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Academic thought
Rostovtseva M.V. - Adaptation and socialization: the analysis of the general and the specific pp. 31-37


Abstract: This article demonstrates the differences between the two, quite similar at first sight, processes: socialization and adaptation. The similarity of these processes is discovered in their sociality, possibility of emergence and development only within the society and only among people. As in the socialization process, in the course of social adaptation there is an active adjustment, assimilation by the human of the social norms and requirements of this social environment. Moreover, a necessary criterion and result of the successful socialization, as well as the effective social adaptation, is self-development, self-realization, and self-actualization of identity in society. The differences take their roots in the nature, criteria, and functions of these processes. It is demonstrated that the essential distinction consists in the role played by social adaptation in the process of socialization of an individual, namely in its gradual subjectivation, alienation from the society. It is substantiated that social adaptation is a method of socialization of an individual, as specifically in the process of social adaptation a person attains the experience necessary for their establishment as a rightful and competent member of society.
Malinina K.O. - The peculiarities of socio-ecological approach towards entrepreneurial community pp. 37-44


Abstract: This article examines the business community through the prism of human ecology with the inherent broad system interdisciplinary view; particularly, from the perspective of social and mental ecology. Study of business subjects based on the human ecology is explained by the fact that human manifests as subsystem, part of integration of nature and society; dual position of human in nature when simultaneously he is its representative and consumer; inability to separate social from biological in human as a biosocial individual. The author analyzes the image of a modern Russian entrepreneur leaning on the results of research of the entrepreneurial environment dedicated to examination of the motivational sphere. The article provides classification of the environmental components of business activity as a part of integral regularities of the inner biosocial organization of human society (internal and external business environment. The author describes the notions of “safe type of personality” and “man of high quality”. The need is substantiated for the development of comprehensive research of functional status of business community considering the analysis of behavioral factors coupled with the environmental factors.
Mikhailov I.A. - Sociological beginnings of Max Schelers philosophy pp. 41-51


Abstract: This article demonstrates that the sociological vector of Max Scheler’s works is formed based on the metaphysical task of establishing connections and boundaries between the pivotal ontological regions. In his earliest treatise, which can be considered sociological, Scheler explores the value transformations that took place in the XVIII – XIX century affecting the main economic categories. The example of the term “Arbeit” (labor, work) illustrates the deepening division of the fields of theoretical and practical, ethical. It manifests mostly in replacement within the human worldview of teleological with technical, instrumental, so that labor separates from the purpose, object, and particular completeness of human activity overall; prerequisites are created for the idea on the continuous, endless production. The article contains the methods and methodology of the historical-philosophical reconstruction, conceptual analysis and approach from the perspective of the sociology of knowledge. The author shows that the used by Scheler arguments and approached are also reproduced in his later works (for example, “Formalism”), which allows viewing the “Work and ethics” not only as an example of the early sociological oeuvre, but also as a model of his original philosophical constructs.
Sikevich Z.V., Fedorova A.A. - To the problem of correlation between real and virtual ethnicity pp. 43-49


Abstract: This article examines the content and functions of the phenomenon of ethnicity, prospects and issues of shifting the accents from the real ethnicity towards its virtual manifestations. The authors highlight the aspects of correlation between virtual and real ethnicity, virtual ethnicity and online nationalism, as well as discussion about the instrumental peculiarities of virtual formation of the group solidarity on ethnic grounds. Theoretical comprehension of classical representations on the offline ethnicity as a unique element of self-concept of personality, which seamlessly relates to the imaginary measurement of group solidarity, allowed pursuing parallels with the online ethnicity as a set of practices of manifestations of the ethnic self in virtual space. Analysis and classification of the modern Western approaches to interpretation of the innovative concept of virtual ethnicity became the foundation for determining the main branches of scientific discourse in the indicated problematic field. The yet uncovered remains the problematic field of methodological specificities of consideration of the virtual ethnicity, which opens broad opportunities for implementation of the nonreactive research strategy that experiences rebirth in the era of total digitalization. The authors were able to identify the key difficulties associated with the topic of virtual ethnicity, as well as most relevant approaches to its study.
Ursul A.D. - Establishment of science in the global world pp. 61-67


