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MAIN PAGE > Journal "Philosophical Thought" > Rubric "History of ideas and teachings"
History of ideas and teachings
Volkova N.P. - The Infinite as the Matter (On the Problem of the Infinite in Plotinus' Metaphysics) pp. 1-30


Abstract: The subject of the present research is the concept of the infinite in Plotinus's philosophy acts. Plotinus undertakes comprehensive and multilevel consideration of concept infinite, applying it both to a matter, and to number, and to life. Thus, the problem infinite in Plotinus' teaching can be considered in three aspects: first, infinity as the matter in intelligible and sensual worlds, secondly, infinity as an infinite number (an infinity problem in the Mind), and in the third, the problem of infinity of the One. In this article the author focuses on the first question. The main method of research is the comparative historical-philosophical analysis of texts of Plotinus, Aristotle, Simplicius and other ancient authors. Similar research in domestic science is undertaken for the first time. It is shown that Plotinus offers a new positive understanding of the infinite which was absent in thought of the classical era in Platon's and Aristotle' teachings relying on Pythagorean tradition. Plotinus declares infinite a necessary metaphysical element of both the intelligible world (Mind and Soul), and sensually perceived Cosmos.
Kulikov E.A. - Traditionalist Teaching of Rene Guenon pp. 1-54


Abstract: The subject of the research is the traditionalist teaching introduced by a famous philosopher of the first half of the XXth century Rene Guenon. Based on the analysis of some Guenon's works, the author of the article describes Guenon's views on the relationship between secular and spiritual authorities, the image of an ideal governor, categories of quality, quantity and measure and methodology of application of these categories from the point of view of traditional sacred science and modern secular science. The author of the article also analyzes Rene Guenon's approach to his contemporary world situation as well as applicability of his approach to the present period. In the course of writing this article Kulikov has used the spiritual and culturological approach combined with the dialectical approach as well as methods of analysis, synthesis, comparison, generalization and abstraction. The author of the article examines views of an European traditionalist Rene Guenon that are underservingly understudied in modern philosophy, especially in philosophy of law. Kulikov analyzes Guenon's writings mostly from the political and legal points of view and searches for political and legal motifs therein. In addition, he pays special attention to Guenon's views on the 'quantity-quality-measure' triad. 
Yakovleva A. - A. A. Bogdanov (Malinovsky): context of formation of socio-philosophical ideas (late XIX-early XX centuries) pp. 1-23


Abstract: The subject of this research is the reconstruction of the complex of socio-philosophical ideas, their genesis and forms of their realization within the intellectual biography of the philosopher, economist, physician, and fiction writer – Alexander Aleksandrovich Bogdanov (Malynovsky) (1873-1928). This article is dedicated to his life path and circumstances for the establishment of his views based on his major works, essays, and correspondence with family and colleagues. In the focus of this research is the time of the active revolutionary activity of Bogdanov, and simultaneously the beginning of the pinnacle of his creative work in the science and philosophy, including the so-called “Tula” and “Vologda” exile periods, during which his views upon the next decade have formed. The scientific novelty consists in the approach towards the research of establishment of the ideological complex of A. A. Bogdanov in the late XIX-the early XX centuries. The conclusion is made that if focus attention of the very genesis of Bogdanov’s ideas, it will allow us to see the inception of philosophical concepts of “local| and regional identities of complicated in its spiritual-cultural forms of social life of the Russian society. The adequacy of such approach is substantiated by the analysis of Bogdanov’s ideological evolutions, his public practice on the path of his political and cultural reformations of the Russian society.
Gadzhikurbanov A.G. - The distinction of ethical and intellectual virtues in the moral doctrines of Aristotle and Spinoza pp. 1-22


Abstract: This work pursues correlation between the ethical doctrines of Aristotle and Spinoza on the question og typology of the virtues. Aristotle, whose ethic philosophy significantly affected the moral doctrine of Spinoza, determined two types of virtues that correspond with different interests of the moral constituent – practical (namely ethical) and theoretical (dianoetic). In its essence this distinction corresponds with two aspects of the idea of wisdom and the antique tradition, which cover the general life sphere of the human being, as well as the realm of contemplation by him of the genesis of being. In its entirety, Spinoza’s moral doctrine reproduces this model of human ethical life by distinguishing practical and worldly experience of the moral life and its intellectual component which supersedes the mortal image of a human being. This research is based on the historical-philosophical analysis of the moral theses of Aristotle and Spinoza, and engages the achievements of the modern Russian and Western ethical science. Scientific novelty consists in the author’s attempt to present the moral concepts of Spinoza and Aristotle in their metaphysical context. The author claims the idea of dependency of the topology of the ethical realm from the hierarchy of values defined by the highest beginnings of being.  
Medova A.A., Naumov O.D. - From the History of the Concept of Differences: Scholastic Stage pp. 10-19


