Genesis: Historical research - rubric Ethnography and ethnology
Genesis: Historical research
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MAIN PAGE > Journal "Genesis: Historical research" > Rubric "Ethnography and ethnology"
Ethnography and ethnology
Karpov G. - Africans in Great Britain: the colonial period. pp. 1-19


Abstract: The article is devoted to studying of African migrants of the colonial period, from the XVIth century up to the first half of the XX century. The subject of the study of the article is the number of migrants from Africa, the channels of African migration to the metropolis, the employment of Africans, and their socioeconomic status. Particular attention is paid to the influence of the slave trade and the missionary movement on the African communities of Great Britain. Trends and tendencies of the first half of the XX century are considered in details. They prejudged the dramatic changes in the size of the population and the situation with British Africans in the second half of the century - at the beginning of the XXI century.Scientific novelty of the work lies in the detailed questions of the size of the population and the situation with British Africans concerning the employment sector of the colonial period. Until the beginning of the decolonization process the number of African migrants in Britain remained totally insignificant, not more than 10,000-20,000 people. The results of the study provide support for concluding that Africans had the possibility to be engaged in a wide array of activities, take part in social and religious activities, even trying to assert their rights and to combat discrimination.
Karpov G. - White Africans in modern Great Britain: specificity of migrants from South Africa pp. 1-13


Abstract: This article is dedicated to examination of the migration from South Africa to Great Britain during the XX-XXI centuries, as well as peculiarities of establishment of the South African diaspora in the country. The author meticulously reviews the dynamics of migration flow from South Africa to Great Britain throughout the XX century, the key channels of arrival and ways of legalization of South Africans at the turn of the XX-XXI centuries. Special attention is given to analysis of discrepancies between the migration of South Africans of European ancestry and migration of the indigenous African population of South Africa. The specificity of identity of the persons of South African descent with British roots and the role of English language for the migrants from South Africa is examined in details. Before the fall of Apartheid regime in 1994, the migration of South Africans to Great Britain did not carry mass character; it has reached its pinnacle in the end of 1990’s – 2000’s. The absolute majority of South Africans in Great Britain are referred to the ethnic group of the “White” and represents the migrants of British (less commonly European) descent. The portion of the indigenous African population among the migrants from South Africa does not exceed 3-4%. South African diaspora is a rare case of extremely successful and non-confrontational integration to British society. For South Africa, the outflow of European population has resulted in a heavy shortage of qualified specialists. Overall, the attraction of migrants of European descents from South Africa, perhaps, could be favorable for the British authorities, strengthen the British identity and increase the portion of white population in the country.
Khaliulina A.I., Ishemgulov M.N., Idrisova E.F. - Realities of bilingualism in the context of language policy in modern Bashkortostan pp. 1-18


Abstract: The subject of this research is bilingualism in the context of language policy in modern Bashkortostan. Special attention is given to actualization of the ethno-lingual identity of non-Russian population in the republic. Leaning on the ethnosociological studies, the author examine the scale of proliferation of national-Russian bilingualism in Bashkortostan, analyze the key markers in selection of the native language among some ethnic groups, as well as determine the role of Russian language as a language of interethnic communication. The novelty of this work lies in the attempt to determine the intensity of usage of national languages of non-Russian peoples and their interaction with the Russian language based on the wide-scale ethnosociological studies. The acquired results demonstrate that among Bashkir population, the native language still prevails over Russian by the level of language competence; while among urban Tatars, the Russian language has noticeably exceeded the native language of communication. At the same time, the results of ethnosociological research, confirming the results of the All-Russia Population Census of 2010 on the language competence of the residents of Bashkortostan, testify to the fact that their speech activity is oriented mostly towards learning Russian than the language of their ethnicity.
Mongush A.M. - Men in gender interactions in the traditional Tuvan society pp. 19-26


Abstract: The subject of this research is the men’s gender role within the system of the traditional Tuvan society and family. The goal of this work lies in examination of the role and status of men in family, social, and economic life of the traditional Tuvan society. The author considers such aspects of the topic as the gender differences with regards to child’s gender among Tuvans, superstitious beliefs associated with gender predetermination of a future child, symbolic birth rituals, etc. Special attention is turned to the role of a father in the upbringing process of boys, fostering skills in traditional farming, as well as acquisition of masculine features. The key research method is the systemic approach, which suggests studying the traditional Tuvan society as a system with a certain social role allotted to men. The principle of historicism allowed to objectively examine the status of men in Tuvan society in historical evolution. In conclusion, the author notes that men in the traditional Tuvan society was key link in procreation, responsible for preservation and reproduction of ethnocultural traditions and customs. The author also determined the gender peculiarities with regards to men at various age stages, revealed the process of male socialization, substantiated the leading role of Tuvan men in economic life.  
Sokolov O. - Recitation of sacred text in rites of passage among the Muslims of Volga-Ural Region (XIX XXI centuries) pp. 60-66


