Genesis: Historical research - rubric Ethnography and ethnology
Genesis: Historical research
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MAIN PAGE > Journal "Genesis: Historical research" > Rubric "Ethnography and ethnology"
Ethnography and ethnology
Karpov G. - Africans in Great Britain: the colonial period. pp. 1-19

DOI:
10.7256/2409-868X.2017.6.22934

Abstract: The article is devoted to studying of African migrants of the colonial period, from the XVIth century up to the first half of the XX century. The subject of the study of the article is the number of migrants from Africa, the channels of African migration to the metropolis, the employment of Africans, and their socioeconomic status. Particular attention is paid to the influence of the slave trade and the missionary movement on the African communities of Great Britain. Trends and tendencies of the first half of the XX century are considered in details. They prejudged the dramatic changes in the size of the population and the situation with British Africans in the second half of the century - at the beginning of the XXI century.Scientific novelty of the work lies in the detailed questions of the size of the population and the situation with British Africans concerning the employment sector of the colonial period. Until the beginning of the decolonization process the number of African migrants in Britain remained totally insignificant, not more than 10,000-20,000 people. The results of the study provide support for concluding that Africans had the possibility to be engaged in a wide array of activities, take part in social and religious activities, even trying to assert their rights and to combat discrimination.
Karpov G. - White Africans in modern Great Britain: specificity of migrants from South Africa pp. 1-13

DOI:
10.25136/2409-868X.2018.4.25787

Abstract: This article is dedicated to examination of the migration from South Africa to Great Britain during the XX-XXI centuries, as well as peculiarities of establishment of the South African diaspora in the country. The author meticulously reviews the dynamics of migration flow from South Africa to Great Britain throughout the XX century, the key channels of arrival and ways of legalization of South Africans at the turn of the XX-XXI centuries. Special attention is given to analysis of discrepancies between the migration of South Africans of European ancestry and migration of the indigenous African population of South Africa. The specificity of identity of the persons of South African descent with British roots and the role of English language for the migrants from South Africa is examined in details. Before the fall of Apartheid regime in 1994, the migration of South Africans to Great Britain did not carry mass character; it has reached its pinnacle in the end of 1990’s – 2000’s. The absolute majority of South Africans in Great Britain are referred to the ethnic group of the “White” and represents the migrants of British (less commonly European) descent. The portion of the indigenous African population among the migrants from South Africa does not exceed 3-4%. South African diaspora is a rare case of extremely successful and non-confrontational integration to British society. For South Africa, the outflow of European population has resulted in a heavy shortage of qualified specialists. Overall, the attraction of migrants of European descents from South Africa, perhaps, could be favorable for the British authorities, strengthen the British identity and increase the portion of white population in the country.
Khaliulina A.I., Ishemgulov M.N., Idrisova E.F. - Realities of bilingualism in the context of language policy in modern Bashkortostan pp. 1-18

DOI:
10.25136/2409-868X.2020.10.33877

Abstract: The subject of this research is bilingualism in the context of language policy in modern Bashkortostan. Special attention is given to actualization of the ethno-lingual identity of non-Russian population in the republic. Leaning on the ethnosociological studies, the author examine the scale of proliferation of national-Russian bilingualism in Bashkortostan, analyze the key markers in selection of the native language among some ethnic groups, as well as determine the role of Russian language as a language of interethnic communication. The novelty of this work lies in the attempt to determine the intensity of usage of national languages of non-Russian peoples and their interaction with the Russian language based on the wide-scale ethnosociological studies. The acquired results demonstrate that among Bashkir population, the native language still prevails over Russian by the level of language competence; while among urban Tatars, the Russian language has noticeably exceeded the native language of communication. At the same time, the results of ethnosociological research, confirming the results of the All-Russia Population Census of 2010 on the language competence of the residents of Bashkortostan, testify to the fact that their speech activity is oriented mostly towards learning Russian than the language of their ethnicity.
Sharapova I.R., Khusainova G.R. - From the history of collecting and studying folklore of the Bashkirs of the Russian Federation pp. 1-9

