard problem of consciousness” and the problem of influence of the subjective emotional experiences upon human behavior. Using the example of establishment of speculative system, the article demonstrates the mechanism of intense work of the modeling function of consciousness. The texts of Nietzsche and Hume underline that metaphysics is a result of the intense work of the modeling function in the conditions of insolvable contradictions. It is concluded that the mechanism of intense work of imagination is launched without the evident biologically justified reasons and leads to negative for the body consequences. Mowing towards the direction that assigns the study of this mechanism allows discovering the important elements of a puzzle, which is the nature of subjective experience, as well as find the possible solutions of the “hard problem of consciousness”.  
Aleinik R.M. - Man of the era of information revolution pp. 86-96


Abstract: The XXI century is called the era of the fifth information revolution at the stage of emergence of means and methods of information processing, which caused drastic transformations in social life. The object of this research is the man of information era. Currently takes place the intense accumulation of the various empirical data on the new human within the framework of social anthropology that views society and human from the perspective of evolution of the forms of communication; neuroscience that considers Internet as the main stimulant of brain activity; and pedagogy that waits for a new, well-prepared student. Such interdisciplinary area as the theory of generation views human from the axiological standpoint. The mass media sate of society continues to expand, transforming science, philosophy, politics, and art. These changes force to change the traditional perception of the world, thinking pattern and value orientations. The author attempts to generalize the information about the clash of generations between “digital from birth” and “digital migrants”, and the ways for its solution under the circumstances when the information revolution is not yet completed.
Goncharuk E.A. - What Does the Internal Similiarity Between Sadism and Masochism Tell us About? pp. 91-108


Abstract: The suffering subject in a postmodernism received the versatile characteristic. Differently to an occasion and Zh. Bataille, Zh. Bodriyyar, Zh. Delyoz, S. Zhizhek, Zh.-F. Liotar handled the different purposes to this problem. Philosophers sought to find sources of suffering, the reason of an inclusiveness of this feeling, to reveal social measurement of this experience, to compare masochism to a sadism. In article it is shown that the subject of a sadism received broad interpretation in connection with studying of a phenomenon of the power. Thinkers tried to find justification of love of power in works of classical philosophy and to give broad interpretation to violence. Love of power is all-embracing. All people are ready to subordinate themselves others. Nobody refuses the power voluntary. The victim dreams to become the executioner. Methods of the analysis are connected with philosophical anthropology. In article it is shown that the violence and humility express an essence of a human nature. In this sense between them there is an internal relationship. Besides, in article the historicism method is used. It allowed to compare concepts of postmodernists with classical philosophy. Novelty of article is caused by that the author explains the reasons of interest of postmodernists in a violence phenomenon. Therefore huge interest in the identity of the marquis de Sade came to light. After postmodernists the author compares Kant and de Sade's ethics. The sadism and masochism aren't separately existing phenomena. The victim finds cruel qualities, and the executioner looks for pleasures. The sadist differs in obsession, and the masochist in conciliation. In article the paradoxical logic of these characters is noted. The masochist looks for pleasures in suffering, and the sadist – in unrestrained power.
Bushueva T.I., Korkunova O.V. - The problem of consciousness in the light of K. Jungs concept pp. 92-104


Abstract: This article examines the problem of consciousness, as well as demonstrates the evolution in interpretation of the phenomenon of consciousness over the past century. In historical aspect, is illustrated the path of interpretation of the phenomena of consciousness and the unconscious. The authors analyze the contribution of S. Freud and K. Jung into solution of the problem consciousness in psychoanalysis. The accent is also made on examination of new impact of the achievements of K. Jung in revelation of the nature of the unconscious upon the process of perceiving the phenomenon of consciousness. The research of this process correlates with the process of development of personality. The article applies the methods of comparison and analysis, classification and generalization, unity of the historical and the logical in revelation of nature and interaction between consciousness and the unconscious. In conclusion, the authors identify the existence of the internal determinant of human consciousness, which plays a significant role in formation of its content and development of personality.
Shchelokov K.S. - The phenomenon of bureaucratic individual pp. 98-106


