Genesis: Historical research - rubric Historical sources and artifacts
Genesis: Historical research
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MAIN PAGE > Journal "Genesis: Historical research" > Rubric "Historical sources and artifacts"
Historical sources and artifacts
Tikhonov V.V. - '... To Batter Down the Final Nail in the Coffin of Isaak Mintz and His Henchmen': Destruction of the Historian Isaak Mintz's Group During the Years of Ideological Campaigns of 'Late Stalinism' pp. 1-28


Abstract: The article is devoted to the destruction of so called 'Mintz- Razgon - Gorodetsky' group as part of ideological campaigns during the years of 'late Stalinism'. The author of the article focuses his attention on the opposition between historians A. Sidorov and I. Mintz during the years of struggle against 'rootless cosmopolitism'. Analyzing a wide range of scientific works many of which have never been discussed in Russian science before, the author of the article shows the influence of the campaign on historical studies. The author describes the main cause of the opposition between I. Mintz and A. Sidorov and makes a conclusion that the fight for influence over academic community was an important element of ideological campaigns back in those times. Based on the example of E. Gorodetsky, the author makes a conclusion that the campaign made part of the intelligentsia to review their values and to assume an anti-Stalin position.
Golovin S.A. - Was Ivan the Terrible poisoned? Comprehension of the chemical research results of the remains of the Czar from necropolises of the Ascension Cathedral and Cathedral of the Archangel of the Moscow Kremlin pp. 1-23


Abstract: The contemporary Russian historiography (1990-2000’s) marks the emergence of a number of scientific works that from the perspective of modern scientific data and political preferences defend the paradigmatic version on poisoning of the Russian Czar Ivan IV. The supporters of this hypothesis considerably lean on the results of chemical research of the remains from grand ducal necropolises of the Moscow Kremlin, which showed a high concentration of diverse heavy metals in them. The goal of this article consists in comprehension of the results of chemical expertise of the Czar’s remains from the necropolises of the Kremlin. The research is based on the method of statistical analysis, using the comparative-historical and retrospective methods. The conclusion on conscious poisoning of the Czar Ivan IV, formulated on the basis of significant concentration of mercury and arsenic in his remains, seems unsubstantiated. The statistical analysis argues the newly suggested in the contemporary Russian historiography version (2003-2006) on the conscious poisoning of the Czar Ivan IV and his sons, within the framework of which the conclusions of the Commission (1963-1966) are considered inaccurate.
Loshchilova T.N. - Gravures of Sebastien Leclerc from the medals of Henry IV as a historical source pp. 1-12


Abstract: The object of this research is the gravures of the engraver of Louis XIV Sebastien Leclerc (1637-1714), which represent the etchings from the medals of French kings of the XV-XVII centuries and particularly the time of Henry IV, reflecting the main trends of royal power during this period. Currently the gravures are preserved in the Municipal Library of Lyon. The subject of this research is the inner and outer criticism of the source that determined its significance for studying the image of power created during the reign of the first Bourbons. The main focus is made on the inner criticism of the source. Giving a brief characteristics to the etchings of medals, as well as the symbols and interpretation of the depicted events, the author comes to a conclusion that the gravures can fill the gaps in our vision of evolution of the representation of power, as a single place gathers the etchings of numerous and somewhat exclusive for a researcher medals. A brief analysis of the depicted in gravures medals allows concluding on the systematically conducted policy of popularization of the new royal Dynasty of Bourbons not only through opinion journalism, but also the artistic images created within the lifetime of Henry IV and after his decease, which subsequently predetermined the formation of myth about the “Good King Henry, as well as emphasize the importance of studying of such historical source as the medals and etchings, undeservingly neglected by the national researchers.
Korovchinskiy I. - On the question of the meaning of words τοῦ ἡμιολίου in the economic inscriptions of Ai-Khanum pp. 1-11


Abstract: The subject of research in this article are inscriptions 117 and 119 from Ai-Khanum (Greco-Bactria, ΙΙ century BC) according to the numbering of Corpus Inscriptionum Iranicarum (part 2, volume 1). It is very likely that they are 2 copies of the same text, preserved in different ways. The purpose of the work is to determine the meaning of words τοῦ ἡμιολίου, the inscriptions found in the data, as well as the meaning of the data inscriptions in general, the understanding of which depends on the interpretation of these words. The significance of this kind of work is explained by the fact that the surviving written sources on the economy of Greco-Bactria are extremely brief and fragmentary, and every word in them is significant and weighty for the researcher. The method of work is constant comparative. The study of the considered inscriptions from Ai-Khanum on the basis of comparison with the papyri from the Zeno archive is being carried out for the first time. The papyri considered in the article, in our opinion, contain a number of textual parallels with the Greek-Bactrian inscriptions under consideration. Conclusions of the article: judging by the analogies from the named Egyptian texts, the words τοῦ ἡμιολίου ( literally "one and a half" in the genitive case) are a direct complement to the words ἀπὸ κεραμίων δύο ("from two ceramias") and indicate the overflow into one large vessel of olive oil in the volume of one whole ceramium (small vessel) and half of the second ceramium. At the end of the article, a new translation of the consolidated text of inscriptions 117 and 119 is given. The scope of the results is the source studies of the ancient world, the economic history of Greco–Bactria, the Hellenistic world and the ancient world.
Shubin V.I. - Greek mercenaries in Sais Egypt pp. 12-19