Abstract: The object of the study in this article supports one of the key concepts of modern philosophy - the idea of differences that is traditionally opposed to the idea of identity. This opposition is expressed in the opposition of the two major traditions of European philosophy: postmetaphysical modern philosophy and classical metaphysical philosophy. The subject of the research in this article is one of the historical stages of development of the idea of differences, the period of medieval scholastic philosophy. In particular, the authors analyze the ideas of John Duns Scotus and Richard of Middletown. The ideas of differences represented in the works of scholastic philosophers are being viewed from the perspective of the modal theory. The authors also refer to the ideas introduced by representatives of modern philosophies such as genology and Russian neo all-encompassing entity. The main results of the study include categorical analysis of the concept of differences in the discourse of medieval scholastic philosophy involving a detailed classification of differences. Thus, the novelty of the research is caused by the fact that based on the analysis of scholastic texts, the authors have proposed and substantiated the idea that the idea of differences refers to the actual existence of many differences. In other words, the difference in nature varies. Thus, the traditional history of the European philosophical dispute between difference and identity, the One and the Much, can be viewed from a new angle - the position of the modal theory interpreting these principles as mutually complementary ontological and epistemological principles. 
Korotkikh V.I. - Elements of phenomenological method in Hegelian doctrine about subjective spirit pp. 11-20


Abstract: The subject of this research is the peculiarities of the method of Hegelian teaching about subjective spirit, substantiates by the presence of references to the author’s and reader’s point of view (“us”, “for us”) necessary for organization of narration and structuring the oeuvre’s storyline. Main attention is given to demonstration of the inevitability of suing the indicated elements of methods of the “Phenomenology of Spirit” in first chapter of the “Philosophy of Spirit”.  The author also turns attention towards the fact that the precedent of referring to phenomenological method in the process of studying the images of spirit took place in the early sketches of the philosopher. The scientific novelty consists in bringing to notice the presence in the text of “Philosophy of Spirit” of elements natural to the “Phenomenology of Spirit”, but disharmonious with the Hegelian concept of “Encyclopedia”, as well as in analyzing the most probable reasons of the indicated peculiarities of the method of “Philosophy of Spirit”. A conclusion is made that the use of “actual philosophy” of phenomenological method is associates with the fact that its thingness can be structured and describes only through correlation with consciousness, which sees not only the subject itself, but also its origin, and is able to determine the direction of its evolution.
Klimkov O. - Hesychia and philosophy in Gregory Palamas’ doctrine pp. 14-30


Abstract: The object of this research is one of the most important and relevant questions of hesychast polemic in Byzantine Empire of the XIV century, namely the status and meaning of philosophy in the concept of its prominent representative Gregory Palamas. The subject of the analysis if the particular historical discussion, during the course of which the philosopher established and consolidated his views upon the role and place of philosophical knowledge within the spiritual teaching of hesychasm. The author also carefully examines the views of Palamas’ opponent Barlaam, tracing the features of intellectualism of the antique philosophy within it. Using the phenomenological analytical method, the author analyzes the problem of correlation of mind and body in the process of spiritual improvement, which leads to the conclusion about the two antagonistic approaches towards understanding of the link between psychic and physical in human nature. The work explores the profound for Palamas distinction between the essence and energy of mind, as well as his teaching about theosis. The author underlines a close interconnection of gnoseological and anthropological problematic, because the ability of cognizing God directly depends on the way of human existence, which includes not just the intellectual and emotional spheres, but also the corporeal practices. The article reviews the question of expression of mystical experience, which is connected with the problem of religious and metaphysical authority. The conclusion is made that Palamas’ clarification of mind outgrows the initial ethical-psychological level, and reveals its essence in gnoseological and ontological dimension.
Marchukova E. - Nicholas of Cusa on the beauty and its vision pp. 19-31


Abstract: In composition “The Vision of God” (1453), Nicholas of Cusa explores the question of the perception of beauty through “vision of the invisible”. In this discourse he leans on the earlier compendium of texts by Raymond Lully, particularly fragments from the text “From the Book of Discussion Between Peter and Raymond” (“Ex libro disputationis Petri et Raimundi”, late 1420’s). The article traces the understanding of the concept of beautiful by Nicholas of Cusa in evolution from the early compendium to the treatise “The Vision of God”. The key method of research lies in the rational reconstruction of the ideas of Cusa associated with the concept of beauty. The work also applies the methodology of comparative analysis of specificity of the use of certain notions characteristic for the ancient and scholastic philosophical traditions, but at this point, in the context of their implementation and re-interpretation particularly in the teaching of Nicholas de Cusa. Based on the conducted research, a conclusion is made that the definition of beauty common to the teaching of Nicholas de Cusa by no means is synonymous to Plato’s comprehension of the “beauty as such”. The concept of beauty in the teaching of Cusa does not suggest the establishment of any hierarchy of the beautiful, but rather alleviates all need for it. Analysis of compendium of the text of R. Lully along with the own compositions of Nicholas of Cusa shows how exhaustively and seamlessly do the ideas and cognitive constructs of R. Lully conform with the teaching of Nicholas of Cusa.
Yudin A.I., Stalkovskii A.A. - Critical rationalism of P. L. Lavrov pp. 22-39


