Historical informatics - rubric Geographic information systems and 3D reconstruction
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MAIN PAGE > Journal "Historical informatics" > Rubric "Geographic information systems and 3D reconstruction"
Geographic information systems and 3D reconstruction
Chernenko D.A., Khitrov D.A. - General Land Survey Data on Urban Dwelling Area in Russia's North and North-West in the Late 18th Century pp. 1-11


Abstract: The article discusses the debating urban dwelling area data as presented by the General Land Survey in the 18th century. The Russian city of that period was not mainly a commercial and industrial but an administrative center. Moreover, military and agricultural spheres played an important role as well. These factors predetermined rather free plans of Russian cities integrated in the landscape. An interesting opportunity for this comparison is given by the materials of the General Land Survey which recorded the state of most of the cities in European Russia before or during the urban planning reform of Catherine II in the 1770s-1780s. The article uses the materials of Economic Notes and city plans for four guberniyas of Russia's North and North-West: Vologodskaya, Novgorodskaya, Olonetskaya and Pskovskaya ones. The authors of these documents attempted to clearly define the boundaries of the urban dwelling area separated from various suburban lands. Thus, the ratio of the land "under a settlement" within urban dachas to a number of households can be an integral indicator describing urban dwelling area. On the basis of statistical analysis and data GIS cartography the authors conclude that the information about urban dwelling areas is better presented for old cities both in statistical and cartographic materials. As far as the cities founded during the gubernial reform of 1775 are concerned, the data are more likely to demonstrate the government's "projects" of the city development.
Filippova V.V. - Dynamics of settlement and population of Anabar district: spatial analysis using GIS technologies pp. 1-10


Abstract: The subject of the study is the location and population of the Anabar ulus in dynamics. The purpose of the study is to study the dynamics of the number and settlement of the population of the area under consideration using GIS technologies. The author conducted a study based on archival, statistical and cartographic sources. Verification of the reconstruction of the settlement network was carried out during field research in Anabarsky ulus in September 2020. The results of the work are presented by thematic layers in the GIS developed by the author, reflecting the dynamics of settlement from 1926 to 2020. The attribute tables contain data on the population, information about the location of settlements.   The novelty of the study consists in the reconstruction of the settlement of the population of the Anabar district from 1926-2020 on the basis of multi-time maps and census data. It is established that as a result of the policy of transferring the nomadic population to a sedentary lifestyle and the enlargement of farms carried out during the Soviet period, there was a decrease in the number of settlements, while an increase in the population of settlements is traced. The compiled maps demonstrate a decrease in the area of population settlement in the territory of the studied area. A number of research sources are being introduced into scientific circulation for the first time and are used in the analysis of the settlement and population of the studied area.
Sokolova E.V., Petrov M.A. - Creation of an interactive map of the disappeared settlements of the Omsk region through the use of GIS technologies pp. 1-9



Abstract: The article is devoted to the study of the possibilities of using geographical information systems to study the process of forming a rural settlement network of the territory. The object of the study is the formation of a map of rural settlements of the Omsk region. The subjects of study are the disappeared villages of the Omsk region. The purpose of the study is to show the possibilities of geographical information systems for visualizing the map of disappeared villages. In the course of the work, the authors collected and digitized significant cartographic material reflecting the territory of the Omsk region within modern borders. This made it possible to study and analyze the historical traces of the disappeared villages on maps and plans. The authors consider in detail such issues as the development of an electronic map of rural settlements and an interactive map of disappeared villages, which allows to accumulate information collected from various sources, including non-traditional ones for historical science. On the basis of digitized materials using GIS technologies, a vector electronic map of the Omsk region was formed, on which the historical picture of the formation of the rural settlement network of the territory is reflected in layers. In the course of the study, the authors established the possibilities of systematization and registration of these cartographic materials into a single interactive map of the region with embedded attributive (semantic) data in the form of historical references and photographic materials. The novelty of the research lies in its interdisciplinarity: the use of modern information systems when working with traditional historical sources (cartographic materials) opens up new opportunities for researchers. The experience of developing an interactive map of disappeared villages using geographic information systems is necessary to summarize information and form a general picture of the development of the territory in certain periods of time. The practical significance of the research lies in the fact that the created interactive map allows you to preserve the history of the disappeared villages in a single systematized space, demonstrates new possibilities of historical research. The results of the work will be useful not only to the scientific community, but also to practical teachers who will be able to use the map in their professional activities and involve schoolchildren in work to refine and supplement the map data.
Vladimirov V.N., Krupochkin E.P. - Cartographic Web-Resource "Trans-Siberian Railway": Sources and Development Technology pp. 22-32