DOI:
10.25136/2409-868X.2023.12.69170

EDN: ZXROLE

Abstract: The purpose of this article is to study the history of collecting and researching the folklore of the Bashkirs of the Russian Federation, which occupies an important place in the spiritual heritage of the people. In Bashkirology, a number of articles are devoted to the historiography of Bashkir folklore, there are observations on the collection and study of folklore of a particular region in review articles about materials collected during expeditions, but there is no special study on the history of the collection and study of folklore of the Bashkirs of the Russian Federation. The subject of this research is information about the collection and research of folklore of Bashkirs compactly living in different regions away from the mother ethnic group, various studies that mention the folklore of Bashkirs of a particular region, as well as field studies of modern folklorists in the studied regions.At the stage of data collection and initial evaluation of the material, the bibliographic method was used. The methodology of end-to-end research of essay literature, journals covering the time period of the XIX and the first quarter of the XXI century was used. The methodological basis of the article is the works of domestic, including Bashkir, researchers-predecessors in the field of the history of folklore studies. The novelty of the study lies in the fact that for the first time in one study, information was collected about the collection and study of folklore of Bashkirs compactly living in seven regions of the Russian Federation. The chronological sequence traces the history of the recording of Bashkir folklore outside the Republic of Bashkortostan. It is noted that the collection and study of Bashkir folklore acquires a relatively noticeable scope and in Soviet times becomes a matter of state from the case of individual enthusiasts-amateurs, put on a solid scientific basis; the great importance of academic expeditions is emphasized. The study showed that the richness of Bashkir folklore is distinguished by the Orenburg, Kurgan, Chelyabinsk regions, that the folklore of the Chelyabinsk Bashkirs turned out to be the most studied.
Mongush A.M. - Men in gender interactions in the traditional Tuvan society pp. 19-26

DOI:
10.25136/2409-868X.2019.6.30122

Abstract: The subject of this research is the men’s gender role within the system of the traditional Tuvan society and family. The goal of this work lies in examination of the role and status of men in family, social, and economic life of the traditional Tuvan society. The author considers such aspects of the topic as the gender differences with regards to child’s gender among Tuvans, superstitious beliefs associated with gender predetermination of a future child, symbolic birth rituals, etc. Special attention is turned to the role of a father in the upbringing process of boys, fostering skills in traditional farming, as well as acquisition of masculine features. The key research method is the systemic approach, which suggests studying the traditional Tuvan society as a system with a certain social role allotted to men. The principle of historicism allowed to objectively examine the status of men in Tuvan society in historical evolution. In conclusion, the author notes that men in the traditional Tuvan society was key link in procreation, responsible for preservation and reproduction of ethnocultural traditions and customs. The author also determined the gender peculiarities with regards to men at various age stages, revealed the process of male socialization, substantiated the leading role of Tuvan men in economic life.  
Tychinskikh Z.A., Zinnatullina G.I. - Elements of Shamanism in the Folk Medicine of the Siberian Tatars pp. 51-61

DOI:
10.25136/2409-868X.2022.12.39304

EDN: WCOILI

Abstract: The purpose of the article is to examine, on the basis of field ethnographic materials collected by the authors in the Tyumen, Omsk and Novosibirsk regions during a number of field seasons, the relics of shamanism preserved in the folk medicine of the Siberian Tatars. The relevance of the study is related to the poor knowledge of this issue. The object of the study is the relics of the preIslamic beliefs of the Siberian Tatars, including the categories of shamans (imce, kuremce, sihyrce, kotsle mullah, etc.). The subject is their role in the traditional healing and magical rituals. The authors believe that with the spread of Islam in Western Siberia, there is a loss or significant transformation of the early common Turkic ideas about the universe, nature and essence of man. But, despite this, some elements of the common Turkic cultural and religious practice have been preserved in the culture of the Siberian Tatars. The main conclusions of the authors are the following. Magical rituals occupied a significant place in the traditional folk medicine of the Siberian Tatars. The authors show the preservation of some relics of shamanism among the Siberian Tatars, as well as categories of shamanists, which include imce, kuremce, sihyrce. The similarities and differences in their capabilities in traditional medical practice are shown: clairvoyance (kuremce, imce, sihyrce), diagnosis of diseases, treatment (imce, kuremce, sihyrce), kamlaniya (imce, sihyrce), prediction of the future, communication with spirits (kuremce, sihyrce). In connection with the important role of Sufism in Siberian Islam, it is shown that the practices inherent in shamanism were used in the treatment of Islamic clerics - mullahs.
Popova A., Serebryakova A.I. - Guardians of Hearth in the Russian and Chinese mythological traditions pp. 58-73