Abstract: The subject of this research is the role and importance of the critical reasoning and critical rationalism within the system of philosophical views of Lavrov, as well as the significance of critical rationalism for the development of Russian civil society in the second half of the XIX century. The authors examine Lavrov’s solution to the issue of historical emergence and development of the critical thought. The emphasis is made on the importance of critical thought in the historical process. The article also analyzes the anthropological substantiation of critical reasoning; the critical thought of Lavrov is the result of the highest need – a demand for development, which is being interpreted as the ethic need for self-improvement, the need to create new social forms. In the course of this research, the authors reveal the significance of critical thought as a factor which makes crucial changes in personality, society, and public relations. The scientific novelty consists in the interpretation of Lavrov’s position within the framework of the Russian public thought of the second half of the XIX century, not as a revolutionist-democrat, but as an “enlightener”-liberal. Lavrov believed that the social system could be established basing on the enlightenment, on the development of critical thinking via converting the majority of members of the society into the critically thinking people. In the conclusion, the authors note that Lavrov was historically correct.
Martynova O.A. - Persona and the reign of Boris Godunov in the works of early Slavophiles pp. 24-32


Abstract: The object of this article is the philosophical-historical views of the early Slavophiles, their perception of the main factors of social development, and Russia’s place in the world. The subject is the interpretation by the early Slavophiles A. S. Khomyakov and K. S. Aksakov of the persona and reign of Boris Godunov and his role in Russian history. The article examines the thinkers’ comprehension of the key directions in Godunov’s domestic and foreign policy, most remarkable events of his reign, as well as traces the link between the high evaluation of the persona and reign of Boris Godunov given by the Slavophiles with the assurance of the thinkers in the pivotal role of the nation in Russian history. The author applies the analysis of referential texts, comparison, classification; correlation of the historical and logical, system and comprehensive analysis of the problem. The scientific novelty is defined by the following: emphasis of the role of nation in Russian history; systematization of thinkers’ views on the persona and reign of Boris Godunov; analysis of the thinkers’ attitude to Boris Godunov and his actions; determination of the place of analysis of Boris Godunov’s reign within the philosophy of history of the Slavophiles.
Lutsenko V.E., Klimova O.M. - Maine de Biran – the initiator of French philosophy of the XIX century pp. 24-29


Abstract: The object of this research is the philosophical doctrine of the French thinker of the early XIX century Maine de Biran. The subject is the views of the French philosopher upon the origin and nature of human cognition. The authors reveal the philosophical ideas of François-Pierre-Gontier Maine de Biran, who has traveled a long path in evolution of his ideas, and laid the foundation for the development of a new phase in French philosophy, turning it in a spiritualistic direction. Analyzing the doctrine of Maine de Biran, the authors prove that is was structured by means of independent considerations over the facts, as well as demonstrate its substantial impact upon the views of the prominent representatives of spiritualistic tradition in France –  Victor Cousin, Paul Janet, Felix Ravaisson, and the Russian theists, representatives of the Kazan Theistic School – V. A. Snegirev and V. I, Nesmelov
Dzhokhadze I.D. - Linguistic pragmatism and its Kantian implications pp. 25-39


Abstract: American pragmatist R. Rorty is widely recognized as one of the most radical antirepresentationalists due to his criticism of the traditional Cartesian-Kantian epistemology. Rorty believes it is possible to scrutinize all human practice through the prism of linguistic (discursive) activity. Any pre-discursive dimension of life experience is straightforwardly ignored by him. An epistemic subject, in Rortyan version of pragmatism, is wholly deprived of a non-linguistic access to the outer or inner world; “language goes all the way down”, as he bluntly puts it. In spite of his verbal rejection of Kantian epistemology Rorty de-facto brings linguistic transcendentalism to its highest perfection: even the domain of our direct interaction with nonhuman reality turns out to be a subject to “the categories of language”. The analysis in this paper is based on the critical reading of Rorty’s later works (published from 1979 to 2007), including his enduring debates with “realist” opponents. The research applies the following methods: historical-descriptive method (in explicating Rorty’s philosophical views), rational reconstruction (in clarifying the theoretical assumptions that underlie the linguistic pragmatism), comparative analysis (in juxtaposing antirepresentationalism with other philosophical theories relevant to the subject matter)
Markhinin V. - Walter Burkert. Plato or Pythagoras? On the origins of the word "philosophy" (Translated from the German by Vasily V. Markhinin.Translation abridged notes) pp. 36-51