Abstract: The article discusses the creation of a thematic resource on the history of the Trans-Siberian Railway using modern Web-GIS tools which will provide for accumulating source information collected during research and presenting it in a form accessible for researchers. The online GIS allows one to work with the materials named in several modes:  interactive, tabular (with a description of the source base) as well as modes of editing information in the cloud storage database or in a limited mode of data input and data loading. The GIS project is represented by a set of vector and raster data transformed to work in a modern coordinate system: historical maps and diagrams, satellite images in the form of mosaics and image fragments obtained through available geoservices (Google, Yandex, Bing). Digital layers are also available which are generated and edited based on the digitization of historical and modern maps of different scales. Simultaneously with the work on the web-resource, the authors are creating the Transsib desktop GIS. The development and launch of the web-GIS "Trans-Siberian Railway" gives its users a number of new opportunities including the availability of generalized information and cartographic database on the history of the construction and operation of the Transsib as well as an opportunity for several users to work with project materials simultaneously, search for the necessary metadata information in the GIS, etc.
Zherebyatyev D.I., Malyshev A.A., Moor V.V. - Gorgippia in the Archaic Era: 3D Methods and Technologies of the Ancient Fortress Town pp. 33-50


Abstract: The article reconstructs the building system of the antique fortress town Gorgippia in the 6th-4th centuries BC that was located in the south-west part of the Bosporan Kingdom. The development of the town center on the territory of modern Anapa for a period of 2.5 thousand years has changed the ancient landscape. However, the traces of the ancient town can be seen when archeological excavation materials, historical documents (cartographic materials and other visual sources in particular) are analyzed. Using modern methodological approaches such as BIM, photogrammetry and aerial photography, 3D modeling and sculpting, the authors step by step create 3D reconstruction of the ancient landscape, restore residential, commercial, religious, administrative and fortification buildings of Gorgippia in the Archaic Era. The results obtained allow the authors to reconstruct the life of the ancient seaside trading town with its distinctive culture, to deeper consider the formation of its individual districts as well as transport routes and the building system itself from its foundation to destruction. The study of the formation processes of the ancient town and its 3D reconstruction contribute to the development of historical urban science in general.
Mamonova S.A. - Virtual reconstruction of the Church of St. Nicholas the Wonderworker (Lori region of Armenia): a study of the cultural heritage of the Russian presence in Armenia in the XIX - XX centuries pp. 34-78



