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Biological Resources
Sukhareva L.V., Mukhametova S.V., Veselova K.A. - Seasonal development of Philadelphus cultivars in the Mari El Republic pp. 1-7


Abstract: Species of the genus Philadelphus L. (mock orange) are among the most popular ornamental shrubs. They are valued for low maintenance, abundant flowering, exceptional aroma of flowers and a prolonged flowering period during high summer, by when many shrubs already fade. The results of phenological observations of 2018-2020 are presented in the article. The objects of the research were the plants of 8 cultivars of mock orange selected by N. K. Vekhov in the Botanical Garden-Institute of VSUT (Yoshkar-Ola, Mari El Republic). The vegetation of plants lasts from the beginning of May to the end of September and has a duration of 177-189 days.  The 'Airborne force' (Vozdushny desant) cultivar was characterized by the longest growing season.  The full leafing occurred in the first decade of June, the growth of scions ended in the first half of August. Flowering began in the third decade of June and lasted on average for 13-28 days. The cultivar 'Vosdushny Desant' has the earliest beginning of flowering, 'Arktika' has the latest one. The plants of 'Elbrus' were characterized by the longest flowering, 'Yunnat' – by the shortest one. There was no connection between the duration of flowering and the structure of flowers.
Mukhametova S.V., Terent'eva E.A., Moskovkina T.V. - Characteristics of Viburnum species seeds pp. 1-10


Abstract: Viburnums are of economic importance, are an important component of forests, they are used in landscaping, have medicinal and nutritional value. The purpose of the study is a comparative analysis of characteristics of seeds of 4 viburnum species in the conditions of the Mari El Republic. The authors study the pyrenes collected in 2018-2020 from the plants grown in the exposition "Fruticetum" of the Botanical Garden-Institute of VSUT (Yoshkar-Ola). The mass of 1000 seeds was determined according to GOST 13056.4-67, the sizes of 30 seeds were measured with a caliper. It was found that the studied viburnums form seeds of typical size and weight. Viburnum lentago had the largest seeds, Viburnum lantana had the smallest ones. A significant influence of the species specificity factor on the weight of seeds was revealed, while no significant influence of the factor of weather conditions of different years on the seed indicators was established. The weight of the seeds was very closely positively correlated with their length and significantly with their thickness. The thickness of the seeds was characterized by the highest level of variability, negatively correlated with their width and positively with their length. During the 3 years of the study, the heaviest seeds in most species were formed in 2018.
Nikiforova A.G., Skochilova E.A., Mukhametova S.V. - The content of organic acids and carotenoids in Sorbus fruits pp. 1-9


Abstract: Organic acids and carotenoids are important biologically active compounds that largely determine the pharmacological value of rowan fruits. In medicine, mountain ashberry is used as a multivitamin, diuretic, tonic. Its fruits are standardized according to the content of organic acids. In this work, the content of the organic acids sum and carotenoids in the fruits of Sorbus aucuparia and the varieties 'Burka', 'Granatnaya', 'Alaya Krupnaya' and 'Titan' from the collection of the Botanical Garden-Institute of Volga State University of Technology (Yoshkar-Ola, Mary El Republic) was studied. The moisture content in the fruits of all studied rowans varied from 0.49 to 0.60%, which corresponded to the permissible value of the pharmacopoeia. The amount of organic acids varied from 3.06 to 3.93%. In the fruits of the varieties 'Titan' and 'Burka' the greatest amount of the organic acids was found, slightly less was in the variety 'Granatnaya', but the difference is insignificant. The low content of the studied compounds was determined in Sorbus aucuparia and 'Alaya Krupnaya', while the value of this variety did not meet the requirements of the pharmacopoeia article. The content of carotenoids in rowan fruits varied from 3.09 to 5.60 mg%. In terms of the number of these compounds, the fruits of the varieties 'Titan' and 'Alaya Krupnaya' were in the lead. The smallest amount of carotenoids was found in the fruits of Sorbus aucuparia and 'Granatnaya'. The most promising for obtaining biologically active compounds is the variety 'Titan'.
Sukhareva L.V., Mukhametova S.V., Nekhoroshkova E.V. - The area of lianas in the Botanical Garden-Institute of VSUT (Yoshkar-Ola) pp. 21-35