DOI:
10.25136/2409-868X.2023.5.40850

EDN: RSBAVA

Abstract: One of the most frequently encountered characters in the mythology of various cultures are household spirits, deities-guardians of the hearth, who have lived side by side with humans since ancient times. In this article, on the basis of Russian and Chinese sources, the authors conduct a comparative analysis of the images of the patrons of the household in such aspects as the names given to them by the bearers of culture, versions of origin, appearance, marital status, functions that these deities performed, rituals of worship. The subject of the research is the images of the Domovoy and God of the hearth of Zao-wang in Russian and Chinese cultures. The aim of the work is to find similarities and differences about Domovoy and Zao-wang, to comprehend the interaction of a person with the domestic spirit in Russia and China, which is relevant in the light of the strengthening of relationship between the two countries and contributes to a better understanding of both Chinese and Russian culture. The novelty lies in the absence of such a comparative study in Russian science. As a result of the work, it was revealed that the characters of the keeper of the hearth in the Russian and Chinese traditions have both similarities and differences. Similar features of home spirits are due to global cultural processes, while their differences are determined by worldview and other features of the regions.
Sokolov O. - Recitation of sacred text in rites of passage among the Muslims of Volga-Ural Region (XIX XXI centuries) pp. 60-66

DOI:
10.25136/2409-868X.2020.3.32420

Abstract: The subject of this research is the rites of passage among the Muslims of Volga-Ural Region in historical perspective. Ritual practices of the Muslim population of Volga Region are of particular interest since they developed in the conditions of continuous contact with non-Muslim population, and religious was often a key factor of national self-identification. Examination of the patterns of inclusion of the sacred text fragments into Muslim rituals in Volga-Ural Region has not previously been a topic of separate research within the Russian and Western anthropology. Analysis of functionality of the sacred text in rites of passage among the Muslims of Volga Region was conducted within the framework of methodology of diachronic analysis through comparing the records from Arabographic manuscripts and modern editions of prayer books. It is underlined that the prayers presented in manuscript of the XIX century are formulaic and repetitive, consisting usually of brief repeating fragments – epithets of Allah, names of prophets and chapters Ayats. Modern prayer books contain the whole Ayats and Surahs, or citations from Hadith. Such difference can be explained by widely accessible printed literature and expansive increase in the literacy level among population of the region comparing to the XIX century. The author notes that the great majority of prayers in both types of sources are in Arab language, which emphasizes a sacred significance of Arab language in the Muslim culture.
Lidzieva I.V. - Foreign social capital: sources of formation and vector of the depletion pp. 73-86

DOI:
10.25136/2409-868X.2018.6.25561

Abstract: The subject of this research is the foreign social capital as the means of integrating the nomadic people into the imperial legal, economic, and sociocultural space. Particular attention is given to the formation revenues and expenditures of the financial foundations of the nomadic people from South Russia: Kalmyks, Nogais, and Turkmens. The analysis of documental materials demonstrated that the indicated financial foundations used to have the Kalmyks of Astrakhan Governorate, Stavropol Governorate and Bolshederbetovsky Ulus, as well as the secular capital at the societal level. Methodological bases contains the principles of historicism and objectivism. The author also uses the statistical method that allowed giving a quantitative characteristic to the social capitals of the nomadic people, as well as the reconstructive method thaet rstored the budget mechanism. The scientific novelty lies in the fact that for the first time leaning on the analysis of documental materials, has been reviewed the problem of formation and depletion of the means of foreign social capitals of the nomadic people of South Russia in the context of imperial policy aimed at integration of the regional suburbs in terms of economic modernization in the XIX – early XX centuries.
Kumakhova Z.K. - Phenomena of space and time in worldview of Circassian woman of the XIX early XX century pp. 73-79

DOI:
10.25136/2409-868X.2018.9.27267

Abstract: The subject of this research is such phenomena of the worldview of Circassian woman of the XIX – early XX century as space and time, and their impact upon the formation of her inner world. The goal of this works is the analysis of research interests of existential categories of the consciousness of a Circassian woman that previously remained on the periphery. In the conditions of the absence of writing system among the peoples of North Caucasus in the indicated period of time, the most informatory sources became the folk songs and proverbs, in which a Circassian woman was either the main character or the author. The author applies the phenomenological method that allows cognizing the inner world of Circassian woman. The scientific novelty, first and foremost, lies in the fact that a Circassian woman was depicted as the active, creative subject of meaning-making; and secondly, in determination of the fundamental categories of the consciousness of Circassian woman and their impact upon her worldview. A conclusion is substantiated that the phenomena of space and time in worldview of a Circassian woman have formed inextricably with the everyday realities of life and household of the patriarchal traditional society.
Bravina R. - Archeology of Folklore: Ancient inhabitants of the East Siberian Arctic pp. 73-82