Abstract: The author demonstrates that the global world is formed under the influence of human activities, as well as the natural factors – global processes and limitations. On the one hand, the space of social and socio-natural interactions expands to the planetary volume of biosphere; on the other, such expansion faces the planetary (primarily biospheric) limitations that establish certain limitations and contradictions for further global development. Upon the path of its formation, it is necessary to settle the main socio-natural contradiction, which consists in the fact that the continuously growing needs of humanity became progressively unsatisfied by the planet’s biosphere, leading to the global limits of development, which potentially carries a threat of planetary disaster. Therefore, global community intents on the sustainable global development that must resolve such contradiction. A conclusion is made that the global vector of research that includes globalistics, global academic disciplines, globalizational studies, global evolutionism and a number of other fields of scientific inquiry, has already been formed. Although the global cluster of scientific knowledge unfolds mostly in the late XX century, its origins are detected in the works of V. I. Vernadsky already in the beginning of the same century. The scholar anticipated the emergence of the “global stage” of scientific development as a precursor to the beginning of global world in the form of noosphere.
Zubkov V.I. - Consistency of methodological principles of inconsistent postmodernism pp. 64-74


Abstract: The subject of this research is the methodology of postmodernism. The goal of this work is to examine the diverse postmodern views and ideas as a uniform cognitive system and conduct its critical analysis. The article provides brief description to the establishment of postmodernism as a social theory. The research presents the author’s outlook upon determination of the methodological principles of fallibilism, discursiveness, deconstruction, deprivileging of science, approach and method, as well as life-affirming humor. Within the framework of studying the principle of discursiveness, an attempt is made to give a generalizing interpretation to the categories of discourse, text and narrative. Criticism of methodological principles of postmodernism includes their cognitive idea, merits and demerits in contrast to the modernistic social theories. A conclusion is made on correlation and complementing interaction of the highlighted by the author generalized methodological principles of postmodernism. An assessment is given to the cognitive capabilities of postmodernism as a social theory overall. The performed methodological analysis may commence a broad discussion on the role and place of postmodernism as a cognitive theory of modern society.
Popov E.A. - Culturecentricity of sociology pp. 66-80


Abstract: This article poses a question about the vector of development of the modern sociological science. Special attention of sociologists towards examination of culture and cultural universalities allows indicating that culture is the object of sociology. The processes of sociocultural determination in society more often attract the researchers of socio-humanitarian discipline. Thus, emerges the first level of methodological orientation of sociology. There is also another important aspect, which affects the formation of research culture of a sociologist. Sociology has a powerful research potential, which must be used responsibly and purposefully. Therefore, special importance attains the ethical position of a modern researcher due to facing various challenges, which touch upon the science as a whole, sociology as a science about the relation between society and culture, as well as create trials for each researcher. Such challenges are aimed at struggle against, for example, the political bias, contract research with the already established result, etc. In this context occurs an important methodological landmark of sociology – culturecentricity. The article reveals the characteristics of culturecentricity, demonstrates the state of modern sociological science if it conforms to the required principle. The main conclusion is associated with the need for concentrating efforts of modern sociologists on the in-depth examination of the multifaceted phenomena of culture, making generalization based on the systemic analysis of the researched objects.
Petukhov A. - Modelling of threshold effects in the information processes of social systems pp. 71-77


Abstract: This work is dedicated to the problems of modelling and forecasting of information processes in the social systems, particularly the threshold effects in their dynamics. The indicated occurrences have the definitive impact upon the state of the system; however, the classical statistical models are not capable of forecasting them. It is demonstrated that the social system should be referred to multicomponent (i.e. consisting of large amount of elements) cognitive systems of distributed type (because the distance between separate elements plays a significant role from the standpoint of system activity). The basis of methodology lies in application of the methods of neural networks and approach to social systems as cognitive. The author suggests an approach towards the description of the dynamics of information processes and their inner hierarchy, depending on the scale of impact upon the social system overall. The managing information processes are determined as major. The concept of the threshold effect for similar processes is introduced. The author develops a model representation on the examined occurrences leaning on the nonlinear dynamics and neural networks (perceptron).
Gashkov S.A., Rusakov S.S. - Conceptual analysis of M. Foucault and K. Marx in the works of E. Balibar pp. 72-79


Abstract: The subject of this research is the impact of Marxism upon the interpretation of the writings of Michel Foucault in the works of Etienne Balibar. The authors believe that the foundation of political philosophy in France is the syncretic and polydisciplinary; it answers the urgent challenges of time in the field on the intellectual-scientific activity. The research area is interdisciplinary by definition, touching on the questions of social philosophy and theory of politics. Reciting the works of M. Foucault through the works of K. Marx manifests as one of the paramount stages of philosophical career of E. Balibar. The scientific novelty is associated with an attempt to receive a more objective perspective to the evolution of social and political philosophy in France as it is common to believe due to the opposition between modernity and postmodernity. Based on the reasoning of E. Balibar, presented in some of his major works, the authors can draw an unambiguous conclusion: the influence of M. Foucault’s ideas upon E. Balibar’s interpretation of the works of K. Marx allowed Balibar to convert many of the issues viewed by the traditional Marxism in terms of the economic-political discourse into the socio-ethical discourse. Such method helped Balibar to feel a living connection between Marx and modernity, doubting the established stamps of Marxism itself, as well as the popular “anti-Marxism”.
Karmadonov O.A., Kovrigina G.D. - Conjunctive potential of space and civilization pp. 73-85