Abstract: There is the site of lianas as a part of the exposition «Fruticetum» in the Botanical Garden-Institute of Volga State University of Technology. It is an area of 0.15 hectares, with 5 rows of metal supports 1.5–3.0 high. Woody plants of 98 names from 14 genera of 10 families grow here: Actinidiaceae, Aristolochiaceae, Bignoniaceae, Caprifoliaceae, Celastraceae, Hydrangeaceae, Menispermaceae, Ranunculaceae, Schisandraceae, Vitaceae. The largest number of taxa in the collection includes the following genera: Clematis – 54 taxa, Vitis – 10, Lonicera – 7. The most widely represented family is Ranunculaceae (56 taxa). The Vitaceae family contains the largest number of genera (3). Cultivars and hybrids have the main share in the collection (62.2%). The cultivars of clematis are the most numerous (42 names). They have a high decorative value and are an undoubted decoration of the site. The low ornamental shrubs and perennial herbaceous plants are planted in the exposition to increase the decorative effect. The article provides information about winter hardiness, growth and development of lianas, as well as the features of agrotechnical measures. The directions of development are presented. These data are of interest to employees of botanical gardens, students of plant-growing directions and amateur gardeners. The materials are accompanied by photographs.
Sukhareva L.V., Mukhametova S.V., Zhelonkina T.Y. - Phenology of Pentaphylloides representatives in the Mari El Republic pp. 25-34


Abstract: Representatives of the genus Pentaphylloides are low ornamental shrubs that are valued for long abundant flowering, compact size and unpretentiousness to growing conditions. P. fruticosa is a valuable plant that has not only decorative value, but also food, medicinal, soil protection. For medicinal purposes, young flowering shoots are used, harvested during budding and flowering. The article presents the results of phenological observations in 2018-2020. The objects of the study were plants of 8 kinds of Pentaphylloides in the collection of the Botanical Garden-Institute of Volga State University of Technology (Yoshkar-Ola, Mari El Republic). The studied plants undergo most phases of seasonal development, with the exception of the mass end of shoot growth, complete lignification of shoots, mass ripening of fruits, mass leaf fall. Species and cultivars vegetated from the end of April – the beginning of May to the end of October in a short time. The vegetation period was 177-182 days. There was no significant difference in the timing of the passage of phenophases between the taxa. Plants of Р. × friedrichsenii and P. mandschurica passed most of the phenophases earlier than the average dates for the genus, and 'Goldfinger' and 'Klondike' – later. The earliest and longest flowering was characterized by P. friedrichsenii (65 d.), the latest and shortest – P. fruticosa (28 d.). All plants of P. fruticosa cultivars bloomed for a longer period than the species. After mass flowering, single flowers were observed in representatives of Pentaphyloides until mid-October.
Mukhametova S.V., Konakova A.V., Sokolova K.I., Suchkova A.A. - Phenology of North American maple trees in the conditions of the Mari El Republic
pp. 31-42