Abstract: The subject of this research is the rites of passage among the Muslims of Volga-Ural Region in historical perspective. Ritual practices of the Muslim population of Volga Region are of particular interest since they developed in the conditions of continuous contact with non-Muslim population, and religious was often a key factor of national self-identification. Examination of the patterns of inclusion of the sacred text fragments into Muslim rituals in Volga-Ural Region has not previously been a topic of separate research within the Russian and Western anthropology. Analysis of functionality of the sacred text in rites of passage among the Muslims of Volga Region was conducted within the framework of methodology of diachronic analysis through comparing the records from Arabographic manuscripts and modern editions of prayer books. It is underlined that the prayers presented in manuscript of the XIX century are formulaic and repetitive, consisting usually of brief repeating fragments – epithets of Allah, names of prophets and chapters Ayats. Modern prayer books contain the whole Ayats and Surahs, or citations from Hadith. Such difference can be explained by widely accessible printed literature and expansive increase in the literacy level among population of the region comparing to the XIX century. The author notes that the great majority of prayers in both types of sources are in Arab language, which emphasizes a sacred significance of Arab language in the Muslim culture.
Lidzieva I.V. - Foreign social capital: sources of formation and vector of the depletion pp. 73-86


Abstract: The subject of this research is the foreign social capital as the means of integrating the nomadic people into the imperial legal, economic, and sociocultural space. Particular attention is given to the formation revenues and expenditures of the financial foundations of the nomadic people from South Russia: Kalmyks, Nogais, and Turkmens. The analysis of documental materials demonstrated that the indicated financial foundations used to have the Kalmyks of Astrakhan Governorate, Stavropol Governorate and Bolshederbetovsky Ulus, as well as the secular capital at the societal level. Methodological bases contains the principles of historicism and objectivism. The author also uses the statistical method that allowed giving a quantitative characteristic to the social capitals of the nomadic people, as well as the reconstructive method thaet rstored the budget mechanism. The scientific novelty lies in the fact that for the first time leaning on the analysis of documental materials, has been reviewed the problem of formation and depletion of the means of foreign social capitals of the nomadic people of South Russia in the context of imperial policy aimed at integration of the regional suburbs in terms of economic modernization in the XIX – early XX centuries.
Kumakhova Z.K. - Phenomena of space and time in worldview of Circassian woman of the XIX early XX century pp. 73-79


Abstract: The subject of this research is such phenomena of the worldview of Circassian woman of the XIX – early XX century as space and time, and their impact upon the formation of her inner world. The goal of this works is the analysis of research interests of existential categories of the consciousness of a Circassian woman that previously remained on the periphery. In the conditions of the absence of writing system among the peoples of North Caucasus in the indicated period of time, the most informatory sources became the folk songs and proverbs, in which a Circassian woman was either the main character or the author. The author applies the phenomenological method that allows cognizing the inner world of Circassian woman. The scientific novelty, first and foremost, lies in the fact that a Circassian woman was depicted as the active, creative subject of meaning-making; and secondly, in determination of the fundamental categories of the consciousness of Circassian woman and their impact upon her worldview. A conclusion is substantiated that the phenomena of space and time in worldview of a Circassian woman have formed inextricably with the everyday realities of life and household of the patriarchal traditional society.
Galyamov A.A. - Historical-ethnographic and visual sources of C. Roths printmaking from J. G. Georgis edition (on the example of the Ob Ugrians) pp. 95-105