Abstract: The object of this research is the bureaucratization of human and society, while the subject of the nature of a bureaucratic individual. Having originated in classical form in the era of modernism, the bureaucratic system of managements was solving the essential tasks: orderliness in managing the society, increase in labor productivity, overcoming the inequality and social class remains. As a result of evolutionary development and dysfunctional changes, the bureaucratization process affected all spheres of social life. The author questions what happened to a human and human nature in consequence such transformation. The article leans on the methods of philosophical-anthropological thinking and historical-philosophical reconstruction, formal-logical and conceptual analysis. The scientific novelty lies in determination of a number of key characteristics of the phenomenon of bureaucratic individual: 1) alienation – as a process of separation from others and human nature itself; 2) depersonalization – a subject becomes individually insignificant and indiscernible; 3) idolization and fetishizing – the attributes of bureaucratic reality acquire sacral character; 4) simulation and hyperreality – reproduction by the bureaucratic form of the personal ontological reality.
Nilogov A.S., Kutyryov V.A. - Philosophy of medicine of the anthropological disasters (discourse of A. S. Nilogov with V. A, Kutyrev) pp. 99-113


Abstract: The discussion of A. S. Nilogov with V. A, Kutyrev from the perspective of philosophical anthropology reviews the problematic of modern medicine, which more and more develops within the framework of transhumanism (posthumanity). The professor from Nizhny Novgorof V. A. Kutyrev relies upon the conservative perception of human as an ancestral creature, whose bodily conflicts with the scientific and technological progress. The discourse raises the topical issues of anthropology, biopolitics, bioethics, health and medicine (particularly the problem of euthanasia).  V. A Kutyrev presses the point that the technogenic era, which allows manipulating the nature and human corporality, leads to blurring of the essence of real biopolitics, which stops playing the role of the guardian of life. Such transformation received a name of “thanatopolitics” – politics of allowance and protection of death, paradoxically up to immortality, but now artificial, particularly – posthuman.
Sevalnikov A.A. - Naturalist Approach to Studying Human and Language pp. 100-123


Abstract: The article is devoted to consideration of naturalistic approach to the language origin in particular and to life of human in general. The naturalism is analysed on the basis of S. Pinker's views on the origin and development of language. The subject of the research is the naturalistic approach to the problem of glottogenesis. The problem of glottogenesis today is one of the most discussed in a scientific and pseudo-scientific community about which there is a set of hypotheses. The naturalism, owing to active research of the person as the biological object, is also exclusively popular. The comparative analysis of various sources reporting about scientific concepts and achievements within the studied perspective acted as a method. It is shown that naturalism as approach to a problem possesses a number of the advantages inaccessible to other views. For example, the methodology of naturalism allows the researcher to remain in a strict scientific framework and not to attract unchecked or even obviously wrong data as it often occurs at creation of some hypotheses of an origin of language. Also weak points of naturalistic hypotheses of glottogeneis are, for example, the restrictions imposed by scientific methodology or temptation of excessive analogy and transfer of ideas in other scientific problems are specified. In this article the methodological advantage of naturalistic approach connected with features of its evolutionary paradigm for the first time reveals: the naturalism allows to open new sides of human life, being other point of view in comparison with other, not biological approaches. Thus, the special value of naturalism as means of comprehension of human life admits its various manifestations.
Granin R.S. - Nikolai Berdjaev's Experience of Metaphysical Eschatology pp. 101-123
Abstract: The article studies metaphysical, anthropological and existential aspects of Berdyaev’s eschatology. The author of the article traces back psychological preconditions of the transformation of existential problems to the eschatological metaphysics. The research shows how the following fundamental topics of Berdyaev's existential philosophy are revealed: pre-reality existential freedom, its objectivation to the reality and the problem of returning human personality to that existential freedom. It has been established that for the philosopher eschatology was a symbol of transcendency of human personality  to the existence. The author of the article also touches upon eschatological aspects of borderline situations when a person faces his own death or during historical catastrophes or mystical insight or creative act. 
Chugunova I. - The experience of terminological explanation of the notion hatred and its synonyms pp. 102-122