Abstract: The article contains the results of the 2014 - 2018 phenology observation over 6 maple tree species (Acer L.) with natural habitats in North America. The objects of research were plants of the Botanical garden-Institute of VSUT: A. negundo, A. pensylvanicum, A. rubrum, A. saccharinum, A. saccharum, A. spicatum. The studied maples began growing at the end of April – the first decade of May and ended in October. The first, in the first decade of May, bloomed A. saccharinum and A. rubrum. Later blooming species were characterized by a longer flowering period, the latest and longest flowering within 20 days was observed in A. spicatum. Despite the different periods of flowering, the fruits of different species ripened relatively amicably, in the second half of September. The longest vegetation period was found in A. saccharinum (169±2.1 days), and this species is characterized by late autumn leaf blooming. The greatest period of autumn leaf blooming, more than a month, was characterized by A. spicatum. The studied species can be used in landscaping of the Mari El Republic settlements as part of an additional assortment, with the exception of A. negundo, which is a weed plant. Despite the similar timing of the passage of many phenophases, the variety of maples morphological features (shape and size of leaves, flowers and fruits, bark color, etc.) allows them to be used for decorative purposes. During the study period, the earliest passage of most phenophases was recorded in 2016, and the latest in 2017 and 2018.
Mukhametova S.V., Pavlova E.N., Nekhoroshkova E.V. - Fruit indicators and reproduction of hazelnut 'Academic Yablokov' pp. 31-42


Abstract: Hazelnuts have an important nutritional value. Breeders have bred a number of varieties capable of forming high yields in the conditions of the Central part of Russia. The purpose of this study was to analyze the fruit indicators and the reproduction potential of hazelnut variety 'Academic Yablokov' in the Mari El Republic. The advantage of this variety is large fruits and purple leaf color. The studies were conducted in 2020 and 2021 in the Botanical Garden-Institute of Volga State University of Technology (Yoshkar-Ola). The study showed that nuts have the mass of 2.0-2.4 g, the length and diameter of 2.4-2.6 and 1.4–1.6 cm, respectively. In the abnormally hot and dry conditions of 2021, the variety fruits were lighter and smaller compared to the excessively humid conditions of 2020. But the seed quality remained relatively high in both years of the study (82-84%). Sowing nuts using peat and sand as substrates revealed different soil germination of seeds in the experimental variants. The smallest number of seedlings was obtained in the peat variant (26%). The highest germination rate was established in the control variant (43%), but in the future the seedlings turned out to be in less favorable conditions for growth – by autumn they had the smallest height, diameter of the root neck, and number of lateral shoots. The seedlings in the variant with sand had the greatest height and length of the root system.
Mukhametova S.V., Novgorodskaya N.O., Anisimova S.V. - Seasonal development of European maples in the Republic of Mari El pp. 33-41


Abstract: The article contains the results of observations over 5 maple (Acer L.) species conducted in 2014 - 2018. The research objects are the plants growing in the Botanic garden of the Volga region State University of Technology: A. campestre, A. platanoides, A. pseudoplatanus, A. tataricum, A. trautvetteri. Their natural habitats are in the Caucasian-European region. In the wild, only A. platanoides grow on the territory of the Republic, others are introduced species. The authors analyze weather conditions over 5 years of research and establish that at higher average daily temperatures in 2016, the seasonal development stages came earlier, while colder weather conditions of 2017 hampered the phenophase. On average, the maples under study started vegetation in the first decade of May, and finished it in the third decade of September - mid October. The earlier vegetation started, the earlier sprouts started growing and flowering began. The easiest flowering was registered for A. platanoides in the second decade of May, then for A. campestre in the third decade of May. The latest and the longest flowering was registered for A. tataricum. Long-vegetating species were characterized by long growing of sprouts and late fall of leaves. In the autumn period, A. campestre and A. tataricum are the fanciest with a long period of leaves coloring.  A. pseudoplatanus and A. trautvetteri don’t have a phase of generative development due to poor winter resistance, and are not recommended for use in landscaping.   
Okach M.A., Mukhametova S.V., Lyamina G.V. - The seasonal development of Crocus in the Mari El Republic conditions pp. 35-42