Abstract: This article is dedicated to examination of the history of emergence of Greek mercenaries during the riling time of XXVI Sais Dynasty. The author reviews the status and role of Greek mercenaries in the armed forced of Sais rulers, organization of their service and living conditions. Considering the fact that the use of Greek mercenaries in Egypt army was a part of the traditional policy of Sais rulers and carried mass character, the author refers to the problem  of social origin of the phenomenon of mercenarism in the Greek society of Archaic era. The research applies comparative-historical method that allows viewing the phenomenon of mercenarism in the historical context – based on the comparative data analysis of ancient written tradition. By the time of Sais Dynasty, control over regions that traditionally provided mercenaries to the Egypt army was lost. Under the circumstances, in order to compensate such losses, Egypt conscripted into military service the hailed from the Greek world. Mercenaries became the first Greeks settled on the Egyptian land. The conclusion is made that the Greek colonization, in absence of other ways to enter the formerly closed to the Greeks Egypt, at its initial stage manifested in such distinct form.
Fedotova D.Y., Sulimov V.S., Zaitseva O.S. - Supply of bread to Tobolsk Governorate by the merchants during the period of bad crops at the turn of 1860s 1870s (On the example of the merchant V. D. Zharnikov) pp. 16-27


Abstract: The subject of this research is the supply of bread to Tobolsk Governorate by merchants during the period of bad crops at the turn of 1860s–1870s. The article is based on the principles of historicism, integrity, objectivity, and comprehensiveness; general scientific and traditional methods, such as systemic, historical-comparative, problem-historical. The scientific novelty lies in introduction of the new unpublished archival documents reflecting the role of merchantry in supplying bread to the region during bad crops. The source base is comprised of archival documents of the State Budget Archive of the Tyumen Region in Tobolsk. The statistical and clerical sources, as well as periodicals are also used in the article. The author is first to thoroughly examine the role of the merchant V. D. Zharnikov, who offered the provincial authorities to sell bread to the population at a lower price. Namely his initiative allowed the poor population to purchase bread at affordable prices during the period of bad crops, which mostly affected the residents of northern Tobolsk Governorate. Timely delivery of flour by inland transport to the north of the region has played a significant role. This prevented the rise in bread prices and its shortage. The initiative Vasily Dmitrievich Zharnikov to purchase, deliver and sell bread to northern Tobolsk Governorate at affordable made a crucial difference for the region.
Dmitriev A.V. - On the fiefs of Swedish and Scottish nobility in Ingria during the 1582 1589 pp. 18-33


Abstract: This article is dedicated to the question of landholdings of the Swedish and Scottish nobility in Ingria during the 1582 – 1589, relying on the documents of compilation “Baltiska fogderäkenskaper”. The relevance of this topic is substantiated by the insufficient study of these sources, both in Russia and abroad, as well as absence of the national toponymic research using these materials. The article also provides a brief biographical description of multiple Swedish and Scottish landholders, the majority of whom are the unknown names in the Russian prosopography The article employs the narrative, historical-comparative, typological, structural, prosopographical methods. All of them underlie the prosopographical and historical-geographical research, which allow determining the particular types of historical figures. The scientific novelty consists in consideration of the problem of formation of landholdings in Ingria during the 1582 – 1589. This question is not covered in modern historiography. The author explores the unique historical, historical-geographical and toponymic material that reveals the prerequisites for the historical, political, economic, territorial and linguistic transformations that found reflection in Ingria of post-Stolbovo period, and established for almost a century. The presented materials are of practical importance for the toponymists and historians dealing with Russia-Sweden relations of the XVI – XVII centuries.
Nadekhina Y.P., Geokchakyan A.G. - Commercial and industrial world of Moscow and periodical press of the pre-revolutionary Russia pp. 24-32


