Philosophical Thought
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MAIN PAGE > Journal "Philosophical Thought" > Contents of Issue 08/2016
Contents of Issue 08/2016
Philosophy of science
Fedorin V.V. - Philosophical and methodological substantiation of the projects of human genetic engineering pp. 1-10

DOI:
10.7256/2409-8728.2016.8.20221

Abstract: The subject of this research is the analysis of the projects of human genetic engineering, as well as attempts of improving of his ethical and physical qualities. The significance of new discoveries in medicine and biology has drastically increased in the recent years. Human finds himself in a new role – an object of manipulations. The methods of genetic engineering provide the opportunities for changing the genetic base of a human, which is the prerequisite of being in creation of its identity. In order to comfortably exist in a rapidly changing world, a human needs certainty in understanding of how the methods of genetic engineering can affect his being, as well as interrelation with other people. The author conducts the analysis of the projects of human engineering from various perspectives, as well as presents the assessment of possible consequences of implementation of the “human-oriented” biotechnologies. The growing opportunities of biotechnologies in transformation of the human genetic nature should certainly be controlled; and the level of intervention into genetics of a human should be determined by social ethics and scientific level.
Philosophy of knowledge
Iashin B.L. - Constructivism in philosophy and mathematics: Pro and contra pp. 11-24

DOI:
10.7256/2409-8728.2016.8.19737

Abstract: The subject of this research is constructivism, the interest to which, in the author’s opinion, is caused by the discontent with classical epistemology, awareness of its limitation, and also the fact that such variety as "epistemological constructivism" not only expresses a number of features of modern anthropological sciences and contemporary culture in general, but also gives answers to the questions, which encourage the understanding of opportunities and limits of human cognition and what is the role of the cognizing subject in cognitive activity. This article makes actual the problems of dispute between realists and antirealists, which have direct relation to the fundamental grounds of scientific knowledge. Based on the analysis and comparison of the ideas of certain representatives of epistemological, social, and radical constructivism, constructivism in mathematics, works associated with discussion of the problems of the effect of sociocultural factors upon the development of mathematics (particularly works in the area of ethnomathematics)  and science as a whole, as well as works of the Russian philosophers dedicated to the questions of constructivism in philosophy and science, the author makes the following conclusion: the results of modern science (including cognitivistics) provide fairly weighty arguments which confirm the realistic interpretation of cognitive process and its result – the knowledge. It is underlined that this interpretation contributes into more detailed understanding and more adequate explanation of the scientific factors, opens opportunities for development of the research programs, which in the context of antirealistic epistemology would be impossible.
Philosophy of language and communication
Silinskaya A.S. - Musical communication and its specificities from the perspective of semiotics pp. 25-30

DOI:
10.7256/2409-8728.2016.8.19889

Abstract:  The subject of this research is the musical activity as the specific means of human communication, ways of organization of sense-making process, as well dissimilarity of music from the verbal language from the position of semiotic concept. The object of this research is the phenomenon of intersubjective communication, combination of the means for expressing information, methods of its perception, accumulation, and transmission. Special attention is given to the questions of determination of the language and structure of communicative act from the perspective of semiotics, distinction of verbal language from the languages of art; the accent is also made on the non-symbolic nature of music. The scientific novelty consists in making changes in prerequisites of the semiotic approach towards the study of music art as method of intersubjective communication. This allowed understanding music as the language untranslatable into the verbal natural language, which expresses and transmits specific information by means of non-symbolic tools. The author also   recreated the process of sense-making and representation in the music art.  
Social philosophy
Goncharov V.V. - The evolution of ontological principles in global constitutionalism pp. 31-47

DOI:
10.7256/2409-8728.2016.8.19878

Abstract: The author substantiates that the social concept of global constitutionalism emerged as a consequence of the generality of the main goals of the social concepts of neoliberalism and neoconservatism that reign in the US and the Western world - ensuring the preservation and development of the world capitalist system. Therefore, the origins of the philosophical principles of global constitutionalism are social concepts of neoliberalism and neoconservatism, which was the basis for the development of the processes of globalization in the world according to the Western model. We use a number of methods of scientific knowledge: epistemological; ontology; formal logic; dialectic; statistical; comparative legal; abstract-idealistic; specifically historical. Further development of the philosophical principles of global constitutionalism as a social concept due to their contradiction with the philosophical principles of alternative social concepts underpinning the globalization of "left" - the alter-globalization; and social concepts of the opponents of globalization, socio-political, state-legal, financial-economic life of societies and nation states as "right" - alter (isolationists, pacifists, anarchists, Marxists, green, animal advocates, human rights activists, hippies, nationalists, etc.), and "left" - modern Marxists, proletarian internationalists.
Value and truth
Fyodorov S.V. - The concept of truth in the early works of A. F. Losev pp. 48-57