Abstract: Crocuses are beautifully flowering corm-bearing plants. They begin the growing season immediately after the snow melts. The research contains the results of phenological observations of 2014-2019 for plants of 6 Crocus taxa in the conditions of the Mari El Republic. Cultivars with early, medium and late periods of phenophase passage were identified. A flowering phenospectrum of the studied crocuses has been compiled. Crocuses vegetate from mid-April to early June for 40-50 days, and bloom from the third decade of April to early May. C. chrysanthus 'Prince Cloues' is characterized by the earliest unfolding of leaves and a short duration of their growth. The greatest value for landscaping is C. versicolor, characterized by the longest growing season and the earliest flowering, as well as C. chrysanthus ' Romance’ and C. angustifolia, characterized by the longest flowering within 2 weeks. The flowering of C. sieberi 'Spring Beauty’ is unstable. The obtained data on the seasonal development of crocuses can be used when including them in rockeries, alpine slides and other flower beds in natural-style gardens.
Sukhareva L.V., Mukhametova S.V., Nekhoroshkova E.V. - The exposition "Fruticetum" of the Botanical Garden-Institute of VSUT (Yoshkar-Ola) pp. 43-62


Abstract: As part of the Botanical Garden-Institute of the Volga State University of Technology, a collection of ornamental shrubs is presented in the exposition "Fruticetum". As of 2020, plants from 86 genera of 30 families grow here. The largest number of taxa in the collection includes the following genera: Syringa – 97, Spiraea – 61, Philadelphia – 48, Berberis – 30, Lonicera – 24, Rosa – 22. The largest families are Rosaceae (167 taxa), Oleaceae (97), Hydrangeaceae (77), Caprifoliaceae (35), Berberidaceae (31). The most genera contain the families Rosaceae (28 names), Fabaceae (10), Oleaceae (5), Caprifoliaceae (5), Cupressaceae (4). Angiosperms include 505 taxa, gymnosperms – 26 taxa. The main share in the composition of the collection of Fruticetum are varieties and hybrids – 305 names, there are 226 species of plants, which is associated with the main purpose of the exposition – to present a variety of assortment of ornamental shrubs. Mandatory scientific research includes an annual assessment of winter hardiness, a note on the presence of flowering and fruiting in all plants in the exposition, conducting phenological observations of a number of plants. The features of agrotechnical measures carried out in the exposition (pruning, fertilizing, watering, weeding, pest and disease control, shelter for the winter, mowing grass) are indicated.
Lavrent'ev B.F. - Bee-keeping development in the Republic of Marij El pp. 44-51


Abstract: The main task of this project is the creation of a reliable, highly effective, affordable high performance system of bee venom collection in order to provide the Russian pharmaceutical industry with raw products for the purposes of import substitution. Another its goal is to develop methodological documents for the comprehensive study of the process of bee venom collection during the season of 2017. The research task of the project is to find out the dependency of the amount of the collected venom on the method of bees disturbing, season, time of day, weather conditions, modes of a bee venom collector, duration of collection, state of a bee colony and other factors. The research is performed using the instruments, which have been designed in Volga State University of Technology and received 8 patents of the Russian Federation. Within the project, significant attention will be given to the improvement of the quality of bee venom and to its certification in order to organize the production of venom-based medicines at Yoshkar-Ola pharmaceutical plant. The research is based on the methods of observation, comparison and experimental research at bee yards of the Republic of Marij El. Biological researches are conducted in the field and in the laboratory. All the acquired results are subject to qualitative and quantitative analysis. It is planned to perform comprehensive research in order to define the vitality and productivity of bee colonies in terms of the method of bees disturbing, season, time of day, weather conditions, modes of a bee venom collector, duration of venom collection, state of a bee colony and other factors. A significant feature of the bee venom collector is the automatic program change mode depending on the parameters of the environment. This mode helps avoid bees’ adaptation to the disturbing factors and to raise the effectiveness of venom collection. The output buses of the device are protected from short-circuits in wire lines and venom receivers; it guarantees their reliability and improves their effectiveness. Using the system of bee venom collection, it is possible to cover the expenses for the development and production of devices and the expenditures of regional producers on venom collection, including the groups of venom collectors. The last-mentioned factor is very important, because it can reduce the price for honey by 35-40% and improve the competitive performance of bee-keeping on the global market. Besides, it could create the basis, which would provide the Russian pharmaceutical industry with raw materials for import substitution. 
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