Abstract: After St. Petersburg was proclaimed the capital of the Russian Empire, Moscow retained status of the first capital, which gave the city some substantial advantages. On the one hand, this is remoteness of the city from the central government, while on the hand – a well-developed infrastructure of the capital city. These peculiarities strongly affected the development of the Moscow periodical press. The author notes a considerable role of Moscow as one of the leading commercial and industrial centers of the Russian Empire. The goal of this article lies in the analysis of the areas of common interests of the Russian pre-revolutionary journalism and Moscow entrepreneurship. For achieving the set goal, the author analyzes the periodical press, memoirs of the contemporaries, and certain other sources. The conclusion is made that the close interaction between the Russian periodical press and Moscow entrepreneurship begins at the time of development capitalist relations in Russia. The three directions of such cooperation are observed by the early XX century: the press as a branch of entrepreneurship; periodical press as the sociopolitical platform for the representatives of commercial and industrial world of Moscow; and Russian entrepreneurs as the object of publications. Overall, the interaction of the press and Moscow entrepreneurship contributes to the formation of a unique image of pre-revolutionary Moscow.
Zagvazdina Y.G., Zagvazdin E.P. - Tombstone of the Beginning of the XX Century from the Territory of the Modern Cemetery pp. 29-40



Abstract: The article is devoted to the study of a tombstone from the territory of the Sumkinsky cemetery located near Tobolsk. The extraordinary nature of the find is due to the fact that the tombstone of the beginning of the XX century was accidentally discovered in a later rural cemetery founded in the middle of the XX century, that is, fragments of the monument were brought there specifically. This is also indicated by the unsystematic nature of the location its parts lay scattered, on the path between the rows of later burials, piled against a metal fence. The tombstone was a three-part stone obelisk, of which the base and the middle part remained. The biographical inscription of the monument was badly damaged. In the process of studying the destroyed text of the epitaph with the involvement of a number of sources, it was found out that the burial belonged to the son of the priest Fyodor Filippovich Afanasyev Simeon, who died at a young age and was buried in the village of Shishkinsky. More biographical information was found out about his father, who was born in the Voronezh province and graduated from the Theological Men's College. He served as a psalmist in Tobolsk, and then was promoted to deacon. His son was born there. F.F. Afanasyev later became a priest and served in the village of Shishkinsky, Tobolsk district, and then in the village of Ust-Ishim, Tarsky district.
Khasanov A. - Switzerland's good offices in light of the American hostage-taking in Iran (1979-1981) pp. 37-53



Abstract: Switzerland's neutrality during the Cold War allowed it, without joining any of the opposing blocs, to take an active part in international politics. This, in particular, was reflected in the so-called good offices and a series of protective mandates of Switzerland in Iran. The article presents a brief historical digression into the process of development of diplomatic relations between Switzerland and Iran. The purpose of the article is to determine the role of Swiss diplomacy in negotiations on the release of American hostages in Iran (1979-1981). The study was carried out on the basis of declassified archival documents, a significant part of which is being introduced into scientific circulation for the first time (documents of the US State Department and the Swiss Federal Department of Foreign Affairs devoted to the settlement of the crisis with American hostages). This determined the scientific novelty of the study. The use of the historical-genetic method allowed us to study the genesis of bilateral relations between Switzerland and Iran before the 1979 Islamic Revolution. A narrative (descriptive-narrative) method was used to describe Switzerland's diplomatic services to the United States in Iran after the 1979 Islamic Revolution. Through the structural and functional method, it was possible to identify the mechanisms of Swiss diplomacy during secret meetings between the American and Iranian sides and the execution of the protective mandate to represent the interests of the United States in Iran. The historical-retrospective method helped to evaluate the results of Switzerland's "good offices" in Iran from the perspective of time distance.
Shiller V.V. - Metric books as the source on genealogy and demography of Jewish community of Mariinsky district of Tomsk Governorate (late XIX early XX century) pp. 38-51


Abstract: The object of this research is the metric books of the Synagogue of the city of Mariinsk and Mariinsky district of Tomsk Governorate, which represent a natural sampling and contain cumulative data that reflect demographic processes in Jewish community of the late XIX – early XX century. The subject of this research is the external and internal criticism with delineation of information gaps and determination of limits in exploitation of the data for genealogical and demographic reconstructions. Focus is made on the internal criticism of the source, correlating the extent and quality of filling in the metric books with a particular Jewish scholar of Rabbi, their level of education and command of the Russian language. The author concludes that the metric books of Mariinsk Synagogue of Tomsk Governorate also have distortions and information gaps inherent to all historical sources. In the context of genealogical reconstruction, a researcher will inevitably face the incompleteness of data due to the partial absence of separate pages that contain the data alongside the peculiarities of filling in the metric books. In assessing the demographic processes, the marriage and death data, due to the high level of representativity will provide the appropriate results, while the birth data will not be able to do the same, due to the low representativity of data that survived.
Biahun R. - Maps of Minsk of the late XVIII early XIX century as the sources on social topography of the city pp. 39-59