Abstract: In studies on the history of the Russian presence in Armenia, an important place is occupied by the question of the role of the Orthodox Church. Currently, there are several Orthodox churches in Armenia. One of the most interesting, the Church of St. Nicholas the Wonderworker in Amrakits (Lori region of Armenia) is unique in its architecture, has a century-old history, but suffered significant destruction during the large-scale Spitak earthquake in 1988. Since that time, it has actually lost its significance as a functioning temple. In 2022, survey work began in Armenia to determine the possibility of restoring the partially destroyed church building or (if such restoration is impossible) recreating this temple in an authentic form. In this regard, the task of creating a virtual reconstruction of the Church of St. Nicholas the Wonderworker, using three-dimensional modeling methods, is relevant. An important condition for such work is the availability of a set of sources that allow the implementation of such a project. In this study, a source base has been formed, including drawings, plans, measurements of the church building, as well as photographs of the object before and after the 1988 earthquake. The author studied the history of the settlement Nikolaevka, founded at the beginning of the 19th century (now Amrakits), as well as the history of the construction of the temple of St. Nicholas the Wonderworker in the early twentieth century. The main purpose of the study is to reconstruct the appearance of the church at the beginning of the 20th century. The article contains a study of the history and architectural features of the Church of St. Nicholas the Wonderworker, as well as a description of the process of creating a virtual reconstruction and the problems associated with it. The author used SketchUp 2022, Vision, Lumion 10 as software.
Stepanova I. - Upper Volga and Upper Podvine as part of the Russian State: General and Special Territorial Organization through the Prism of Geoinformation Technologies pp. 36-52



Abstract: The article discusses the results of the application of geoinformation technologies in the study of the historical geography of the Upper Volga and Upper Podvinya of the late XV – first half of the XVII century. The study included the development of historical GIS of Tver, Toropetsky, Rzhevsky, Novotorzhsky, Belsky counties and the Tver half of Bezhetskaya Pyatina. The main sources are scribal descriptions of the end of the XV - the first half of the XVII century, the assembly material is involved. Localization of toponymy of the XV-XVII centuries was made using sources of the XVIII-XIX centuries. The objectives of the study included the characteristics of the territorial organization of the studied territory of the Late Middle Ages and early Modern times, including the localization of territorial administrative units, borders, roads; characteristics of rural settlement, territorial organization of the peasantry in historical dynamics; identification of the features of the historical geography of land ownership in the region. The result of the use of GIS technologies in historical and geographical research, in addition to web GIS of applied importance, is the characteristic of the territorial-administrative and settlement structure of the region, which has both all-Russian and local features. Among the local features are specific types of territorial organization inherited from the pre–Moscow period - digests and dozens that persisted in the XVI-XVII centuries. in the Upper Podvinye and on the southeastern periphery of the Novgorod land. A dispersed settlement system was characteristic of the Upper Volga region, while a "nest" settlement system was identified in the Podvine region. The different nature of the entry into the Russian state determined the peculiarities of the formation of local land ownership in the studied areas. Archaic features are also evident here (in the preservation of official land ownership in the Mikulinsky camp-county).
Grishin E. - The Reference Database of Symbols for Historical Maps: General Concept, Methodology and Application pp. 38-62


Abstract: The study aims at unifying the technique of historical mapping and creating a database of symbols for historical maps and geoinformation systems. The author substantiates the advantages of a general symbol set to simplify the reading of cartographic materials and formation of a uniform standard to improve interaction between specialists. Basing on a variety of examples from atlases and cartographic materials the author analyzes historical map legends. He finds optimum solutions providing for the choice of symbols and legend structuring. Comparative method is used. The author examines the existing lists of standardized symbols in other domains of cartography and compares different situations of legend formation in historical mapping. Chronological approach is employed as well to demonstrate the association of map structure complexity with higher requirements to legends. The main research value of the article is the formulation of methodological and technological grounds providing for creation of uniform database of historical map symbols. It is the first attempt to move forward within a sector of historical mapping which somewhat lacked previous base. The article presents the general structure of the reference symbol database, its main resources, the ways of its seeding as well as the algorithm of electronic symbol database creation as a full value tool to form historical maps and geoinformation systems. 
Khapaev V., Batsura I. - Computer 3D Reconstruction of Antique and Medieval Chersonesus Taurica: Results, Problems and Prospects pp. 39-56