DOI:
10.7256/2409-8728.2016.8.20080

Abstract: The subject of this research is the concept of truth in the early works of A. F. Losev. It derives from the system of fundamental concepts developed by the philosopher. On one hand, he advances the problematics of the philosophy uni-totality associated with the “integral knowledge”, symbol, name, and myth, and on the other, reconstructs and develops Neo-Platonic dialectics and applies it as the main method. The concept of truth derives from the system of Neo-Platonic dialectics in Losev’s interpretation, which represents a categorical structure of the ancient cosmos. This is why the truth is being understood in ontological sense, which is considered as the development of V. S. Soloviev’s approach who defines the truth as “uni-total Absolute”. The author formulates the definition of truth in its ontological perception. The truth is being revealed as the uni-total Absolute in itself (as ultra-absolute and ultra-wise single), for itself (as uniseparate material eidos of the name), for other (as potency manifesting towards the removal on antagonistic contradictions). In the latter, the truth is being viewed in its connection with a myth.
Philosophy of religion
Urbanaeva I.S. - Comparativist experience of development of the philosophical methodology of the study of Buddhism pp. 58-74

DOI:
10.7256/2409-8728.2016.8.19762

Abstract:  The subject of this research is the comparativist experience of establishment of the philosophical approach towards examination of Buddhism within the framework of academic Buddhology and comparative philosophy. Special attention is given to the establishment of the philosophical methodology of the study of Budhism due to self-identification of the topic of comparative philosophy in broad and narrow sense, as well as analysis of the contribution of F. I. Scherbatsky and O. O. Rozenberg into substantiation of the philosophical Buddhology, reframing of the essence of theoretical-methodological principles of Rozenberg and the importance of his philosophical approach for understanding of the unity in multiplicity of Buddhism along with articulation of the problem of authentic Buddhism. Due to the strong influence of the works of F. I Scherbatsky, who took the Buddhist philosophy out the boundaries of Orientalism into the area of legitimate philosophy, and turned it into the discipline of historical-philosophical science, the greatest development in Russia and abroad received the comparative historical-philosophical research of the Buddhist and Western philosophy, aimed at the search of parallelisms between the specific doctrines. The philosophical methodology of the study of Buddhism in its establishment was tightly linked to the formation of the discipline of comparative philosophy in its broad and narrow sense – as the global trend of synthesis of the Eastern and Western philosophies, as well as the cross-cultural historical-philosophical research. The author concludes that the approach of O. O. Rozenberg corresponds with the Buddhological tradition formed by the Buryat scholars of Buddhism, which consists in complementing the academic opportunities by the resources of Buddhist wisdom in examination of Buddhism. Not just the knowledge of the original Buddhist texts and classical Hindu commentary literature, but also the reliance upon “living” tradition is necessary for establishment of the specific scientific methodology in the modern Buddhology.  
Mysteries of the human being
Napso M.D. - Social narcissism of Gilles Lipovetsky and the consumer society pp. 75-81

DOI:
10.7256/2409-8728.2016.8.20128

Abstract: The object of this article is the peculiarities of consumer society, while the subject of the social narcissism as one of its features. The author examines the essence and signs of social narcissism, its demand by the worldview ideological orientations and psychology of consumerism. Social and moral-ethnical consequences of social narcissism along with its influence upon social being, individual and group consciousness, are being reviewed. The author follows the phenomenon of social success as an attribute of social narcissism, as well as demonstrates the role of social illusions in formation of the social narcissism. The methodological base of this article consists in ontological principles of dialectics, which allowed presenting social narcissism as an integral and controversial phenomenon. The scientific novelty lies in substantiation of the thesis on consumer society as the society of social narcissism. The following conclusions are made: 1) social narcissism is presented as one of the characteristics of consumer society; 2) the manifestation of social narcissism consists in the social success in its various forms.
Translations of philosophy classics
Korotkikh V.I. - Russian interpretations of the Phenomenology of Spirit and the problem of transmission of Hegelian thought in the modern philosophical language pp. 82-92

DOI:
10.7256/2409-8728.2016.8.19825

Abstract: This article discusses the possible ways of improvement of the existing translations of Hegel’s “Phenomenology of Spirit” into the Russian language, as well as underlines the necessity to consider the stylistic specificities of description of the experience of consciousness in transmission of Hegelian thought. Special attention is given to the problem of status of the philosophical categories in Hegel’s text, correlation between the speech of observing consciousness and observed consciousness, ways of distinguishing in narration of the subject of consciousness (existence) from its certainty (knowledge). Because of this, the conceptual foundation for the crucially new translation of the “Phenomenology of Spirit” is being established.  The methodology of this research is based on the historical-philosophical reconstruction of the dialogical character of “Phenomenology of Spirit”, consideration of the grammar and stylistic peculiarities of the German and Russian languages, as well as analysis of the role of the philosophical categories in the modern philosophical discourse.
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