Abstract: This article examines the maps of Minsk of the late XVIII – early XIX century as the sources on social topography of the city. Socio-topographic approach in history implies combining topographic data and social research. City maps have been traditionally viewed as the sources for reconstructing urban topography. However, they often contain valuable data on population of the city, thus it is suggested viewing the maps of Minsk as the carriers of two types of information – topographic and social. Having prepared a review of twenty city maps, the author demonstrates the context of their emergence and provides brief description. The importance of city maps for reconstruction of its topography is underlined. Bases on studying the cartographic content of maps, the author reproduces the image of Minsk of the late XVIII – early XIX; determines the records on social characteristics of urban population. The meaning of cartographic sources for examination of social topography of Minsk is defined.
Borovkov D. - The effect of "memory aberration" in M.T. Kalashnikov's memoirs about the Great Patriotic War. pp. 45-56



Abstract: The object of the work is the memoirs of the famous Russian designer-gunsmith M. T. Kalashnikov about his participation in the battles of the Great Patriotic War in 1941. The author subjects fragments of M. T. Kalashnikov's memoirs of various publications to comparative analysis. The key publications are "Notes of the designer-gunsmith" in 1992 and "Kalashnikov: the Trajectory of Fate", published in 2007. In addition, the text of the designer's memoirs is compared with documentary sources: combat documents of the 108 tank division, in which M.T. Kalashnikov served at the time of his participation in the battles. The author also provides a review of literature and research on the military biography of M.T. Kalashnikov. The author concludes about the serious chronological distortion that M. T. Kalashnikov made when describing his participation in the battles. The designer himself clearly indicated in his memoirs that he spent at least several weeks at the front in September and October 1941. The analysis of the documents clearly shows that the participation of M.T. Kalashnikov in the battles was actually reduced to two days of fighting: August 30 and 31, 1941. In addition, a comparison of the texts of memoirs of different publications revealed noticeable discrepancies between them. Some of these discrepancies could only have been made deliberately. In addition, the historiographical review revealed the following: the authors who worked on the biography of M.T. Kalashnikov earlier were aware of this phenomenon. However, no one carried out a detailed source analysis of the designer's memoirs, and no attempts were made to explain these distortions. At the same time, the author of the work notes that a detailed analysis of the memoirs of M.T. Kalashnikov has yet to be carried out and the information potential of this source cannot be considered exhausted.
Akimova T.M. - Soviets of Workers', Peasants', and Soldiers' Deputies in memorandum of E. G. Gerasimov (Gerasin) of June 14, 1918 pp. 53-59


Abstract: This article discusses the a memorandum of the member of the Control and Audit Committee under the People's Commissariat of Internal Affairs – Efim Grigorievich Gerasimov (Gerasin). Having supported the socialist movement and subsequently the February and October Revolutions of 1917 since his youth years, the author of the document has analyzed the system of Soviets of Workers', Soldiers 'and Peasants' Deputies that established on the local level in late 1917 – early 1918 and gradually replaced the county self-government. The value of the source lies in the fact that the author of self-censorship revealed the flaws of the new local government, having expressed the concern that they may lead to a civil war in the country. E. G. Gerasimov (Gerasin) dedicated particular attention to the problem of dialogue between the Soviet deputies and central government, and proposed to institute the post of special emergency mediators for controlling the execution of all provisions and “encourage” the representatives of the Soviets. The conclusion is made that the elimination of the existing flaws required the so-called “democratic centralism” in Russia, which suggested the combination of electivity of local administration along with the governing and supervisory power of the central administration. In this regard, the content of the document allows taking a look at the Soviets of Workers', Peasants', and Soldiers’ Deputies through the prism of a person who worked in that system, without idealization or “touchup”.
Orfinskaya O.V. - Technological research of omophorion and belt of the XVIII century from Vologda State Historical, Architectural and Art Museum-Reserve pp. 65-96


Abstract: The object of this research is the archeological textile of the XVIII century, which is preserved in the funds of Vologda State Historical, Architectural and Art Museum-Reserve. Two fragments of an omophorion and a belt, after having been extracted from the grave were poorly preserved. For their storage and potential exposition, the museum had to conduct restoration works. The modern scientific restoration implies the research practices that allow selecting the proper methods of restoration works, as well as refine the system of sewing garments, fabric ornaments, and the structure of textile interlacing; often it is possible to reconstruct the shape and color of the examined object. For determination of the ultimate composition of golden embroidery threads, was applies the method of X-ray fluorescence spectral analysis. The research was conducted in the department of restoration of leather and archeological textile (Head of the department N. P. Sinitsyn) of the Grabar Russian Art and Research Restoration Center. The main goal of this publication consists in introduction into the scientific discourse of the new artefact with precise daring and reference to a specific historical figure. Such research must be performed on all museum objects; therefore, the author provides the scheme and key directions in the area of examination and restoration of textile.
Zatseva N.V. - Secular etiquette and the "art of liking" in French moralistic literature of the XVII-XVIII centuries. pp. 65-77