Abstract: Walter Burkert (1931 - 2015) - was an outstanding German classicist with a worldwide reputation. His studies are notable for their broad cultural outlook, deep erudition, and the utilization of an extensive range of sources on ancient history and culture; including his strong knowledge of the intricacies of ancient Greek and Latin languages. For the development of national antiquity studies, it is important that the largest possible number of interested Russian readers have the opportunity to become acquainted with the works of such an outstanding expert. The translation of his works, in this case from the German, is intended to serve this goal. The article Plato or Pythagoras? On the Origins of the Word Philosophy" is still influential when it comes to academic literature on this issue, and, of course, will not lose its value in the foreseeable future. The subject of the study, referred to in the title - is the origins of the Greek word "philosophy" - and it reveals the entire array of available resources by using data on the etymology of typologically close (according to the author) ancient Greek words. The process of origin of the word "philosophy" is considered within the context of socio-cultural history of the classical period of Greek antiquity. His arsenal of research methods includes the historical-comparative, historical and genetic analysis, the typology method, the hermeneutic approach, and methods of classical philology. For the first time, this article substantiates the conclusion that the word "philosophy", with its well-known meaning, which stands in opposition to "love of wisdom" and strictly speaking "wisdom" as well as "lover of wisdom" and "sage", arose only as a result of Plato's intellectual creativity. The author pursues a thought that even if Pythagoras or another thinker among the Presocratics had used the word "philosophy" (philosopher), it was not in the sense of the aforementioned opposition, but rather in the sense in which the word "philosophy" appears as a synonym for the word "wisdom". This interpretation of origin and meaning of the word "philosophy" creates a new perspective of the history of ancient philosophy, which differs from the one adopted by the majority of experts, and thus, results in the need for its deeper comprehension.
Markhinin V. - The origin of the word "philosophy" as a problem: to discussion of the concept of W. Burkert. Part II pp. 37-54


Abstract: This article considers the problem of origin of the word φιλοσοφία as it was formulated in the key article by Walter Burkert "Plato or Pythagoras? Origins of the Word ‘Philosophy'" ("Platon oder Pythagoras? Zum Ursprung des Wortes 'Philosophie'") (1960). It is noted that the concept created by Walter Burkert has had a large influence on the historiography of this issue and still remains topical. Walter Burkert believes that, contrary to the commonly shared opinion (based on reports of ancient authors, primarily Heraclides), it was not Pythagoras, but Plato who invented the word φιλοσοφία in its proper sense. This sense implies that a philosopher is not a man of wisdom (as only God is wise), but someone who “loves wisdom” selflessly not expecting honors or fame, someone who is devoted to the pursuit of truth about the world. The proposed paper reviews W. Burkert’s conception from the position of historical and genetic approach and the principle of philosophics (the term proposed by the author), which assumes that the most adequate means of studying the essence of philosophy is the scientific explication of its ancient archetype. The sources studied by Walter Burkert to address this problem are analyzed and a new critical look is taken at his linguistic and sociocultural hypotheses. It is demonstrated that, contrary to Burkert’s opinion, it is quite possible that the word φιλοσοφία was invented by any of the Pre-Socratic philosophers such as Pythagoras, Heraclitus and/or someone else. As reliable doxographical sources show, the style of life and thought implied by the word φιλοσοφία (though the word itself had not yet been invented) was demonstrated already by Thales whom the classical tradition originating from Antiquity calls (quite rightfully, as it seems) the first philosopher. The word φιλοσοφία was invented as a result of emerging understanding of this cognitive mode, and most likely it was first done by Pythagoras. The author of this article believes that the history of Pre-Platonic thought on the world order should be treated as the process of genesis of philosophy. It is concluded that Plato’s achievement was not the invention of the word φιλοσοφία, but assimilating this word from the existing tradition (mainly through Socrates) and developing its meaning into a doctrine of philosophy, thus completing the process of establishment of this way of living and thought.Keywords: φιλοσοφία, concept of Walter Burkert, Heraclides, Plato, Pythagoras, Heraclitus, Thales, sophists, genesis of philosophy, meanings, etymology.
Skorokhodova S.I. - To the question of Slavic mutuality in 1920’s – 1940’s in the Kingdom of Yugoslavia pp. 37-46


Abstract: This article attempts to correlate the Slavic question with the topic of Russian emigration in the Kingdom of Yugoslavia, the center of white émigré on the Balkans. A thesis is substantiated that the strain for preserving the Russian world by emigrants in the context of spiritually relative Serbian, led to fusion and mutual enrichment of national cultures. It is claimed that the Russian academic community throughout the period of emigration was seeking to help the Serbs in creating the national intelligentsia; that the ideas of F. M. Dostoyevsky had a particular impact upon the Serbian literature and philosophy, which in its expression and problematic was similar to Russian. The author analyzes some philosophical ideas, such as Missionism and Slavic mutuality, which affected the world of Russian emigration. Having examines the little-known publications in emigrant periodicals and other basic works, it is underlined that event the unbearable times could not break the Russian exiled philosophers, who experienced the high level of creative activity. A conclusion is made that the legacy of Russian emigration in the Kingdom of Yugoslavia reveals an entire layer of the philosophical-political issues, which are exceptionally important for modern Russian in the context of existential dimension of history and human existence.  
Fedotova N.G. - Karl Marx’s “Capital” in the context of the theory of symbolic capital pp. 38-44


