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MAIN PAGE > Journal "Philosophical Thought" > Rubric "Methodology of philosophical learning"
Methodology of philosophical learning
Boltaevskii A.A., Pryadko I.P. - On the Question of the Origins of Alfred Schutz' Social Cognition pp. 1-8


Abstract: The relevance of the proposed research is to impart a strictly necessary character to the conclusions of sociology. Claims of social sciences on scientific rigor will not be realized as long as the logical consistency requirement is unsatisfied, i.e., the requirement to establish a logical-conceptual apparatus, the methodological framework that would help overcome the one-sided empiricism of sociologists in their studies. According to the authors, Alfred Schutz's ideas should help to achieve this goal. The relevance of this study is also determined by the necessety to overcome the gap between general theoretical research and empirical level of knowledge, the latter is often being limited to the collection of individual data and conduction of surveys in social groups. The authors of this article associate the strengthening of the logical and methodological component in the sociological study with the name of Schutz. They believe that this is the methodology of Schutz that will facilitate objective consideration of phenomena of social reality. In terms of methodology this work is based on the idea of the fruitfulness of synthesis (the synthetic unity) of the objective and the intuitive and reflexive-empirical and formal logic methods in social cognition. Estimating Alfred Schutz' conclusions, the authors use the comparative historical approach, qualitative content analysis of sources (philosophical and sociological works of the researchers of the XIX-XX centuries including Tarde, Weber and Schutz himself). Additionally, the authors apply scientific methods of analogy, generalization, abstraction, deductive application recognized as the true position with reference to new scientific material, etc. The novelty of the proposed approach is caused by the fact that the authors apply Alfred Schutz's ideas to the determination of the degree of scientific rigor of findings in social sciences. The authors consider this social philosopher to be one of the few supporters of the creative synthesis of traditional positivist approach and phenomenological analysis of social reality. The authors of this article are based on the fact that the place of methodological and logical units in social cognition has been insufficiently studied. Application to fill such gaps, especially when it concerns the social and philosophical heritage of Alfred Schutz, is made in the present study. Noteworthy that the analysis of Schultz' ideas is presented in comparison to the problems raised by Tarde and Weber. Edmund Husserl is also used by the authors. Trying to uncover the meaning of the methodological innovations of a major Austro-American social philosophe is also a new approach in the study of his scientific legacy.
Demin I.V. - The principle of “ontological differentia” in M. Heidegger’s phenomenology and R. Genon’s metaphysics of integral traditionalism pp. 1-19


Abstract: The article outlines some ways of mapping the fundamental ontology of M. Heidegger and the metaphysics of integral traditionalism of R. Genon. As a starting point to identify similarities and differences in philosophical constructions of the two thinkers the principle of "ontological differentia" (ontologische Differenz) is elected, that suggests a consistent distinction between existence and being. In the context of Heidegger's phenomenology ontological differentia has the status of a fundamental principle and foundation of philosophical reflection as such. The distinction between being and existence is the basis of the distinction of philosophy and private positive sciences. This principle also determines the specificity of Heidegger’s interpretation of the history of West European metaphysics. Heidegger sees the history of metaphysics through the prism of ontological differences. In Genon’s metaphysics the ontological differentia lies in the distinction of the totality of the manifested opportunities (determined conditions) on the one hand, and the Being as the unmanifest principle and the metaphysical foundation of any expression on the other hand.Consideration of the principle of ontological differentia in the context of fundamental ontology and in the context of the metaphysics of integral traditionalism revealed the following similarities in Heidegger’s philosophy and Genon’s philosophy: 1) the recognition of transdefinition of being and apophatic nature of the ontology; 2) the approval of the fundamental incomparability and incommensurability of philosophy and positive sciences; 3) the statement of the plurality of states/modes/dimensions of being and the problem of a unified concept of being. However the identified similarities in philosophical constructions of the two thinkers should not obscure the more fundamental differences. The main difference between Heidegger and Genoon is the difference in the methods of constructing the ontology. The way to the fundamental ontology of Heidegger lies in the existential analytics of Dasein, while Genon’s way of constructing the ontology remains a purely metaphysical (speculative).
Gizha A.V. - Axiomatic prerequisites of ostensibility of the discourse of socio-humanitarian studies pp. 1-11