Abstract: The subject of the study is the French moralistic literature of the XVII - first half of the XVIII century. The author examines the period of the formation of the monarchy of the classical model, the time of the change of the heroic chivalrous ideal by the ideal of a noble, and then a gallant man. This transition was due to the need for the coexistence of a large number of courtiers in a small space of the courtyard and occurred through the introduction to essentially humanistic concepts such as "civilit", "politesse" and a rationalistic model of thinking. This brought to life a flood of literature about life at court, the upbringing of a nobleman, courtesy, the art of being liked in the light, which swept the book market. A special contribution of the author to the study of the topic is the analysis of numerous sources of the XVII - first half of the XVIII century on etiquette, demeanor and the art of being liked in the light. As a result, the author came to the conclusion that all this literature was of a practical nature. The manner of behavior, etiquette were not considered as a set of frozen rules. All these rules were aimed at educating and forming a society of noble people, which is based on respect for all participants in communication. The relevance of this topic is that the analysis of French moralistic literature may be interesting for socio-cultural research. Since the new court ethos was embedded in the monarchical model and cemented by the ideology of the "noble" and then the "gallant" person. In addition, the value system, etiquette and behavioral model that emerged in this era, reflected in the moralistic literature, formed the basis of communication, aesthetic assessments and value attitudes of the ruling elites not only of the XVII, but of the entire XVIII century. The principle of "the art of liking" developed in secular society extends not only to the sphere of communication, but also passes into the sphere of literature and art in general.
Shapiro B. - The last parade uniforms of the Emperor Nicholas II: prior to World War I (unknown document from the State Archive of the Russian Federation) pp. 81-93


Abstract: This article introduced into the scientific discourse a previously unknown document from the personal fund of the Emperor Nicholas II stored in the State Archive of the Russian Federation. The document, dedicated to manufacturing of the imperial uniform, is interpreted via examining the sources of personal origin — diaries and memoirs of the last Russian emperor and his immediate circle, authentic uniforms of the Emperor Nicholas II from Moscow and St. Petersburg museums, as well as photographic documents from the Central State Archive of Cinema, Photography, and Audio Documents of St. Petersburg. Methodological framework is based on the chronologically problematic method. In the focus of research is the dynamics of prewar events that cover June – August 1914. Emphasis is also placed on the military representative events of foreign policy nature: parades held during the arrival of the King of Saxony Frederick Augustus III to Russia, as well as the visit of French President Raymond Poincaré. The acquired materials can be valuable for in-depth research on the military history of Russia, history of Russian culture as a whole, history of its tangible culture and costume history. Another area of possible practical implementation is the research work on studying the Russian military uniform in the museum, aimed at fulfillment of its historical-cultural potential and historical uniqueness.
Kostrikova K.E. - The structure of information and the sources of the "Trade and Industrial Newspaper" (the 90s of the XIX - early XX century) pp. 82-92



Abstract: The subject of research in this article is the "Commercial and Industrial Newspaper" published by the Ministry of Finance of Imperial Russia, the circumstances and process of its appearance, the goals and objectives set for its editorial office, the structure, content and quality of the information published in it, the place and role of the newspaper among other periodicals of the Ministry of Finance and similar Russian periodicals of the period under review (The 90s of the XIX century 1906). As an object of research, the structure of information in the "Trade and Industrial Newspaper", its content and changes, as well as sources of obtaining this information are considered. The purpose of the study is to show how the "Trade and Industrial Newspaper", thanks to the published materials, the extensive and multilateral information provided by it, contributed to the development of the domestic trade and industrial sphere, the formation of an economically educated Russian entrepreneurial class, its selfawareness and consolidation. The role of the newspaper in ensuring the professional and class interests of the Russian bourgeoisie, in carrying out the state information policy is considered. The "Trade and Industrial Newspaper", which emerged as a publication of a specific professional direction, over time turned out to be one of the most innovative, energetic, knowledgeable, in-demand mass media bodies, which had a great influence not only on the similar publications that were being formed, but also on the information policy of the Russian state.
Nikitin D. - Documents on the history of the Indian National Congress from the archive of viceroy of India Minto pp. 86-94


Abstract: The subject of this research is the documents from the archive of the viceroy of India Minto, which contain the records about the Indian National Congress. The author examines the history of studying the archive of Minto in foreign scientific literature. Special attention is given to correspondence of Minto with the Secretary of State for India Lord John Morley and their deputies that covers the period from the first Partition of Bengal (1905), split in the Indian National Congress (1907), and draft of the Morley-Minto reform, which involved the members of the Indian National Congress. The article also discusses the activity of the Indian Parliamentary Committee in the British House of Commons, and the response of the colonial authorities to hire pro-Indian parliamentarians in London. The conclusion is made that the documents on the history of the Indian National Congress from Minto’s archive reveal the peculiarities of interaction between the British colonial administration and the national elites, which was aimed at preserving the loyalty of the most moderate representatives of the Indian National Congress, as well as at weakening the national liberation movement that manifested in countering by the colonial administration the significant extension of rights of the Indian nationals and implementation of “separate electorates: within the framework of the Morley-Minto reform.  The documents from Minto’s archive reflect the perspective of the colonial administration on the path of further development of India within the empire by preserving British power.
Savenko E.N., Troyak I.S., Minakov A.G. - Letters of a Siberian soldier - a source on the history of the Great Patriotic War of 1941-1945 pp. 96-106