DOI:
10.25136/2409-868X.2023.8.39818

EDN: WLLPMZ

Abstract: The subject of the study is the aboriginal tribes of the Yakut Arctic based on the folklore of the indigenous peoples of Northeast Asia. Mythological plots and folklore texts include images from mythical characters the host spirits of ichchi and kuchun of peripheral border territories and wild "half-human, half-animal" chuchun/suchun, to representatives of alien Omuk tribes with their unusual appearance and habits: "hairy" giants, tiny men and people "falling asleep for the winter". The purpose and objectives of the article are to generalize, systematize and analyze folklore texts about the ancient inhabitants of the Yakut Arctic using materials from mythology, toponymy, ethnography and archeology. In the genres of Yakut folklore, although a cycle of legends and legends about non-Yakut tribes stands out, nevertheless there is no special article dedicated to the ancient inhabitants of the Arctic coast and the islands of the northern seas of Yakutia. Folklore texts contain diverse, including deeply archaic layers of mythological ideas and folk knowledge inherent in both Yakuts and Tungus-Manchurian, Paleoasiatic, Samoyed and Finno-Ugric peoples. At the same time, the plots of legends and legends were constantly developing, absorbing both mythological representations and real features of the life of Arctic hunters and reindeer herders, as well as fragments of Early Russian folklore. Such a wide areal distribution can be explained by a single historical and cultural heritage, including folklore traditions, of Northern Eurasia.
Galyamov A.A. - Historical-ethnographic and visual sources of C. Roths printmaking from J. G. Georgis edition (on the example of the Ob Ugrians) pp. 95-105

DOI:
10.25136/2409-868X.2021.6.35871

Abstract: The subject of this research is the printmaking of C. Roth from the academic edition of J. G. Georgi Georgi “Description of everyone living in Russian state…”. The works of the Nuremberg printmaker Christopher Roth, although being an important source, were not given due attention for a long time, being viewed only in the context of studying the academic work of J. G. Georgi. The this article aims to conduct a comprehensive analysis of the historical-ethnographic and visual sources of C. Roth’s printmaking on the example of the images of the Ob Ugrians (“Ostyak on the Ob River”,  “Ostyak on Ermine Trapping”,  “The Face of Ostyachka”, and “The Back of “Ostyachka”). Based on the developed visual motifs – costumes, characteristic “postures”, attributes, etc., it is possible to reconstruct the list of sources used by C. Roth in his art pieces. The conclusion is made that as the historical-ethnographic and visual sources, C. Roth used drawings (including “plein-air” and expeditionary), " mannequins, and examples of Ostyak traditional dresses from the Siberian collection of the Kunstkamera. However, in creation of such compositions as “ Ostyak in Ermine Trapping”, “The Face of Ostyachka”, and “The Back of “Ostyachka”, the list of the aforementioned sources can be complemented by ethnographic descriptions from the academic editions of the second half of the XVIII century, miniatures from chronicles (“Brief Siberian (Kungur) Chronicle”), as well as ethnographic maps (“Ethnographic Map of Siberia of the Great Northern Expedition”).
Khasanova Z.F. - The items of Islam and pre-Islamic beliefs of the Bashkirs in collection of the Museum of Archeology and Ethnography of the Institute of Ethnological Research of the Ufa Federal Research Center of the Russian Academy of Sciences pp. 95-102

DOI:
10.25136/2409-868X.2021.11.36740

Abstract: The subject of this research is museum sources on the religion of Bashkir people. The goal lies in examination of the items of Islam and pre-Islamic beliefs from the ethnographic collections of the Museum of Archeology and Ethnography of R. G. Kuzeev Institute of Ethnological Research of the Ufa Federal Research Center of the Russian Academy of Sciences. It is determined that the Museum stores over 50 items related to religion that were collected in the late XX century in the Republic of Bashkortostan, Kurgan Oblast, and Orenburg Oblast. These Islamic (Sunni Muslims) items are rather associated with the traditions and lifestyle of the Bashkir people: prayer rugs – namazlik, Quran, tasbih, tagiyah, ablution items – kumgan, dress of the Mullah. Prayer rugs are decorated with floral embroidery, with images of mosque, kumgan, crescent moon, and Arabic inscription. The collections also feature the items related to Shia Muslims – a stone used in prayer. Islam first infiltrated Bashkir culture in the X – XI centuries; by the XIII – XIV century it spread significantly; strengthening its positions with each century, it has fully integrated into life of Bashkir population by the end of the XIX century. Despite this fact, certain items pre-Islamic beliefs have retained in everyday life of the Bashkir people: amulets (amulet stones, juniper, feathers of wood grouse, goose down, etc.). Bashkirs were able to synthesize the pre-Islamic and Islamic tradition, which remain existing harmoniously in the territory of the Republic of Bashkortostan.
Khaliulina A.I. - Language and cultural development of Tatar minority in Bashkortostan pp. 97-108