Abstract: The article studies history and archeology of ancient and medieval Chersonesus via its computer reconstruction. The authors are a group including a historian, an archeologist, an architect, a painter and a computer graphics designer. Two periods have been reconstructed. These are the beginning of the New Era and the 10th century. The source base of reconstruction are materials of archaeological reports, photographs, drawings, plans and schemes of archaeological monuments of Chersonesus, materials of topographical survey. The research methods are a historical and typological method to accompany 3D reconstruction of different buildings and structures and a method of analogs to create variants of building/structure reconstruction since some building and structures are badly preserved and this hinders reconstruction. The research novelty is the fact that is the first complex computer 3D reconstruction of Chersonesus. It is the first time when all buildings and structures (earlier 2D reconstructed) have been 3D reconstructed. The authors are the first to propose and substantiate a graphical reconstruction of a two-storied basilica, reconstruct the south-west part of the defensive wall completely destroyed by construction works at the end of the 19th century. The article concludes that a complex 3D reconstruction of an archeological site is of both a research and an applied importance as it provides for determining characteristics of buildings and structures and promoting an archeological object, creating movie projects and illustrating books. The efficiency of a combination of computer programs such as SketchUp, 3DMax and Google-Earth online service has been proven.
Chernenko D.A. - Suzdalskiy Uezd in the Late 18th century: GIS-Mapping of the Territory Population and Development Processes pp. 44-55


Abstract: The article characterizes the use of GIS-technologies in historical and geographical research based on statistical and cartographic sources of the late 18th – middle of the 19th centuries. These materials born by the process of General Land Surveying in the Russian Empire provide for mapping and analyzing economical and demographical processes on the micro level: uezd – vladenie (possession) – rural settlement. The research object is a spatial network of rural settlements and possessory dachas of Suzdalskiy Uezd of Vladimirskaya Guberniya – a territory in Central Russia that has long been developed. The main research aim was to carry out total mapping of the uezd. The article demonstrates the opportunities of combining data of the Economical Notes to the General Land Surveying of 1770s-1780s with those of 1850s Mende Atlas, describes the principles of attribute-value table formation and arrangement of GIS-layers by the research topic. The result of the work is a series of thematic maps demonstrating the main parameters of the region’s development in the late 18th century. These are population density, settlements network density and their size, arable land development degree. The results show that these indicators significantly varied even within a relatively small uezd territory. This allows the author to structure it into different northern and southern districts contrasting even as far as their development is concerned. 
Borisova S.V., Kartashov S.A., Zherebyatyev D.I., Trishin I.G., Mironenko M.S., Dryga D.O. - Preservation of Pre-Mongol Rus Cultural Heritage: Reconstruction of the Lost Stone Reliefs of the 13th Century St. Georger’s Cathedral pp. 51-75


Abstract: Whitestone St. Georger’s Cathedral is one of the most well-known monuments of pre-Mongol stone architecture in Vladimir-Suzdal Rus in the 13th century. The unique feature of the cathedral is the carved whitestone décor which themes are those of Christian iconography, pagan images and floral ornament. In the 15th century the cathedral fell down and was restored, but the integrity of stone reliefs was lost. Later the reliefs were restored by masters of Vasiliy Ermolin in random order thus complicating the task of their correct order reconstruction. During reconstruction the temple became lower, lost its original proportions and the unique ornament. Some reliefs were lost while the others happened in hard-to-get places. Some stone reliefs can be found in the cathedral masonry under the temple roof or in the columns. Inside the building one can see reliefs which have not been used by masters during reconstruction. Researchers have attempted to reconstruct the cathedral many times, but the oddness of reliefs and their multiple damages complicated this work. Modern information technologies (laser scanning, photogrammetry, 3D modeling programs and BIM) provide for solving the problem of reconstructing the cathedral original appearance and lost ancient themes as well as testing the cathedral reconstruction hypotheses at hand. Digitization of stone reliefs allows the researcher to work with them in digital format preserving the integrity of the object. One of the results is the software environment developed by the authors to systematize stone reliefs. Within this environment the authors have reconstructed a number of lost mythical and biblical themes of stone reliefs located on the cathedral walls. 
Vladimirov V.N., Krupochkin E.P. - On the Possibility of Using Geoinformation Technologies to Study Economic Inequality (Based on the Materials of the Siberian Region of 1926-1927) pp. 53-64