Abstract: The subject of the study is 1941-1944 letters of participant of the Great Patriotic War, Novosibirsk historian Fyodor Sergeyevich Merkuryev. The object of research is frontline letters as a historical source. The purpose of the work is to determine the scientific and cognitive value of F. S. Merkuryev's letters as a source on the history of the Great Patriotic War. In the course of the research, the comparative historical method, the method of causal analysis between events, as well as the method of source studies were used. The informational component of F. S. Merkuryev's letters was determined using the method of textual analysis, and the problem-chronological method allowed to identify the features of letters depending on the time of their writing. As a result of the analysis of almost 300 front-line letters that were not previously introduced into scientific circulation, valuable information was obtained that reveals various aspects of life at the front and in the rear, as well as allowing to trace the combat path of the 49th Cavalry Division formed in Siberia, as well as to get an idea of the specifics of military field living conditions and other details of front-line everyday life. Conclusions are drawn about the significant informational value of the presented epistolary source for the study of certain aspects of the history of the Great Patriotic War, as well as the need for further work on the introduction of such ego documents into scientific circulation.
Kosov I.M. - Rhetorical functions of bestiary in Giraldus Cambrensis "Topography of Ireland" (according to manuscript of the year 1200) pp. 97-109


Abstract: The subject of this research is the body of miniatures of the NLI MS Giraldus 700manuscript. The object is the rhetorical tools and ways of amplification of the visual text of images of the authorial manuscript in the third version of “Topography…” into the semantic layer of stylistic of the presented treatise of the late XII century. Special attention is given to the classification and typology of miniatures in the Russian and foreign historiography. The researcher specifies the typology of the studied manuscript and its place within the tradition of the English bestiary of the High Middle Ages. The scientific novelty of this work consists in exclusion from the selection of lists of the non-contemporary to the author source – “Topography of Ireland”. In other words, based on such depicted rhetorical tools, the stylistic and rhetorical method of the medieval scribe – the logic in-phase is vividly restored. An important practical result of the conduced analysis of the miniatures will be consciousness within the framework of comparativist approach of the archetype nature of synchrony of the visual and written text as such over the period of III – XII centuries.
Danilova V. - Plutarch and political practice of the I-II centuries AD pp. 99-110


Abstract: The subject of this research is the reflection in Plutarch’s political treatises of the contemporary to him political practice. The author proves that Plutarch’s political thought was not just theoretical, aimed solely towards the past and deflected from modernity. The article examines the advices given by Plutarch to the Greek politicians along with the examples of contemporary political events cited in his political writings. Attention is given to Plutarch’s political activity with regards to his native city Chaeronea and province of Achaea, as well as Plutarch’s attitude to Rome. The article analyzes the five political treatises from the collection “Moralia”. The author applies the linguistic analysis in the original language and quantitative analysis for the treatise “How to Manage the Affairs of State”. The ideas of Plutarch correspond to his lifestyle and level of political activity. The author’s contribution lies in introduction of the materials that have not been published in the Russian language. In the course of this study, the author determines the classical and modern qualities of an ideal politician. The article describes Plutarch’s dual stance on the dependence of Greece from Rome, as well as how should the Greek politician conduct himself towards Roman power. It is revealed that the philosophers must play an active role in politics, in particular, positively influence the rulers, and develop their virtues. The research results are valuable for studying the ancient political thought, as well as relevant for the contemporary politicians, especially from in moral aspect.
Tarasova N. - Documentation of control process over carrying out management decisions in the work of party organization on the regional level during 1970s 1980s pp. 101-111


Abstract: The author meticulously examines the aspects of documentation of control process s over carrying out management decisions in the work of party organization on the regional level during 1970s – early 1980s. Emphasis is made on the record management aspects of control over carrying out management decisions within party structures on the basis of archival material of Rostov and Sverdlovsk Regional Committee of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union. The article reviews control functions of the department of the Central Committee and Regional Committee of CPSU, requirements to formulations and procedures of documentation of control over execution of decrees, and flaws detected during inspection. The special contribution of the authors consists in studying the procedures of documentation of management decisions of party organization that did not receive due coverage by the researchers, as well as in introduction into the scientific discourse of archival sources, which views party documentation as a peculiar system, which specifics is reflected in the content of documents and documentation procedures and differentiates it from the national documentation system of that period. Documentation of control process over management decision-making in the party organization is described.
Kyzlasova I.S., Smurova O.V. - The Informative Potential of "Reference Books about the Persons of the St. Petersburg [Petrograd] Merchants ... [1865-1916]" for the Study of the Entrepreneurs of the Waste pp. 108-122