DOI:
10.25136/2409-868X.2018.5.25881

Abstract: The subject of this research is the language and cultural development of ethnic groups in the polynational region. The object of this research is the Tatars of Bashkortostan. The problems of ethnocultural development of Tatar language population in Bashkortostan in the late 1980’s have become an accelerator in creation of Tatar national cultural clubs and organizations, which raised concerns regarding the studying of Tatar language in schools of the Republic, creation of theatres and philharmonic halls in Tatar language districts, expansion of the mass media in Tatar language. Methodological foundation is the historical-chronological method that allows revealing the indicated processes in diachronic cut, as well as sociological method that views the language and cultural development of Tatar minority in polynational region in synchronic cut. The scientific novelty lies in the fact that for the first time with the attraction of normative document on language issues and results of sociological survey, an attempt was made to describe the language and cultural development of Tatar language population in Bashkortostan. A conclusion is made that all of the aforementioned problems to a certain extent were realized by the republican authorities, although some questions remained unnoticed and were not removed from the agenda. Among the paramount, in accordance with an opinion of Tatar intelligentsia, is recognition the Tatar as national language alongside the Bashkir and Russian. The author underlines that insufficient TV and radio coverage in Tatar language, as well as lack of organization of education in the native Tatar language. The listed problems have constantly been raised by the republican authorities.
Vinokurov A.D. - Reconstruction of the early ethnic history of the Yakut tribe "Jarkhan" on the basis of ethnonymy, oral tradition and totemic ideas pp. 106-114

DOI:
10.25136/2409-868X.2023.12.69436

EDN: GBIAUO

Abstract: The article is devoted to the early history of the Yakut tribe "Jarkhan", which was one of the main ethnic components involved in the formation of the Vilyui group of Yakuts. Previously, historical and genealogical information was transmitted orally with help of historical legends. The end of the XIX the middle of the XX centuries marks a qualitatively new period in the formation of the written tradition of the genealogy of the Yakut people associated with the painstaking source studies, collecting and research work of G.V. Ksenofontov, S.I. Bolo, A.A. Savvin, G.U. Ergis, etc. We have made an attempt to show the process of segmentation of the Jarkhan clans and the formation of new tribal groups by compiling a nomenclature of the generic composition. The study of the generic composition allows us to imagine the processes of movement and settlement of genera, renaming, merging and formation of new ones. The purpose and objectives of the research are to systematize and interpret the materials of the oral genealogical tradition, legends and archival documents. The methodological basis of the research is based on the basic principles of historical science - the principle of historicism and the principle of objectivity. The principle of historicism is important for conducting genealogical research, as it allows us to trace the segmentation of large tribal groups into small ones. General scientific and historical methods (historical-comparative, historical-typological, source analysis) were used as additional research methods. The novelty of the research lies in the systematization of the tribal composition and the introduction into scientific circulation of previously unpublished documents of the National Archive of the RS(Ya) revealing the tribal composition. Based on the studied material, it is concluded that oral historical traditions and pedigrees represented the central core in the structure of historical knowledge among the Yakuts. Conceptually, genealogical traditions were formed from real genealogy and unreal, which is basically a structure-forming fictional genealogy (within the boundaries of tribal communities). The result of the work performed is the preparation of the nomenclature of the Yakut generic composition. We also found that the Yakuts had common, group and individual totems. Along with this, the practice of changing the historical totem to a new one associated with a new habitat has been revealed.
Krygin R.V. - German-speaking travelers of the XVIII-XIX centuries in the Crimea. pp. 109-115