Abstract: One of the trends of modern society is the economism, characterized by the dominance of economic categories that help to gauge and asses the multiform practices. Thus, the modern scientific discourse experiences the pinnacle of popularity of the various “capitals”, particularly symbolic capital, which importance lies in its capability to affect the processes of reality structuring through trust, reputation, prestige, and recognition of someone or something. However, the scientific potential of the theory of symbolic capital that attains new traits is yet to be fully apprehended, which complicates the development of new vectors of research. Due to this fact the subject of this study is the conceptual analysis of the term “capital” and key features revealing its essence, which for the first time were discovered and explained by Karl Marx in his famous work “Capital. Criticism of Political Economy”, as well as their correlation with the theory of symbolic capital. Using the need for theoretical reflection of the essential properties of symbolic capital, the author conducts a comparative analysis of the two concepts: Marxist positions on capital and the modern theory of symbolic capital, founded by Pierre Bourdieu. As a result, the author discovers the four main properties of capital that not only comprise the theoretical basis of the theory of symbolic capital, but also attain the strategic importance in the applied dimension of the claimed problem. The researchers face the prospect of studying the vectors of the use (generating, accumulation, strategic design and development) of symbolic capital for benefit of certain holders – organization, countries, spheres, people, and territories.  
Chizhkov S. - Boris Chicherin's doctrine on human unions. pp. 44-67


Abstract: The subject of research is the concept of "human unions" by Chicherin. Hegel, as we know, also developed the concept of unions in his philosophical and legal doctrine. But the concept of Chicherin is radically different. Chicherin considers human unions as universal forms of earthly coexistence of people who are connected with the ontology of human existence. Therefore, according to Chicherin, the state as a union of men, even though it is the highest union, but does not eliminate other unions. All four human unions - family, civil society, church and state - constitute the single balanced whole. Comparative analysis of the views and approaches of Chicherin towards the analysis of nature of human unions at different stages of his creative evolution, demonstrates that the concept of the state as human union has undergone significant changes. The scientific novelty of this study is related to the in-depth study of the nature of human association, their relation with the ontology of human existence in the first place with the idea of freedom. The work illustrates the role of each union from the perspective of realization of the freedom of men within it, as well as correlation between the law and morals.
Korotkikh V.I. - A. D. Vlasov’s “Table of Speculative Elements” pp. 46-54


Abstract: The subject of this article is the original interpretation of Hegelian philosophy, which was suggested by A. D. Vlasov two decades ago, but remains non-demanded within the Russian historical-philosophical science. The author gives characteristic to the peculiarities of the forms and content of A. D. Vlasov’s work, as well as highlights certain aspects that can activate the research of Hegelian heritage by the Russian historians of philosophy. The article particularly examines A. D. Vlasov’s ideas on the boundaries of Hegel’s philosophical system, its composition, specificities of the structure of thingness of the “Phenomenology Of Spirit” and its method. This work is first to analyze the Hegelian-studies concept that significantly differs from Marxist approach towards examination of Hegel’s philosophy dominant during the Soviet time, as well as the “scientific Hegelian studies” of the latest decades, within the framework of which is rejected the possibility of raising a question about the “synchronic” connections in Hegelian system of philosophy. The author attempts to prove that the application of suggested by A. D. Vlasov ideas can contribute into rethinking of the theoretical content of Hegelian philosophy and its place within the history of philosophy and culture.
Marchukova E. - M. Heidegger’s thoughts on the medieval ontology: concept of time. Part I pp. 46-58


Abstract: Most recent publication of the lecture of Martin Heidegger “Augustinus: Quid est tempus? Confessiones lib. XI” (Gesamtausgabe. Bd. 80.1. Frankfurt a. M.: V. Klostermann, 2016. S. 429-456) served as a motive and fundamental material for this article. The lecture was delivered on October 26, 1930. In this lecture, Heidegger gradually analyzes the contemplations of St. Augustine about time, leaning on the content of the eleventh book of the Confessions. Major attention is this article is given to the conceptual aspects that relate to the Augustinian understanding of time, however, considering the accents and notes made by Heidegger regarding Augustine’s contemplations. The key method of research is the comparative analysis of St. Augustine’s and M. Heidegger’s ideas regarding the concept of time. The conducted analysis of Heidegger’s lecture is aimed not only at describing the conceptual aspects of Augustine’s contemplations about time, but also allows tracing Heidegger’s precise interpretation of St. Augustine, focus of his attention and final conclusions.
Korotkikh V.I. - Hegel: experience of conceptual biography pp. 49-61


Abstract:  The subject of this research is the search for the optimal combination of the creative and biographical components in reflection of a life path of the philosophers based on the example of Hegel. The importance of solution of this task is associated with the unacceptability within the historical-philosophical science of the replacement of analysis of the inner content of the philosophical doctrines by the reproduction of the biographical and socio-historical connections, as well as disregard for the “vital” aspects in description of the philosopher’s creative work. In particular, the article underlines the connection between the evolution of the Hegelian project of the system of philosophy with the teaching activity of the thinker, which encouraged to shift from the project “System of Science” to the encyclopedic model of building the system of philosophy. The scientific novelty is substantiated by the need for clarification of the established within the historical-philosophical science approaches to the description of the life path of the thinker. Making an accent on the meaningful aspects of Hegel’s creative work as the basis of his “conceptual biography”, the author understands the dangers associated with the unilateral execution of such approach. In this regard, the author attempts to reconstruct the connections of the biographical facts with the inner content of Hegel’s most important compositions, first and foremost – the “Phenomenology of Spirit”.  
Gorokhov P.A. - N. M. Karamzin’s philosophy and modernity pp. 51-61