Abstract: The subject of this research is the printmaking of C. Roth from the academic edition of J. G. Georgi Georgi “Description of everyone living in Russian state…”. The works of the Nuremberg printmaker Christopher Roth, although being an important source, were not given due attention for a long time, being viewed only in the context of studying the academic work of J. G. Georgi. The this article aims to conduct a comprehensive analysis of the historical-ethnographic and visual sources of C. Roth’s printmaking on the example of the images of the Ob Ugrians (“Ostyak on the Ob River”,  “Ostyak on Ermine Trapping”,  “The Face of Ostyachka”, and “The Back of “Ostyachka”). Based on the developed visual motifs – costumes, characteristic “postures”, attributes, etc., it is possible to reconstruct the list of sources used by C. Roth in his art pieces. The conclusion is made that as the historical-ethnographic and visual sources, C. Roth used drawings (including “plein-air” and expeditionary), " mannequins, and examples of Ostyak traditional dresses from the Siberian collection of the Kunstkamera. However, in creation of such compositions as “ Ostyak in Ermine Trapping”, “The Face of Ostyachka”, and “The Back of “Ostyachka”, the list of the aforementioned sources can be complemented by ethnographic descriptions from the academic editions of the second half of the XVIII century, miniatures from chronicles (“Brief Siberian (Kungur) Chronicle”), as well as ethnographic maps (“Ethnographic Map of Siberia of the Great Northern Expedition”).
Khasanova Z.F. - The items of Islam and pre-Islamic beliefs of the Bashkirs in collection of the Museum of Archeology and Ethnography of the Institute of Ethnological Research of the Ufa Federal Research Center of the Russian Academy of Sciences pp. 95-102


Abstract: The subject of this research is museum sources on the religion of Bashkir people. The goal lies in examination of the items of Islam and pre-Islamic beliefs from the ethnographic collections of the Museum of Archeology and Ethnography of R. G. Kuzeev Institute of Ethnological Research of the Ufa Federal Research Center of the Russian Academy of Sciences. It is determined that the Museum stores over 50 items related to religion that were collected in the late XX century in the Republic of Bashkortostan, Kurgan Oblast, and Orenburg Oblast. These Islamic (Sunni Muslims) items are rather associated with the traditions and lifestyle of the Bashkir people: prayer rugs – namazlik, Quran, tasbih, tagiyah, ablution items – kumgan, dress of the Mullah. Prayer rugs are decorated with floral embroidery, with images of mosque, kumgan, crescent moon, and Arabic inscription. The collections also feature the items related to Shia Muslims – a stone used in prayer. Islam first infiltrated Bashkir culture in the X – XI centuries; by the XIII – XIV century it spread significantly; strengthening its positions with each century, it has fully integrated into life of Bashkir population by the end of the XIX century. Despite this fact, certain items pre-Islamic beliefs have retained in everyday life of the Bashkir people: amulets (amulet stones, juniper, feathers of wood grouse, goose down, etc.). Bashkirs were able to synthesize the pre-Islamic and Islamic tradition, which remain existing harmoniously in the territory of the Republic of Bashkortostan.
Khaliulina A.I. - Language and cultural development of Tatar minority in Bashkortostan pp. 97-108


Abstract: The subject of this research is the language and cultural development of ethnic groups in the polynational region. The object of this research is the Tatars of Bashkortostan. The problems of ethnocultural development of Tatar language population in Bashkortostan in the late 1980’s have become an accelerator in creation of Tatar national cultural clubs and organizations, which raised concerns regarding the studying of Tatar language in schools of the Republic, creation of theatres and philharmonic halls in Tatar language districts, expansion of the mass media in Tatar language. Methodological foundation is the historical-chronological method that allows revealing the indicated processes in diachronic cut, as well as sociological method that views the language and cultural development of Tatar minority in polynational region in synchronic cut. The scientific novelty lies in the fact that for the first time with the attraction of normative document on language issues and results of sociological survey, an attempt was made to describe the language and cultural development of Tatar language population in Bashkortostan. A conclusion is made that all of the aforementioned problems to a certain extent were realized by the republican authorities, although some questions remained unnoticed and were not removed from the agenda. Among the paramount, in accordance with an opinion of Tatar intelligentsia, is recognition the Tatar as national language alongside the Bashkir and Russian. The author underlines that insufficient TV and radio coverage in Tatar language, as well as lack of organization of education in the native Tatar language. The listed problems have constantly been raised by the republican authorities.
Kandrina E.V. - Factors impacting the emergence and existence of the traditional fold crafts and arts in a polycultural region (on the example of the Republic of Mordovia) pp. 111-121