DOI:
10.25136/2409-868X.2023.4.38253

EDN: QHOQBE

Abstract: The annexation of Crimea to the Russian Empire in 1783 is one of the most significant dates in the history of the Russian state. The unexplored lands of the Russian Empire aroused great interest not only among its rulers, but also among a large number of foreigners, including German-speaking travelers. Among them were writers, scientists, geographers, naturalists, encyclopedists. Among the foreign researchers of the Crimean nature, not a few Germans were observed. Germans appeared in the Crimea as early as 1805. In Simferopol county they found such colonies as: Neizatz, Friedenthal, Rosenthal (Wirtenbergers), in Feodosia County Heilbrunn, Sudak and Herzenberg. In the same year, the Swiss colony of Zurichtal appeared on the territory of the Crimean peninsula, and later, in 1811, another German colony, Kronental. The subject of the study are German-speaking travelers who visited the Crimea in the period XVIII-XIX. Despite numerous studies conducted in various periods, not only by domestic but also by foreign scientists, there are currently no historical and linguistic works of a German-speaking travelogue about the Crimea. The authors of the German - language travelogue about Crimea as informants can be divided into categories: a) chronology b) pragmatics. Due to the fact that Crimea has a unique and diverse nature, the region was often explored in the 18th and 19th century, not only by Russian researchers who had to expand Catherine II's knowledge about her state, but also by scientists of German origin. The region was explored by the Kippen family, Peter Simon Pallas, Moritz von Engelhart, Friedrich Parrott, Biberstein, and Karl Gablitz.
Kandrina E.V. - Factors impacting the emergence and existence of the traditional fold crafts and arts in a polycultural region (on the example of the Republic of Mordovia) pp. 111-121

DOI:
10.25136/2409-868X.2019.8.30483

Abstract: This article determines and classifies the factors that directly affect the structure and peculiarities of existence of the folk crafts and arts in a particular polycultural region. Complex analysis is conducted on the role of each factor in the process of emergence, existence, development and extinction of the individual types of crafts retained in Mordovia at the present stage. The author determines the key factors affecting the possible revival, preservation and development of the traditional crafts that for a long time have existed in Mordovia in the conditions of market economy. The scientific novelty consists in identification and generalization of the essential characteristics of the factors impacting the nature, structure and level of development of the folk crafts and arts in the context of a particular polycultural region. As a result, the author reveals the pattern of changes in the degree of impact of certain factor upon the separate types of crafts activity depending on the shift in the historical formation and political course conducted by the government. The author highlights the group of factors holding a leading position in the process of preservation and development of the folk crafts and arts in the Republic of Mordovia at the current stage.
Rusanov V.V. - Common law in inheriting patrimonial ranks among Altai people pp. 121-126

DOI:
10.7256/2409-868X.2016.2.16836

Abstract: This article examines the uniqueness of common law among Altai people with regards to traditions of inheriting the patrimonial ranks; the institution of Zaisanship is being researched. The author thoroughly explores such aspects of the topic as: peculiarities of transferring the administration within the Seok clan; historical legal issues of establishment of the Altai clan aristocracy during the period of Dzungar leadership, as well as during the period after the affiliation of Altai nation into the Russian Empire. Special attention is given to the wealth status of the representative of the ethnic elites. Despite the fact that there are many research conducted on the history and ethnology of Altai people, the inheritance relationships are yet analyzed from the legal perspective. The materials used in this work are somewhat unique, because are partially comprised from the original sources in the course of several expeditions to the Altai Mountains during the period of 2005-2009, and just recently they have been processed. The examination of the common law of the Russian republics is an important step towards understanding the preceding legal concept and preservation of the historical memory.
Konovalov A.A., Zhurtova A.A., Podgainyi V.N. - The system of power and subordination in the family of Kabardians and Balkars in the XIX early XX century pp. 132-141