Abstract: The subject of this research is the most relevant to modern era aspects of the views of N. M. Karamzin upon the philosophy of history: the relation between people and state authority, politics and ethics, role of personality in historical process. Examination of the heritage of the accomplished historian, who expressed the patriotic ideology in his works, represents a relevant task in the era of globalization. The author analyzes the role of historiosophical views within the structure of Karamzin’s worldview. Special attention is given to the role of Karamzin in establishment of the historical self-consciousness and sociocultural self-identification of a citizen. Karamzin’s patriotic conservatism have become demanded yet again due to the fact that his works encouraged the emergence of the theory of “official nationalism”, which experiences the second birth. N. M. Karamzin can be considered a founder of the Russian historical and historiosophical comparativism, because in “History of the Russian State” he constantly compares the historical figures, their actions, and the sociocultural heritage they left behind.
Korotkikh V.I. - Where lives “only”: notes on the method and language in Hegel’s “Phenomenology of Spirit” pp. 54-65


Abstract: This article substantiates the opinion that the end of “Introduction” to the “Phenomenology of Spirit” by Hegel contains a mistype, which by the philosopher nor by the researchers of his works. During the process of solution of this task, the author analyzes the structure of the phenomenological thingness and the dynamics of the “experience of consciousness”; specificities of language and style of the “Phenomenology of Spirit”; historical and biographical facts of the philosopher’s creative path that important for the proper understanding of the composition’s concept; as well as the conjecture suggested in the examined piece in the end of the previous century by Georg Lasson. The study of the detected in Hegel’s text difficulty is based on the author’s original understanding of the specificity of the phenomenological narration, in which he gradually distinguish the point of view of the observing consciousness (of the author and the reader) from the point of view of the consciousness-object. This article presents the solution for one of the most significant difficulties in the text of the “Phenomenology of Spirit”, which is yet to be analyzed within the Russian and foreign historical-philosophical literature. The acquired result demonstrates the methodological efficiency of the developed over the years author’s interpretation of Hegel’s “Phenomenology of Spirit”.
Faritov V.T. - Nietzsche’s idea of eternal return: between philosophy and poetry pp. 55-69


Abstract: This article is dedicated to examinatio of the philosophical and poetic features of F. Nietzsche’s idea of eternal return, which explicates the cosmological and anthropological, mythical and philosophical aspects. The metaphysical and post-metaphysical nature of this teaching is underlined. The author provides the examples of the idea of an eternal return in the artistic prose. The doctrine of eternal return is also considered as the principal and universal motive of poetry. The author analyzes the idea of eternal return using the material of the Russian poetry. The main conclusion of the study consists in the position that poetry, along with myth, manifests as one of the sources of the idea of eternal return. The author substantiates the thesis that the poetry presents the idea of eternal return as a synthetic unity of various aspects, which subsequently acquire development in the philosophical reflection.
Sochilin A. - “The power to dictate the right and forbid the wrong”: to the question of the origins of philosophical substantiation of responsibility pp. 59-74


Abstract: The origins of philosophical substantiation of responsibility lie in the Stoic philosophy, and namely in the concept of the natural law, which in our opinion, is the most significant and noticeable contribution of Stoics into the European moral philosophy. For the modern philosophy, the essence of the question about human responsibilities consists in the problem of moral imperativeness, raised by the contemporary American researcher C. Korsgaard. The briefly described in the book backstory of the question on the morel imperativeness, contains a clear and simple scheme of metaphysical foundations of value thinking in the history of the European moral philosophy. Thus article represents an attempt to apply this scheme to the ancient philosophy, as well as trace the emergence of the notion of responsibility as the expression of oughtness, originating from what is inside the human. Special attention is given to the distinctness of translation of the key notion kathekon from the Greek to Latin language, as well as representation of the concept of natural law by the most reputable among the medieval and early Europe ancient author – Marcus Tullius Cicero. Based on his materials, the author highlights the theoretical framework of the theory of natural law, formed as the result of synthesis of the deterministic teaching on human nature with the doctrine on virtue within the Stoic philosophy. In conclusion, the article demonstrates the possibility of creation of the history of philosophical substantiation of normativity, which is able to reveal the theoretical continuality of the ancient ethics, theory of natural law, concept of divine (eternal) law, and new-European concept of moral imperativeness.
Martynova O.A. - Peter the Great and his work in philosophy of the early Slavophiles pp. 63-70