Abstract:  This research is conducted within the framework of a government project of the Ministry of Education and Science of the Russian Federation No. 28.64.2014/ –“Social consolidation of the modern Russian society: systems, resources, and prospects” (2014-2016). The object of the research, which also became the foundation of the article, is the spatial-civilizational essence of Russia. The authors analyze the established within the social sciences approaches towards the question in the civilizational uniqueness of Russia and its inevitable connection with the Russian space, as well as present their own vision of this problem. Based on their theoretical and empirical researches, the authors demonstrate the specificity of the civilizational identity of Russia, including with regards to the peculiarities of the spatial-geographical perception of our compatriots. It is stated that the Russian space-civilization requires further exploration. The actual and deep social reflexion pertaining to the civilizational distinctiveness, as well as the symbolic assimilation of space, represents one of the main resources of the sociocultural consolidation of the Russian society. 
Ravochkin N.N., Bondarev N.S., Bondareva G.S. - pp. 85-98


Valeeva M.V. - Key factors of scientific performance of the universitys academic staff pp. 122-129


Abstract: Over the recent time, the quantitative assessment indicators of scientific performance play an increasingly important role. At the same time, the number of publications of the Russian authors and their citation are relatively lower compared to the Western colleagues. This necessitates determination of the causes and factors affecting publication activities and scientific performance overall. The author conducts a sociological study aimed at the analysis of involvement of the university’s academic staff into research work. The object of this publication became the academic staff of the Ural Federal University named after the first President of Russia B. N. Yeltsin (N-211), fourteen different sectors of the university; online survey was selected as a research method. The article demonstrates the results reflecting the incentives, barriers and motivation of the university staff members towards publication activities and engagement in the research work; as well as analyzes the goal and ways of cooperation of the academic staff of the Ural Federal University named after the first President of Russia B. N. Yeltsin with the scholars of other universities and organizations. The conclusion is made that the factors affecting the scientific performance of the academic staff of the Ural Federal University named after the first President of Russia B. N. Yeltsin can be divided into two groups: internal (based on inner motivation of a staff member) and external (based on the outside motivation). The author underlines that one of the most significant factors contributing to scientific activity and performance is the scientific collaboration.
Leontyev G.D. - Trajectory of the utopic: from obligatory to essential pp. 126-136


Abstract: The phenomenon of the utopic is examined as a universal intention of social and individual being, as the constant of human consciousness. Based on the systemic, structural-functional approach, it is substantiated that the axiological, gnoseological, and project-praxeological foundations of the utopic explain its structure. The elements of structure of the utopic discourse contain the following: utopic ideas, which form in accordance with the “principle of reciprocity” and realized in the ideal; utopic consciousness as manifestation of the dialectics of the recessionary and stabilization social-value consciousness; transformative activity that incites when the ideas become the regulators of social relations and postulate the corresponding norms of mental activity. Such structuredness allows studying the phenomenon of utopia in its integrity and interconnection of the structural elements; in other words, the social intentionality of the “tradition of E. Bloch” is not opposed, but rather intersects with the “tradition of T. More” and practically oriented “line of K. Mannheim”. Analysis of the conceptual orientation of the functions of the utopic consciousness allowed focusing attention of the discursive and normative-regulatory essence of the utopia, the content of which forms through the critical comparison of the social given and the ideal normative, obligatory and essential. The conclusion is made that utopia exists in the social space as an integral discursive-regulatory phenomenon.
Karmadonov O.A., Kashchaev A.E., Samburov E.A. - Oppositions within the history of social thought and the practice of human being pp. 130-162


Abstract:  The object of this research is the phenomenon of oppositions, or binarity. The subject is the role and place of the phenomenon of opposition in the area of socio-humanitarian knowledge – since the times of Antiquity till modern concepts, formed in philosophy, sociology, anthropology, and psychology. Based on the historiographical analysis, the authors demonstrate the non-transitional meaning of the researched phenomenon within the social thought, as well as thoroughly examine the ontological and gnoseological essences of the phenomenon of opposition, taking into account the permanent mutual substantiation of being and conscience, which experience the guiding and forming effect  of the same universal laws. Authors’ main contribution into this research is the examination of the phenomenon of opposition in the historiographical context on one hand, and within the framework of broad field of socio-humanitarian knowledge on the other. Scientific novelty consists namely in such generalized and comparative analysis of the discussed phenomenon. The main conclusion lies in the fact that any binary confrontation implicitly contains in itself a possibility for a new quality reformation of a situation, and correspondingly, a new condition for new oppositions.  
Rusakov S.S. - Sociologist and the state. To the problem of studying the state in the conditions of symbolic power pp. 138-145