Abstract:  This article is dedicated to the experience of categorical comparison of hatred and its most used synonyms, such as animosity, anger, contempt, disgust, and some others. Leaning on the semantic closeness of these notions alongside the phenomenological similarities of the standing behind them occurrences, the author leads them to the fundamental, essential differentiation, turning attention to the philosophical-anthropological methodology that views a human in unity of his characteristics – natural, social, and existential. Here becomes important the nuances of demarcation of the notions generic to hatred and its synonyms, such as: emotion, feeling, affect, passion, excitement, and value. The author also applies the phenomenological method, elements of hermeneutic approach, and linguistic analysis. The main result of the conducted comparative research, first and foremost, lies in the volume, enriched comprehension of hatred: it is cognized as a multifarious, complex anthropological phenomenon that addresses to the emotional, cognitive, axiological, social-relationship, and other essential aspects of human nature.  
Shazhinbatyn A. - Ethnos in the context of philosophical-anthropological knowledge pp. 107-124


Abstract: In this article the author attempts to examine the phenomenon of ethnos from the perspective of the philosophical comprehension of a human. Ethnos represent the form of social union of people. In this regard, it is relevant to study historical paths of ethnos within the framework of social philosophy. However, it is quite difficult to understand the inner strength and “resilience” of this phenomenon without the use of philosophical-anthropological knowledge. Despite of the multiple forecasts concerning the near end of ethnic formations and their dissolve in the global flow, the experts face the “stubborn” preservation of “call of the blood”. Finding themselves in the new historical realm, ethnoses attain an unexpected identity, but it certainly does not end up zeroed out. The core of this article is the general philosophical comprehension of human nature. This work represents the first attempt within the post-Kantian philosophy to examine the basic characteristics of ethnos through the prism of philosophical anthropology; it allowed expanding the horizon of philosophical reflection regarding the ethnic issues, and re-analyzing a number of topics on ethnic knowledge.
Spektor D.M. - Eros: on the other side of singularity pp. 114-128


Abstract: The subject of this research is presented by a repeatedly mention, but still quite mysterious connection between Eros, death, and power. It is demonstrated that the specified realities could not be cognized based on the modern meanings and interpretations. The connection between death, Eros, and power includes a number of important historical metamorphoses, the essence of which in fact reconstructs this research. One of its initial points is the proclaimed by Foucault entrenchment of power in “biopolitics”.  Such reconstruction allows stating the reverse pace of the historical logic: domination of “biopolitics”, which equally substantiates the forms of power, Eros, and survival. Method of the research is associated with the analysis of the historical reconstruction of Eros, exogamy, and (symbolic) exchange. Its logical canvas is subordinated to the reconstructing succession of the intercommunity relations that are based predominantly on the two factors: aggression and its only antipode – captivity of wives. Referring to such descriptive sketches, the article underpins the ontology. The scientific novelty consists in proving the fact that collectivity in the eyes of community is the essence of the commonness of genders – male and female. The latters are not created by the nature not being a natural expression and continuation of gender; it’s the ontological predeterminations, from the relationship of which originates the commonness of human (being).
Rakhmanovskaya E. - Lust for power as human passion pp. 127-137


Abstract: The subject of this research is the nature and sources of the lust for power as anthropological phenomenon that reveals a special dimension of life of any human being. It is claimed that the attractiveness of power is not dictated by the amenities or resources, accessibility of which promises the privilege of the status of supremacy. Moreover, power is interpreted as a burden aggravated by fear, responsibility, narrowing the personality, serving as a source of inner conflicts. At the same time, the author the position that the irrational magnetism of power is justified by its passionate nature, rooted in the in-depth layers of human psyche, tight interweaving with the relevant processes of establishment and increasing personal strength, as well as consolidating of vitality. Lust for power appears as the concentration of energy of self-esteem, demonstrates the tendency towards transgression of personal limits. The research is conducted within the framework of philosophical anthropology. The author leans on the theoretical messages of the philosophy of life, concept of will to power by F. Nietzsche. Special attention is given to the expansive character of manifestation of the lust for power. A conclusion is made that having the dynamic nature, power is forced to constantly augment its might, overcome antagonism, and tirelessly overreach itself, otherwise, it will lose the win positions. However, in such implacable expansion of power that has achieved the level of any rebuke, in constant chase for extending the territories within power also hides the threat to its existence.
Chugunova I. - The concept of ressentiment as an instrument of the philosophical-anthropological cognition pp. 135-170