DOI:
10.25136/2409-868X.2023.2.37555

EDN: IVCNBD

Abstract: The article is devoted to the analysis of power family relations in the traditional society of Kabarda and Balkaria in the XIX early XX century. Its purpose is to study the system of gender-role relations between men and women and the functioning of the "power-subordination" mechanism among Kabardians and Balkars during this period. The study analyzes the traditional model of the family in Kabardian and Balkar societies, its structural organization and historical types that existed at the time under consideration. Much attention is paid to the study of the status of the head of the family, the contradictory position of women, children, gender ideology, which constructed stereotypical behaviors. The developed dual structure of power relations is shown, where interaction on the female half of the family according to the formula "power/subordination" was formed, similar to the male hierarchy, i.e. the wife of the older man acquired the status of the head of her female part and controlled various forms of social practice. On the basis of the studied material, it is concluded that the idea of the slavish or oppressed position of women, as well as the despotic power of the father among Kabardians and Balkars has no sufficient grounds. The father's large amount of power was compensated by the democratic beginnings of family life, and a woman in a formally subordinate position had a set of opportunities for explicit and implicit influence on decision-making. The novelty of the article is to create a more complete picture of the system of power relations in the traditional societies of Kabarda and Balkaria. The main research model was the structural-functional approach developed by T. Parsons and J. Murdoch. The field of application of this research can be social and cultural policy in our country, which allows us to harmoniously combine traditions and innovations, as well as teaching humanities in universities.
Umgaev S.A., Dzhalsanova E.S., Kyukenov D.V., Vasyarkieva T.O., Chudutova A.M. - The Body in Historical Space: from Tradition to Postmodernity pp. 142-149

DOI:
10.25136/2409-868X.2023.2.39692

EDN: JNOIEF

Abstract: The article is devoted to the changes in the perception of the body and the corporeal that occurred in the twentieth century, when traditional society was replaced by modern society, the society of modernity. Another transition takes place in the second half of the century, when humanity takes a step towards the situation of postmodernity, postmodernity, which also brings a variety of changes in the idea of the corporeal. The body is a socio-cultural construct, it is produced and reproduced in different ways depending on both the historical epoch and ethnic differences. The purpose of the article is to reveal these changes in the context of a principled approach to the body and physicality.The article uses the method of historical and ethnological analysis of historiography, as well as field sources obtained by the author during field studies of the practice of oriental martial arts in modern halls of Moscow and Elista. The result of the study is the conclusion about the essential nature of changes in attitude to the body. In traditional European culture, the body is thought of in opposition to the spirit, as a vessel containing it, as, for example, the body of a king is equated in the political theology of the Middle Ages to the whole state apparatus. In the industrial world of modernity, the body is thought of as a mechanism, and in a work situation as an appendage to machine production. In a postmodern situation, the discourse of the body splits into transhumanistic and nontraditional - there is a kind of rollback to the old meanings, but in a new reading. The conclusions made by the author are, perhaps, a step towards a comprehensive understanding of the already double transformation that physicality undertook in the XX century.
Nadyrshin T.M. - School in the Soviet ethnographic research over the period from 1937 to 1953 based on the journal Soviet Ethnography pp. 157-170

DOI:
10.25136/2409-868X.2021.12.36785

Abstract: Examination of the role of school in Soviet ethnography remains a blank spot in the anthropology of education. However, despite the absence of this subdiscipline, the author indicates the interest of Soviet ethnographers in reorganization of educational sphere. Use of the method of content analysis of the journal “Soviet Ethnography” reveals the role of general education on the map of ethnographic science of the era of totalitarianism (1937– 1953). This stage is characterized by one of the major intrusions into science, which is clearly reflected in publications of humanities journals. The author highlights the common semantic structures – patterns and repetitive statements typical for most articles. These statement lead to the following conclusions: criticism of the prerevolutionary system of education, exclusion of religion from the system of education, and exposure of the problems in the system of education of foreign capitalist countries. At the same time, there was the task to emphasize the successes of Soviet education: elimination of illiteracy; growing number of schools, students, and teachers; and the role of schools in cultural development the Soviet Union. In face of ideological restriction, many ethnographers have identified separate issues and offered their recommendations for the Soviet system of education. These unique observations are the contribution made by the Soviet ethnographic science to the cultural interpretation of the school.
Pylypak M. - Historical and cultural heritage of Ukrainians of the Republic of Bashkortostan: according to the funds of the Yumatov Ethnographic Museum pp. 174-184