Abstract: The object of this research is the relevant problems of methodology of cognition of the socio-humanitarian disciplines, substantiated primarily by the conceptual openness of historical processes and cultural systems.  Special attention is given to highlighting and typification of the main prerequisites of reasoning of this matter, which as a rule, differ by weak reflexivity, but carry an imperative status of preliminary axiomatics. The author determine the initial prerequisites that lead to disruption of the semantic conceptual coherence of the conducted discourse. Due to this fact, emerges the question about the corresponding terminological discursive language, referential to being complex (open) systems. Philosophical method of concretization of the introduced notions is applied in the context of realization of the axiomatic reduction. Its success is defines by the possibility of conduction an actual textual analysis based on the corresponding characteristic texts. The main conclusion of this work consist in the thesis that the crucial factor of the openness of sociocultural systems establishes the limit of applicability of the natural scientific research methodologies, which use a mandatory procedure of formalization of an object in terms of the experimental scheme and mathematical modelling. Attempts of the direct formalization in social works lead to ineradicable abstractness, and thus, dogmatism of interpretations. The author analyses the two main types of ostensible axiomatics, which result in the lack of accurateness of the humanitarian research. The first derives from the deformation of conceptual description of the system, while the second emerges due to the nonvanishing practice of neo-scholastic theorization.
Mekhed G.N. - Thought experiment in philosophy and ethics pp. 1-13


Abstract: The relevance of this article is substantiated by the popularity of thought experiment as one of the key methods of modern philosophy. The author examines the differences between the thought and empirical experiments. It is demonstrated that the role of thought experiment is far from being reduced to the study of theories of internal consistency, but rather that it can be presented as an independent, primarily, critical method of philosophical analysis, as well as a mediator between the intuitions of common sense and abstract theoretical constructs. Based on this, the author underlines the role of thought experiment as an important tool for examination of the limits of rationality itself, as well as formulation of the “complex issues” of philosophy. The article also reviews the various strategies of application of thought experiment in the normative ethical discussions – on the example of theories and thought experiments of Nozick, D. Thompson, and others. At the same time, the author notes the closeness of the thought experiment in its narrative-metaphoric form to fiction, which has already gained the status of an interpreter of the philosophical and normative-ethical theories onto the figurative language of intuition.
Beskova I. - Logical-methodological analysis of the establishment of self-position pp. 1-14


Abstract: This article examines the specificity of establishment and functioning of self-position during childhood. Based on the analysis of some representations formed within the scientific cognition (about egocentrism of child’s reasoning, immatureness of knowledge on the objective permanency among children, late and inferential character of the abilities to feel their remoteness from mother, relative autonomy and independence in interpersonal communication), the author determines their discordance to the existing state of things. For developing the more suitable conceptual apparatus to examine the child’s self-consciousness, the article considers the strong and weak sides of the concept of Ulric Neisser, who introduces into the scientific discourse such viable terms as the ecological al and interpersonal “self”. As a result of the logical-methodological analysis of experimental data, are revealed the conceptual “traps” that distract the researchers towards the unbiased comprehension of the specificity of child’s self- and world perception, provoking the essential demarcation of the stages of establishment of the phenomenon and their further development noticed in the fact the first of them unfolds when the state of the carrier is holistic and unequivocal, while the other correlates with the state of duality. Thus, the author reveals the profound prerequisites of the conceptual discordance of the self- and world perception of a child and an adult. It is demonstrated that most reputable and currently popular representations on the crucial peculiarities of the child’s reasoning and world perception, associated with the name of Jean Piaget, in many aspects do not correspond with the reality. It is substantiated that the subconscious orientation of the researcher that the behavior of a young child is interpreted within the framework of the categorical scale of the world perception of an adult, provokes inaccurate outlook upon the interpretation of logics of the establishment of selfness within the cognitive development of a person.   
Nekhorosheva K. - pp. 1-7


Rostovtseva M.V. - Methodological aspects of socio-philosophical study of adaptation of individuals pp. 13-22