Abstract: This article determines and classifies the factors that directly affect the structure and peculiarities of existence of the folk crafts and arts in a particular polycultural region. Complex analysis is conducted on the role of each factor in the process of emergence, existence, development and extinction of the individual types of crafts retained in Mordovia at the present stage. The author determines the key factors affecting the possible revival, preservation and development of the traditional crafts that for a long time have existed in Mordovia in the conditions of market economy. The scientific novelty consists in identification and generalization of the essential characteristics of the factors impacting the nature, structure and level of development of the folk crafts and arts in the context of a particular polycultural region. As a result, the author reveals the pattern of changes in the degree of impact of certain factor upon the separate types of crafts activity depending on the shift in the historical formation and political course conducted by the government. The author highlights the group of factors holding a leading position in the process of preservation and development of the folk crafts and arts in the Republic of Mordovia at the current stage.
Rusanov V.V. - Common law in inheriting patrimonial ranks among Altai people pp. 121-126


Abstract: This article examines the uniqueness of common law among Altai people with regards to traditions of inheriting the patrimonial ranks; the institution of Zaisanship is being researched. The author thoroughly explores such aspects of the topic as: peculiarities of transferring the administration within the Seok clan; historical legal issues of establishment of the Altai clan aristocracy during the period of Dzungar leadership, as well as during the period after the affiliation of Altai nation into the Russian Empire. Special attention is given to the wealth status of the representative of the ethnic elites. Despite the fact that there are many research conducted on the history and ethnology of Altai people, the inheritance relationships are yet analyzed from the legal perspective. The materials used in this work are somewhat unique, because are partially comprised from the original sources in the course of several expeditions to the Altai Mountains during the period of 2005-2009, and just recently they have been processed. The examination of the common law of the Russian republics is an important step towards understanding the preceding legal concept and preservation of the historical memory.
Nadyrshin T.M. - School in the Soviet ethnographic research over the period from 1937 to 1953 based on the journal Soviet Ethnography pp. 157-170


Abstract: Examination of the role of school in Soviet ethnography remains a blank spot in the anthropology of education. However, despite the absence of this subdiscipline, the author indicates the interest of Soviet ethnographers in reorganization of educational sphere. Use of the method of content analysis of the journal “Soviet Ethnography” reveals the role of general education on the map of ethnographic science of the era of totalitarianism (1937– 1953). This stage is characterized by one of the major intrusions into science, which is clearly reflected in publications of humanities journals. The author highlights the common semantic structures – patterns and repetitive statements typical for most articles. These statement lead to the following conclusions: criticism of the prerevolutionary system of education, exclusion of religion from the system of education, and exposure of the problems in the system of education of foreign capitalist countries. At the same time, there was the task to emphasize the successes of Soviet education: elimination of illiteracy; growing number of schools, students, and teachers; and the role of schools in cultural development the Soviet Union. In face of ideological restriction, many ethnographers have identified separate issues and offered their recommendations for the Soviet system of education. These unique observations are the contribution made by the Soviet ethnographic science to the cultural interpretation of the school.
Tsyrenov C.T., Tsyrenova N.D. - Daurian jews harp: a little-known musical instrument pp. 346-352


Abstract: This article examines the little-studied in the Russian scientific ethnographic and musicological literature Daurian traditional musical instrument mukulien (Chinese 木库莲), which is classified as jew’s harp. The goal of this article lies in determination of its role in modern spiritual culture of the Daurians, as well as characterization of the key stages of the history and evolution of mukulien, including the description of constructive peculiarities based on the material of folk legends and modern Chinese ethnographic research. The scientific novelty lies in the fact that in scientific ethnographic literature, the Daurian jew's harp (mukulien) has not previously become a separate subject of research. The article employs the historical, ethnographic, philosophical and musicological analysis. The previously unstudied Daurian legend about the invention of mukulien by the Daurian widow to console her heart from grieving is introduced into the scientific discourse. As a result, the author traces the main stages in the development of mukulien in Daurian culture, as well as determines the key aspects of further study of the phenomenon of jew’s harp.
Sopov A.V. - Reflections about the past and the future Cossacks pp. 401-415


Abstract: What is Cossacks in the past, what was it? At what stage of development it is now? What future awaits him? Whether we will permit the Cossack question from the theoretical point of view today? Exhausted if the development potential of the Cossacks? How do the dreams of the Cossacks of service to the motherland of Russia's modernization and development of civil rights-based society? In the given work these questions are mentioned, and also practical measures under the permission of the Cossack question in its present kind are offered.
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