Abstract: This article examines the concept of ressentiment introduced by Friedrich Nietzsche, which was later developed within the humanitarian thought. The idea of ressentiment covers a complex of anthropological and socio-cultural phenomena, which concern the “dark” aspects of the human nature, prohibited by public morality, but nevertheless expanding in the society in a form of envy, hate, revenge, animosity, rivalry, and other negative feelings, perception and behavior. In order to cognize ressentiment, the author explores various aspects of Nietzsche’s philosophical doctrine, which allows him to look at that phenomenon in the broader perspective, as well as analyze its true scale. The article reveals the evristical value of the notion of “ressentiment”, which consists in its ability to describe the reality of a human from the position of his ontological and existential characteristics in comparison with the narrow-descriptive categories that hold a stable place in humanitarian sciences. The ressentiment represents not just a combination of phenomena, but an integral modus of the human being and humanity. The article demonstrated that the cognition of the negative manifestation of human flaws becomes deeper and more meaningful: their genesis and hidden sides are being revealed, as well as an in-depth correlation that consists in the belonging to the unified core of the cultural-historical establishment of a human.
Aleinik R.M. - 'Naturalistic' Turn of Philosophical Anthropology pp. 139-169


Abstract: The subject of the article is the New Naturalism conception in human research. The purpose of the article is to evaluate the merits of this approach to anthropology. Naturalism is a cognitive principle in philosophical anthropology stressing out human identity in evolution of forms of biological life. Acording to the founders of the conception (Sheffer and others), it is far from being the reductionism. In his research the author of the article uses a comparative method and a historical approach that is based on the concept of global evolutionism. A number of researchers devoted to the Naturalism conception remind us that not all cultural traditions are founded on the  dichotomy  of culture and nature. It is typical mostly for Europeans. In the long run, this stereotype gave birth to the global problems of industrial civilization that are so difficult to be solved now. Naturalism approach allows to avoid the binary opposition between nature and culture. The results of this research can be used in a course of general philosophy, human research, philosophy of science and researches of new scientific paradigms. 
Chugunova I. - Discourse of hatred in F. Nietzsches philosophy pp. 141-152


Abstract: This article examine one of the most ambiguous topics of F. Nietzsche’s philosophical works – the hatred. Interpretation of this topic in Nietzscheanism is associated with specific hermeneutic difficulties: hatred appears through the conceptual multiplicity, neighbors with pathos of human perfection, identifies the paradoxical relations and mutual transitions with the notion of love. Such questions become the center of attention in this work. The author reconstruct a complex background of Nietzschean understanding of hatred in the context of human nature, differentiates the contextual meanings of love and hatred, their transformations and inversions. The article proves that the topic of hatred in Nietzsche’s philosophy does not carry the character of subversion of a human: it is assigned with the opposite – supporting role within the discourse of love and human revival. The nature of hatred is revealed in its destructive and constructive guises. The article traces the fundamental anthropological character of such passion as a reflection of controversy and multidimensionality of human essence.
Spektor D.M. - Ontogenesis. Lev Vygotsky's Doctrine in Terms of Ontology pp. 151-220


Abstract: Lev Vygotsky's ideas that made revolution in psychology set reference points and focus on the most essential understanding of ontogenesis. In the present article ontologic aspects of his position are considered, first of all, the beginnings, in particular, the "the magic stage" and its biological and cultural definitions. This magic given to communication with real circumstances of development opens the hidden roots of culture, allows to distinguish cultural development and socialization and to outline the mechanism of their interaction. The magic of the childhood is presented by the H+ function (the added intention); this is a certain regular (and partly regulated) arising force realizing intentions. The magic of infancy appears in the form of an ego > (the Other - the Intermediary) > a subject (the Other). Due to the conducted research further ontologic study of ideas of development in connection with the beginning of ontogenesis should be made; "the way through the other" has to be pulled integrally together with "the way through the Sign - Tool"; in transition from the Other as the Intermediary to the Other as the intermediary ideal, in transitions from the Other as a personification (a community of people) to the Other as a representation of subject communities (essence, being, sense), consists in research of logic of the "magic increments" put in the motivation basis, according to the author, new opportunities of understanding of ontogenesis.
Granin R.S. - Structural features of the personalism of N.O.Lossky pp. 165-189