Abstract: The object of this research is the philosophical-historical views of the early Slavophiles. The subject is the analysis and assessment of the work of the Russian emperor Peter the Great by the Slavophiles. Special attention is given to the views of Slavophiles upon such arrangements of the emperor as passing the “Decree on Single Inheritance”, church reform, cultural borrowings from the West, strengthening of the authoritarian rule. The work reveals and analyzes the following key aspects: understanding and tracing of the causes of the reforms of Peter the Great by the Slavophiles; determination by the thinkers of the consequences of the emperor’s activity for the Russian history and culture; level of correspondence of the Slavophilic conclusions with the historical facts; objectivity of assessment of the reforms of Peter the Great by the Slavophiles. The theoretical basis of the research is the orientation towards the versatile examination of the problem, determination and synthesis of its diverse aspects. In their evaluation, the thinkers attempt to be objective by highlighting the positive, as well as negative moments of the emperor’s activity. Slavophiles present very few precise facts on Peter the Great and his era, limiting themselves by the general patterns of his reforms. The given by the Slavophiles assessments of Peter the Great often correlates with the positions of the professional historians that do not belong to the Slavophilic direction, which also speaks of their attempt to be objective. The author’s contribution into this work consists in systematization of characteristics of the persona and work of Peter the Great in understanding of the Slavophiles; accentuation of the assigned by the thinkers causes and consequences of the emperor’s reforms; determination of correspondence of the Slavophilic characteristics with the historical facts.
Markhinin V. - The origin of the word "philosophy" as a problem:to discussion of W. Burkert's concept. Part I pp. 68-95


Abstract: This article considers the problem of origin of the word φιλοσοφία as it was formulated in the key article by Walter Burkert "Plato or Pythagoras? Origins of the Word ‘Philosophy'" ("Platon oder Pythagoras? Zum Ursprung des Wortes 'Philosophie'") (1960). It is noted that the concept created by Walter Burkert has had a large influence on the historiography of this issue and still remains topical. Walter Burkert believes that, contrary to the commonly shared opinion (based on reports of ancient authors, primarily Heraclides), it was not Pythagoras, but Plato who invented the word φιλοσοφία in its proper sense. This sense implies that a philosopher is not a man of wisdom (as only God is wise), but someone who “loves wisdom” selflessly not expecting honors or fame, someone who is devoted to the pursuit of truth about the world. The proposed paper reviews W. Burkert’s conception from the position of historical and genetic approach and the principle of philosophics (the term proposed by the author), which assumes that the most adequate means of studying the essence of philosophy is the scientific explication of its ancient archetype. The sources studied by Walter Burkert to address this problem are analyzed and a new critical look is taken at his linguistic and sociocultural hypotheses. It is demonstrated that, contrary to Burkert’s opinion, it is quite possible that the word φιλοσοφία was invented by any of the Pre-Socratic philosophers such as Pythagoras, Heraclitus and/or someone else. As reliable doxographical sources show, the style of life and thought implied by the word φιλοσοφία (though the word itself had not yet been invented) was demonstrated already by Thales whom the classical tradition originating from Antiquity calls (quite rightfully, as it seems) the first philosopher. The word φιλοσοφία was invented as a result of emerging understanding of this cognitive mode, and most likely it was first done by Pythagoras. The author of this article believes that the history of Pre-Platonic thought on the world order should be treated as the process of genesis of philosophy. It is concluded that Plato’s achievement was not the invention of the word φιλοσοφία, but assimilating this word from the existing tradition (mainly through Socrates) and developing its meaning into a doctrine of philosophy, thus completing the process of establishment of this way of living and thought.
Kutyrev V.A. - How to make the end of the world in philosophy and science (our civilization in transmodern times) pp. 83-116


Abstract: Modern civilization is becoming a self-developing post-human phenomenon. Cognitivism and technoscience announce the reality of the macroworld as a projection of computational mathematics. Analogue characteristics of our world are being replaced by digital ones. The realm of otherness, in which there is no place for man, has emerged and is expanding. This is the epoch of transmodernity. It denotes the end of nihilism and heralds an age of the 'positive'. Positive, yet Other. For mankind, the transition to transhumanism as a condition of his death masks notions of immortality. If an immortal artificial body is created (Project 2045) it will be a virtual-technical, leading to a world without human beings. Humanity lacks sufficient wisdom to use its increasingly dangerous knowledge. Our survival is predicated on our ability to rein in and control galloping technology and spontaneous innovative processes. Philosophy offers some resistance. Its essence is the cultivation of a realistic phenomenology. We need to curb post-human technology and to manage its development. Our situation is hopeless, so we must do everything to change it.
Boltaevskii A.A., Pryadko I.P. - Logos and logic: the doctrine N.O. Lossky and P.A Florensky as an alternative to dialectics and heritage monadology and logic of Leibniz's scholl. pp. 98-122