Abstract: This article analyzes the problem associated with objectivity and capability of the modern humanitarian thought to reveal the theoretical aspects of the state. Leaning on the ideas of multiple philosophers, the author demonstrates that the existing conventional research methods in various social disciplines constantly remain under the powerful influence of the state as the institution that possesses the meta-capital. Besides the concept of symbolic power developed by Pierre Bourdieu, there is a number of other ideas that have previously substantiated the impossibility or extremely high probability of the fact that any research, which attempted to give meticulous explanation of impact of the state upon human and limits of state’s authoritative powers, are doomed to failure. For analyzing the works of Pierre Bourdieu, Michel Foucault, Theodor Adorno and other thinkers related to the topic under discussion, the article uses the methods accepted in sociology of knowledge and social philosophy: contrastive-comparative, hypothetical-deductive, and critical methods. The scientific novelty lies in the author’s attempt to not only emphasize the strong facets of certain methods of studying the stat that claim the possibility of balancing the “effects of the power” or influence of the state, but also to indicate that the application of such inventive methods dos not allow the researchers to fill their works with the sufficient analytical and forecasting power, as the actions of the state constantly outpace the actions of the humanitarian scholars.
Ursul A.D. - The Study of Information and Global Processes: Interdisciplinary Approaches and Connections pp. 154-201
Abstract: The author of the present article views information as a universal property of the matter. Generally speaking, it is characterized as a reflection of diversity (variety). It has been argued that computer (information) science can now be presented as the science about information, information processes and the laws of their existence and development. However, information-based approaches and methods apply to other areas of science and research activities and generate new information disciplines.  Thus, in the course of the development of computer science and information branches of science there is a process of informatization of science.Similar trends have occur in the field of studies of global processes where they cause the formation of globalistics and global studies leading to the globalization of all science. Globalistics means an interdisciplinary field of research aimed at identifying trends and patterns of global processes (fundamental global studies), as well as ways to overcome the negative and maintain the positive consequences of global processes on human and biosphere (applied global studies).  It is assumed that the use of the information approach creates a special branch of global studies - information global studies as a fundamentally new area of globalistics. Along with the development of the present research area, there is the globalization of science and all the "computerized" science and branches of science.
Asadullaev I.K. - New Weapon for Space Security. Philosophical Principles pp. 174-184
Abstract: Even when there is no interaction between the worlds, there might be points where the worlds participate in mutual processes. Discovery of such points of interaction can cause emission of enormous amount of energy. This is the conclusion one can make when analyzing Aristotle's teaching. According to Aristotle, non-existence of an item in one world is the existence of a different item in the other world. Gravitation is the point of interaction between light matter, dark matter and energy. Physical and mathematical definition of the transfer from non-existence in one world to existence in the other world would allow the worlds to contact with the energy emission. 
Tsar'kov I.I. - Paternalistic Form of Political Integration (From the History of Political and Legal Teachings) pp. 294-346


Abstract: The present artile is devoted to the process of formation of institutions of the political domination and political consolidation in primary (ancient) civilizations as well as the history of Russia. This process is described by the author as the process of realization of a particular model of relations between the two political elements of the society: the sovereign, executives and subjects. The author of the article studies the main organizational principles of a bipolar society and the system of seniority of political elements that is being formed based on these principles. Noteworthy that the main condition that makes the consolidation possible is the informal principles of unity. The 'informal unity' is characterized with the absence of the mediation element in intra-persoal communications which creates the ground for a constant opposition between the center and remote districts. In the process of informal political consolidation the center and remote districts build the socio-political environment . On one hand, remote districts may create a threat for the cental government but on the other hand, they are direct successors of power. In the structure of the political domination of the informal unity, the centre and remote districts play the roles of the sovereign and his immediate subjects. 
Asadullaev I.K. - The New Materialism pp. 379-411


Abstract: The new materialism proceeds from unity of existing attributes of matter – ideal and material (actual objective reality), recognize the existence of ideal extension, universal law of advance reflection, mutual reflection of ideal and material, comes to recognition of thesis that the ideas of Platon do not contradict to the new materialism. There is a material and ideal two-unity. Thus the material and ideal don't generate each other, but can influence in a decisive way at each other. Adhering to two-unity, we have to tell, what not social being defines public consciousness. The consciousness interwoven into production of goods in this regard is defining. There is a universal law of advancing reflection. At the level of animals there is ideal "space" which plastically and can define in certain aspects the material - cash life. The two-unity of the material and ideal is confirmed by existence of a universal homeostasis of movement.
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