Abstract: The basic meaning behind Lossky's personalistic metaphysics can be briefly expressed in his own definition: "all of nature is composed of entities which would have been members of the Kingdom of God had they not taken the path of selfishness. Because of this sin and mutual disunity, many of them are not relevant; they are simply potential personalities that make up the lower kingdoms of both organic and inorganic nature."[5, 303]. In its structure, this statement follows the basic provisions of the monadology of Leibniz, which served as a kind of normalizing influence on Lossky's metaphysics. It defines the basic structure of the backbone of his theory: in cosmology - the mechanism for realization of the ideal world of the material (the dynamic structure of matter); in ontology - the stratification of levels of reality (concrete ideal, abstract ideal, and real existence), the structure of the "first" and "second" matter (spatial and allied body); in eschatology - the structure of the nucleus of reincarnation (the perfect substantial (or substantive) activities of the monad), etc. By referring to Leibniz's original teachings we can trace the genesis of the basic foundations of Lossky's metaphysics and ascertain the building blocks of his teaching, the most important part of which was the concept of reincarnation, developed on the basis of monadology. Lossky, and even Leibniz himself, noted the similarity between their concepts and relevant religious and philosophical doctrines (in Greek and Indian metaphysics and Middle Eastern religion). By virtue of irreducible granularity and by working out the details, the doctrine of reincarnation in the dharmic religions (Jainism, Hinduism, Buddhism, Sikhism) may act as a somewhat normalising paradigm for personalistic eschatology, a comparison with which serves to highlight in this article the universal meaning of many positions of Lossky's personalism.
Shilovskaya N.S. - Person as a Subject, Being and Being of the Subject in History and Modern Times pp. 171-203
Abstract: The article is devoted to a problem of genesis of the person as subject and history of his relationship with being. At what historical stage a person realized himself as a creator and thus assumed responsibility for being? How the person as subject decided to seize, subordinate and absorb being? Take-off and falling of the person, existentialism and humanity in their interrelation, the person Russian and the person of the western mentality in the history and the present – here those aspects of a problem of the person and being which interest the author.
Shazhinbatyn A. - Ethnic Groups: Philosophical and Anthropological Discourse pp. 187-207


Abstract: The subject of the study is an ethnic group in the philosophical-anthropological perspective. Social and cultural behaviour of ethnic groups and nations is usually studied by cultural science. Great empirical material has been accumulated that characterizes specificities of different cultures, uniqueness of their traditions and customs, diversity of mental and emotional habits and ways. Meanwhile, there is a historical and philosophical tradition that permits to understand the phenomenology of an ethnic group through philosophical comprehension of man. In the modern period many philosophers and sociologists related the specificity of ethnic groups to human nature and attempts at clarify that new aspect of the problem. In his research Shazhinbatyn uses a historical and philosophical approach that permits to trace this tendency – comprehension of the essence of an ethnic group through philosophical-anthropological knowledge. Also, the method of hermeneutic analysis of a philosophical text is applied. The novelty of the article is in tracing differences in approaches to the phenomenon of an ethnic group in the research tradition of primordialism and in various constructivist schools. The author for the first time in Russian philosophy shows that constructivism has appeared as a result of superposition of cultural-philosophical views and methods of philosophical anthropology. Such a direction of research work has led to the conviction that an ethnic group and a nation in many respects are the products of active imagination, collective fantasy rather than results of a particular historical practice and socio-historical achievements.
Belyaev V.A. - Cognitive Interculture pp. 245-277


Abstract: This article continues to introduce to the readers the theory of interculture developed by the author. The present article is devoted to the cognitive aspect of interculture. Based on the author, this aspect, just like all the others aspects of interculture, has a constitutional imprint of the basic principles of intercultural communication. Among the great variety of cognitive traditions existing within the borders of interculture, specific principles implement what is called scientific content and science, or, more specifically, experimental mathematical natural science. 'Scientific content' is the cognitive form of 'just and legal detraction of human spirit. The author of the article shows how a group of life challenges which gave birth to interculture, is now creating a specific new European cognitive tradition. Scientific content is viewed as the solution of the problem of the search for universal truth tht would be objective and accepted by all laws. The author shows the internal contradiction of science and that science can be transformed into cultural remission for scientists. The article will be of interest for everyone who is into philosophical anthropology. 
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