Abstract: This article examines the key methodological approaches towards the research of social adaptation of individuals, as well as determines grounds for their classification. The author demonstrates the multiple theories of social adaptation are associated with the description of its static-theoretical or dynamic aspect that manifests as the characteristics of human activity. Study of the process of social adaptation suggests the motion towards examination of its dynamic features substantiated by the mental specificities of the subject of adaptation, as well as separate components and determinants that typify the distinction of adaptation phases and its stages. The article explains the pragmatist nature of social adaptation as a process in the course of which takes place the establishment and development of a human, his consciousness, self-awareness, self-control, and self-esteem; this results in the adjustment to external effects and inner condition, as well as various behavioral forms. The article applies the dialectic approach towards researching of social phenomena, method of analysis, classification, generalization, systemic and structural approaches. The author provides classification to the research on social adaptation: the first group concerns the examination of its static-theoretical aspect, while the second explores the dynamic aspect. It is defined that social adaptation is mediated by the process of establishment of a subject, level of development of consciousness and self-awareness of an individual, level of development of self-regulation processes, self-control, and self-esteem that leads to striking the balance between external and inner state alongside the various behavioral forms of a human.
Gizha A.V. - Assumption of latent parameters and conceptual completeness of humanitarian knowledge: to the methodology of cognition of social processes pp. 19-28


Abstract:  This article examines the issues of formation of the methodology of humanitarian knowledge. A number of substantive aspect can be properly described leaning on the argumentative scientific practice of the era of non-classical research, first and foremost, in theoretical physics. Some of the proliferated stable general views in this field, associated with the names of Karl Popper and Paul Feyerabend, require a crucial critical reframing, due to generating an overall improper image of a scientific research.This, in turn, leads to the inability of efficiently using the methodological achievements of science in humanitarian research. It appears that the corresponding translation of methodological approaches and principles takes place by the virtue of their coherent conceptual expansion. The preliminary analysis is conducted within the framework of determining the situation of using the views on “latent parameters” on socio-humanitarian studies. The author generalizes Bohr’s complementarity principle towards its ontological expansion, as well as provides interpretation of the conceptual completeness of humanitarian knowledge. The latter is realizes from the perspective of interpretation of the theoretical situation of latent parameters in the context of philosophical knowledge. The corresponding ambivalence of philosophical interpretations is being demonstrated. At the same tie, one party supports the general physical conclusion on the improper introduction of latent parameters into the theory, while the other party demonstrates the historically stable and constructive variant of their implementation.  
Mekhed G.N. - Fiction as a method of philosophy pp. 23-35


Abstract: This article reviews and critically analyzes the popular among some contemporary scholars and philosophers point of view, according to which fiction lacks any knowledgeable function, and thus, only “the serious” scientific and scientific-popular literature is able to answer the “eternal questions”. Polemicizing with the similar scientist approach, the author refers to the rational critical metaphilosophy, within the framework of which the “eternal questions” pertain to pursuit of philosophy rather than science. The work substantial the problem-dynamic understanding of philosophy as the core of critical rationality, and therefore – metatheoretical core of the science itself. From such metaphilosophical perspective, the author examines the works of F. M. Klinger and F. M. Dostoyevsky, proving the possibility of existence of a specific literary-philosophical method, which is the most relevant for the analysis of ethical issues. Based on the C. McGinn’s opinion, the author justifies the point of view, according to which, fiction is able to perform the role of mental laboratory in philosophy. In reference to the certain most complicated for the philosophical analysis problems, fiction possesses even richer and more suitable range of methods for understanding of these issues.
Selivanov A.I. - The concept of development of specific objects as a methodological basis of understanding the socio-economic development pp. 29-38


Abstract: The subject of research is the problem of forming the methodological platform for the strategic management system in Russia on the basis of the modern theory of the development of specific sites. The object of study is the concept of development in historical context, the notion of development, list of research questions. The author briefly describes the evolution of research development, summarizes the achievements of the theory of development.Special attention is paid to the study of the concept of development.A list of the fundamental problems of developing knowledge objects.Is the problem of formation of system of knowledge development and developing objects (science development).Research methods: the method of ascent from the abstract to the concrete, the tools methods of the materialist dialectic, synergetic and system approaches, historical method. Novelty:1. As a basis of methodology of knowledge of complex developing objects in the framework of the dialectical approach proposes the concept of developing specific objects, which relies on the definition of development as the emergence of the new object type or complex organizational interactions and binding (retention) in the number sequence States object with all its internal and external interactions.2. In the system of knowledge development are three major areas – cognitive, design, institutional, invited a group of interrelated epistemological issues and knowledge development is presented as an organic complex philosophical and metascientific ones and specifically research-oriented developing objects and processes development
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