Abstract: The author examines the "Reference books on persons of the St. Petersburg [Petrograd] merchants and other ranks, joint-stock and unit companies and trading houses ... [1865-1916]" published by merchant councils, whose appearance was associated with the procedure for obtaining certificates and tickets for conducting trade and fishing activities. They are a unique source for studying the Russian business class. The features of the structure and the specifics of the presentation of information in the "Reference Books" allow to present it in the form of Excel tables and form a prosopographic data bank, which serves as an effective tool for working with a large array of data. As a result of the source analysis, their subject-thematic content was revealed. The authors show that the materials of the "Reference Books" allow us to study the sources of recruitment and the composition of the bourgeoisie of St. Petersburg, the prevailing areas of capital application, strategies for the development of entrepreneurial activity, including various types of diversification. The use of the prosopographic method makes it possible to reconstruct the social appearance of individual age cohorts of outof-towners and migrants - immigrants from peasants and burghers, trends in intergenerational social mobility and identity transformation, marriage and career strategies. In addition, the ways of regional and local (within St. Petersburg) movements are traced. Thus, the strategies of behavior of the most passionate part of the peasantry for a long time are reconstructed. The scientific novelty of the study consists in the analysis of the structure of "Reference books" and their potential to obtain a more objective picture of the main patterns and features of the formation of the Russian business class in the imperial period.
Yankovskaya M.S. - Paris and Exposition Universelle of 1889 in perception of the Russian journalists pp. 110-116


Abstract:   The subject of this research is the impressions of Paris experienced by the Russian journalists during their visit of the Exposition Universelle in 1889. Attention is focused in the cross-cultural dialogue between France and Russia right before concluding the military-political alliance. The history of the world expositions can be viewed as a mirror of international politics that also reflects the peculiarities of mentality and domestic policy of the member-states. In the course of the research, the author applied the methods of internal and external criticism, as well as extensively used the interdisciplinary approach, elements of statistical analysis, culturological and art methods. The scientific novelty consists in the fact that the world expositions are the manifestation of mass visual culture. These are the most accessible forms for cognizing the culture of other countries intelligible for the extensive audience, which gradually substitute the exclusive culture. In addition, the novelty is associated with the methodology of imagological studies, namely consideration of the mutual representations and stereotypes of perception.    
Trifanova S.V., Soenov V.I. - Bone ornaments among Altai population of HunnoSarmatian period pp. 110-123


Abstract:   This article is dedicated to the results of examination of bone ornaments from the Altai cultural heritage of Hunno–Sarmatian period as the information source on the material and spiritual culture of population. More than 300 of archeological findings out of nine necropolises and a hillfort, collected in Altai over the year by the authors and other scholars, serve as the material for this research. Particular attention is given to the results of study of the more popular artefacts: bone beads, shell badges, animal tooth and claw necklaces. The article is based on the systemic approach and principle of historicism. The authors apply the methods of morphological analysis of the varieties of bone ornaments, as well as reconstruction of manufacturing process. This category of inventory allows acquiring information on the types of economic activity of the population, as well as the outlook upon social phenomena and relations. The scientific novelty lies in the fact that there is no special studies dedicated to examination of bone ornaments of Altai population of Hunno–Sarmatian period and their classification; the unpublished collections presented by the items from the tombs Ayrydash-1, Stepshka-2 and Top-Uimon are introduced into the scientific discourse. It is concluded that the bone-carving art was one of the well-developed branches of the local craftwork due to availability of materials that were mostly the remains from consuming the meat of wild and domestic animals.  
Akimova T.M. -
Narrative of the women of Burachikha settlement as a source on the history of development of civil society in Vladimir province in the spring of 1917
pp. 121-132


Abstract: This article reviews two documents stored in the State Archive of the Russian Federation: “Narrative” of the women of Burachikha settlement (Glumovskaya Volost , Yuryevsky Uyezd of Vladimir Province) and the response of the Moscow Regional Council of the Soviet of Workers’ and Soldiers' Deputies dated by April-May 1917. The “Narrative” reflects the concerns of peasantry, which was the largest social class in Russia of that time: shortage of firewood and food, ongoing World War I, unresolved land issue; confusion with the political changes taking place in the country due to lack of awareness and special literature. The attitude of rural population towards the pre-revolutionary authorities and Provisional Government is described. The document deserves special attention, as it demonstrates the position of women who were first granted the right to vote in the spring of 1917. Moscow Regional Council of Workers' Deputies supported the political activity of female rural population, although did not render any assistance. The conclusion is made that the published texts can be used in studying the development of civil society in provinces after the February Revolution of 1917. The content of these sources is also valuable for the researchers dealing with the gender problems, social history of the first quarter of the XX century, and the history of the February and October Revolutions of 1917.
Kostrikov S.P., Kostrikov S.S., Kazarova N.A. - Reports of Swedish diplomats on the events of the First World War (based on the decryption of diplomatic correspondence) pp. 121-133