DOI:
10.25136/2409-868X.2023.11.69094

EDN: ZGRDBI

Abstract: The subject of this study is the exhibits of the main fund of the museum collection of the Yumatov Ethnographic Museum of the Ufa district of the Republic of Bashkortostan (Russia) related to the traditional culture of Ukrainians. The object of the study is the traditional material culture of Ukrainians in a multiethnic environment. The purpose of the study is to study the historical and cultural heritage of Ukrainians of the Republic of Bashkortostan, their interaction with representatives of Turkic, Finnovolgian, as well as other Slavic peoples. The proposed publication presents an analysis of traditional subjects that are an important component of the identity and characteristics of an ethnic group. Tools and devices for performing certain types of work are considered; interior and household items, kitchen utensils; samples of decorative and applied art and materials for their production; clothing and shoes. The time frame for their use in everyday life is indicated by the end of the XIX the middle of the XX century. The area of distribution of exhibits is shown.Based on the subject and object of the study, general scientific and special methods were used as a methodological basis. The research was based on the comparative historical method and the method of typologization. The scientific novelty of the research lies in the fact that for the first time an attempt was made to analyze the museum collection in order to study the historical and cultural heritage of Ukrainians, one of the Slavic peoples of the Republic of Bashkortostan. The main conclusion of the study is that even in a multinational environment, Ukrainians continue to preserve their culture. A special contribution of the author to the study of the topic is the introduction into scientific circulation of new information on the traditional material culture of Ukrainians in the region. In the course of the study, data on the number of Ukrainian exhibits and the area of their origin were clarified. Classification of savings units has been made. The regularity in the periodization of the existence of museum objects is revealed. The results obtained by the author can be used in various types and forms of research and cultural and educational activities, in particular: in the preparation of candidate and doctoral dissertations, generalizing works on the history, ethnography and culture of the peoples inhabiting the Republic of Bashkortostan; design of thematic exhibitions in rural, district and republican museums.
Bersanova Z.Y., Kulbuzheva T.A. - Representation of the concepts of "churn" and "hand mill" as objects of traditional household utensils in Ingushetia pp. 182-189

DOI:
10.25136/2409-868X.2023.12.69390

EDN: BUKRZW

Abstract: The subject of the study is the history of the traditional churn and milling activity of the population of Ingushetia in the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries. The authors consider it in detail on the basis of data from ethnographic expeditions and archaeological excavations. It should be noted that the churn the equipment with which butter is produced and the hand mill occupied an important place in the industrial life of society. Information about them is available not only in archaeological materials, but also in written sources. This approach allows the author to determine the cause-and-effect relationships of events, facts and the state of the traditional butter and flour industry of the population of modern Ingushetia. The research is based on historical, cartographic, statistical, sociological methods; historical materials about the butter industry in Ingushetia are used. The scientific novelty of the research lies in the analysis of ethnographic objects such as a churn and a hand mill; their properties and functions are determined; a holistic approach to the concepts of "churn" and "hand mill" as a multifunctional phenomenon is formed; A comprehensive historical and cultural analysis of traditional household items among the Ingush has been carried out. The main contribution of the authors is that for the first time in ethnographic science, an attempt was made to study objects intended for the production of food products of the Ingush population, both in general and ethnologically. The voluminous presentation is given on the basis of a new scientific approach to a well-known topic, i.e. Based on ethnographic, historical and folklore material, an attempt has been made to classify and analyze the factors of formation and development of the nutrition system in Ingushetia, a systematic presentation and scientific analysis of issues related to the functions of food preparation.
Tsyrenov C.T., Tsyrenova N.D. - Daurian jews harp: a little-known musical instrument pp. 346-352

DOI:
10.25136/2409-868X.2021.12.37159

Abstract: This article examines the little-studied in the Russian scientific ethnographic and musicological literature Daurian traditional musical instrument mukulien (Chinese 木库莲), which is classified as jew’s harp. The goal of this article lies in determination of its role in modern spiritual culture of the Daurians, as well as characterization of the key stages of the history and evolution of mukulien, including the description of constructive peculiarities based on the material of folk legends and modern Chinese ethnographic research. The scientific novelty lies in the fact that in scientific ethnographic literature, the Daurian jew's harp (mukulien) has not previously become a separate subject of research. The article employs the historical, ethnographic, philosophical and musicological analysis. The previously unstudied Daurian legend about the invention of mukulien by the Daurian widow to console her heart from grieving is introduced into the scientific discourse. As a result, the author traces the main stages in the development of mukulien in Daurian culture, as well as determines the key aspects of further study of the phenomenon of jew’s harp.
Sopov A.V. - Reflections about the past and the future Cossacks pp. 401-415

DOI:
10.7256/2409-868X.2015.5.16567

Abstract: What is Cossacks in the past, what was it? At what stage of development it is now? What future awaits him? Whether we will permit the Cossack question from the theoretical point of view today? Exhausted if the development potential of the Cossacks? How do the dreams of the Cossacks of service to the motherland of Russia's modernization and development of civil rights-based society? In the given work these questions are mentioned, and also practical measures under the permission of the Cossack question in its present kind are offered.
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