Abstract: In their works russian scientists pay much attention to logic, but they had different ideas about the problems of this science. Special stumbling block for Lossky and Florensky was the logic and ontology of Leibniz. For the first reference to the creator of the differential calculus is necessary in order to show the inconsistency of the attacks on the fundamental laws of logic on the part of Hegel and his followers. Philosopher considers monadology of German scientist to be fruitful. Florensky counters the metaphysics of Leibniz to Kantianism. In monadology of Leibniz he sees the last of the philosophical systems having support in the Platonic idealism. Both emphasize that the doctrine of Hanover philosopher does not fit into the paradigm of European rationalism. It is not possible to understand without taking into account the Greek tradition of Plato-Aristotle of wisdom.In their work the authors rely on the comparative-historical method in the study of logic and debate around a picture of scientific thinking. Lossky and Florensky, as well as other religious thinkers have been involved in the social debate and this, among other things, promote the development of Russian thinkers in the field of applied logic. The logic in social practice serves as a tool to solve problems and challenges that arise at different stages of development of science, education and culture. It sets the allowable limits within which made discussions and debates. And since social life itself is polemical, it is the essence of the elements in the atmosphere which the decision-making proces. It is the logic and its laws contribute to the definition of design concepts, armed members of socially significant disputes - spiritual authorities XIX-XX centuries. and public figures, historians, linguists, and other representatives of academcial science, journalists and writers.
Mishurin A.N. - On a Forgotten Kind of Writing pp. 116-134


Abstract: This article is some kind of continuation of Leo Strauss' article 'Persecution and the Art of Writing' and his eponymously named book the aforesaid article is the part of. In his article the political philosopher Leo Strauss describes his hermeneutic method which he called the method of 'careful reading'. In the book Leo Strauss gave a few examples of how this method can be used based on the analysis of works written by Maimonides, Halevi and Spinoza. The article 'On a Forgotten Kind of Writing' is the response to critical comments received by Strauss after he published his 'Persecution and the Art of Writing'. Strauss analyzes the two examples of such critical comments, the critical review written by D. Sabin and the article written by Y. Belaval. The philosopher rejects Sabin's critics by successively analyzing it and pointing out the minuses, inaccuracies and errors. He seems to be more disposed to Belaval who bases his critics mostly on the argument that Strauss is wrong being oriented at Medieval Eastern philosophy. According to Belaval, representatives of Medieval Eastern philosophy were more of scientists or analysts than philosophers. Belaval also states that Strauss' method is not quite accurate. Generally speaking, this article is neither 'breakthrough' nor fundamental. The main purpose of the article is to clarify several issues that haven't been covered in 'Persecution and the Art of Writing'. 
Muzyakov S.I. - Axiology of Ancient Skepticism as the Eudemonistic Model pp. 192-226


Abstract: Largely being grounded by specific historical and ideological conditions of the Hellenistic period, Greek skepticism as well as Stoicism and Epicureanism was one of eudemonistic philosophical models. In order to justify the eudaimonia skeptics needed to overcome any positive orientation in the world and the very particular structure of the latter. Reasonable uncertainty of things, phenomena, events, actions could become a reliable and efficient philosophical basis for the theoretical postulation and practical achievements of eudemonistic goals. Therefore, extensive epistemological section of ancient skepticism represents a set of tropes (evidence) of unreliability sensual and rational knowledge which is expressed in the principle of isosthenia (equal truth) of opposite judgments and inevitably consequent requirements to abstain from them, i.e., nothing is really to say and not to deny it.However, this neutrality of thinking, quite acceptable as a theoretical model, is poorly compatible with the real, effective, or practical life. Therefore, the required addition and continuation of the skeptical isostheneia epistemology is a kind of ontological phenomenalism that is dedicated to the interpretation of real life philosopher and skeptic, and is characterized primarily by the fact that it is not available on the skeptic nature of things, and only accessible phenomena, or phenomena of these things, which though largely fragmentary and distorted, but still somehow reflect forever concealed essence of objects.Global uncertainty and radical epistemological doubt are the basis for important skeptical of the principle of isostheneia whereby between the reflective and logical and realistic-practical areas lies an insurmountable boundary, which need separating, in turn, actually-event field from the emotional evaluation. Unavoidable absence of certain assessments of the situation and any relationship to him, the apparent meaninglessness and, consequently, the elimination of both positive and negative emotions and forms required by the skepticism Ataraxia soul, which, therefore, is a continuation and addition of isostheneia emotional and psychological level, as well as phenomenalism is its complement ontological level.
Shadur I. - On the Empirical Meaning of Basic Speculative Notions of Spinosa’s Philosophy pp. 195-231


Abstract: Spinoza is considered to be the most consistent representative of rationalism in philosophy, but this doesn’t mean that he always irreproachably followed the rationalistic ideal in his thinking. The article inquires into the relation of basic speculative notions of Spinosa’s philosophy to the empirically interpreted ideal of rationality of thought. With this aim in view empirical meaning of these concepts which Spinosa adopted from traditional speculative philosophy and partially reconsidered in accordance with his philosophical system has been analyzed. In course of this research we have shown, on the one hand, the ambiguity of the empirical meaning of these traditional concepts – and here one can see the essence of the flaw in the logics of Spinosa’s rationalism, the system based on these concepts, but, on the other hand, the idea that in the context of Spinosa’s philosophy these concepts can still be thought of in speculative empirical terms.
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