Abstract: The subject of the study is the decrypted telegrams of Swedish diplomatic missions sent to the Minister of Foreign Affairs of the Swedish Kingdom K. Wallenberg, intercepted by the special services of the General Staff of the Russian Army at the end of 1915-1916. Sweden, while remaining a formally neutral power, nevertheless not only closely followed the events on the fronts of the First World War, but also conducted active trade and provided transit services to both Germany and Russia, deriving huge economic benefits from this situation. The documents of this period mainly cover the events in the Balkans, where the allied forces of the Entente tried to deploy the so-called Salonika (Macedonian) front to help the Serbian army and to divert enemy forces from other fronts.Based on the methods of historicism and systematic research, the reports of diplomats who informed their leadership about the events around Thessaloniki, about the situation and actions of the allied forces and the troops of the Central Powers, about the further intentions of the opposing forces, about the fate of Serbia and Montenegro, express assessments and opinions on specific issues and the prospects for the development of the war. Since there were supporters of both the Entente and the Austro-German bloc in the Swedish elite, the following conclusions can be drawn from the documents under consideration. They allow us to assess the range of issues of the most interest to Swedish diplomats and the Swedish government, as well as the degree of their awareness, the quality of information sources and the level of understanding of the content of the events taking place. These documents are very important for clarifying Sweden's position during the First World War. Since there were supporters of both the Entente and the Austro-German bloc in the Swedish elite, it can be understood from the documents under consideration that during this period it became increasingly obvious to Swedish diplomats that despite all the difficulties, including in the Balkans, the preponderance of the Entente countries was more likely. Most of the analyzed archival materials are being introduced into scientific circulation for the first time.
Maksimova I.V. - Cholera as a present-day concern in perception of the dwellers of the county town of Tsaritsyn (based on the materials of the newspaper Volzhsko-Donskoy Listok) pp. 151-168


Abstract: The object of this research is the regional press as a source on the history of cholera epidemics of the late XIX century. The subject is the public moods and behavioral practices of the dwellers of the county town of Saratov governorate – Tsaritsyn, which was affected by cholera epidemic of 1892, in coverage of the regional press. The historiographical framework consists on the versatile and unique materials of the municipal newspaper "Volzhsko-Donskoy Listok", which are introduced into the scientific discourse for the first time. A detailed analysis of the annual publications of local press allowed tracing the chronology of the traditional approach towards perception of the poorly studied in literature cholera epidemics of 1892 in Tsaritsyn in the context of studying the history of everyday life. The author reveals this topic up until September 1893. Special attention is turned to examination of different stereotypical models of behavior that appeared to be widespread among the population, and became a somewhat response to the emerged situation of biological and social nature. The research is based on the interdisciplinary approach that implies comprehensive examination of the problem, involving the achievements in the history of medicine, historiography, psychology, sociology, etc. This article is the first attempt within the regional historiography to holistically examine the cholera epidemic of 1892 in Tsaritsyn. The conducted analysis of the newspaper “Volzhsko-Donskoy Listok” allowed to highly rate the informative capabilities of the regional press for studying cholera epidemics and their impact on life of the population in the post-reform period. The author offers the original classification of the whole variety of materials on the topic, as well as outlines the ways for their further usage.
Veber M. - Military clergy of the 4th Orenburg Army Corps of the Kolchak Army based on the documents of the dean corps of S. V. Kaverznev pp. 207-217


Abstract: This article is dedicated to the history of the Russian Orthodox Church during the revolutionary disturbances of 1917 and the Russian Civil War. The subject of this research is the the history of military clergy of the Kolchak Army. The article introduced into the scientific discourse the report of the dean of the 4th Orenburg Army Corps of the Southern Army of the Armed Forces of Admiral A. V. Kolchak –  archpriest Stefan Vasilyevich Kaverznev on the activity of military clergy of the corps in August – September of 1919. This is a valuable historical source that contains records on staff composition of regimental priests of the 4th Orenburg Army Corps, as well as reveals the engagement of military priests in propaganda activity among the soldiers and officers of the corps. The report of the archpriest S. V. Kaverznev provides valuable information on the history of military operations of the 4th Orenburg Army Corps in summer of 1919, which ended with its defeat and escape to the Turgai Steppe. The article also publishes the formal request of the archpriest S. V. Kaverznev on the emergency situation that took place in the 4th Orenburg Army Corps – desertion of the regimental priest of the 6th Syzran Rifle Regiment Vasily Yaremenko, who joined the Reds in early September of 1919. The author believes that this document testifies to the escalated symptoms that led to decomposition of the Kolchak Army in the autumn of 1919.
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