Abstract: The article discusses the possibilities of using geoinformation technologies to study economic inequality. The methodology and technique of applying geospatial analysis in the study of wage inequality of employees of district cities of the Siberian Territory in 1926-1927 are shown. Statistical bulletins published in 1926-1929 in Novosibirsk were used as sources. Data were selected that characterize the salaries of employees of the district cities of Siberia for 8 quarters, covering almost 2 years – 1926 and 1927. During the development of GIS, a 1:3000000 scale map of the Siberian Region was digitized, on which there is a coordinate grid, the situation (hydrographic network and relief displayed by washing) and administrative division were plotted according to the zoning data of 1929. A series of maps was built reflecting the average salary level of employees in district cities, as well as the dynamics of wages based on quarterly statistics. The highest salary of employees is observed in Novosibirsk. It is noticeable that cities with low wages are concentrated in the south of Western Siberia. The growth rates of wages in cities show a greater variation than the average salary. The largest increase in wages is demonstrated by those cities in which its level was low or average. It can be stated that there are certain prospects in the use of geoinformation technologies to study economic inequality.
Korsakov S.A. - Virtual Reconstruction of Buildings of the Sennitsy Estate near Moscow: Sources and Research Methods pp. 55-78



Abstract: The problem of historical and cultural heritage preservation is very relevant these days. Increasing number of monuments is being destroyed every day; however, our compatriots are continuously becoming more interested in landmarks Russia. There has been a marked increase in the number of tourist routes in Moscow region. Numerous noble estates represent an important part of the region’s cultural assets. In Moscow region, there are lots of former estates of prominent families of the Russian Empire: today many of these properties are in ruins. Manor Sennitsy situated in Ozyory district of Moscow region is one of such gradually decaying cultural monuments with a rich history. This study analyzes a set of sources, on the basis of which the author creates a virtual 3D-reconstruction of manor Sennitsy in the period of late 19th – early 20th century when it was owned by the family of Count F.E. Keller. The source base for the study is very diverse: plans, drawings, cartographic materials, photographs, inventories of property, construction cost estimates. The author describes gradual process of 3D-modelling, in the framework of which softwares SketchUp and Twinmotion were used. The article pays attention to the history of Sennitsy’s construction and its owners. Reconstruction of buildings of the Sennitsy manor complex allows to visualize an image of the destroyed monument of culture, as well as to demonstrate high potential of using 3D-modelling methods in history. This study is carried out within the framework of the Project of reconstruction of appearance of the noble estates of the Moscow region, supported by the Department of Historical Information Science of the Faculty of History of M.V. Lomonosov Moscow State University.
Grishin E. - Specialized Editor for Historical Geoinformation Systems “Bibliosof-IGIS”: Technological and Methodical Function Bases pp. 56-66


Abstract: The article studies functions and software for historical geoinformation systems. The research object is historical geoinformation systems, dynamical GIS-projects creation technologies and means of spatiotemporal analysis. The author considers separate structural parts of IGIS-resources creation service in detail. Emphasis is laid on auxiliary materials for historical GIS-cartography, in particular, to the sample base of conventional values and means of historical geoinformation systems unification. The study employs descriptive and comparative methods to demonstrate advantages of the proposed GIS-editor conception for historical maps and projects better. The author describes his variant of a specialized historical geoinfirmation system editor that takes into account specific functions of spatiotemporal analysis. Distinctive features of this resource in comparison with common editors are considered as well. The article concludes that historical GIS-projects need specialized software and functions and only close cooperation of historians and GIS-specialists will lead to an optimum tool set of historical maps and geoinformation systems.
Vorobeva E.M., Kanishchev V.V. - Interactive map of social and cultural space of the Russian regional capital of the late XVIII - the first third of the XIX century (based on the materials of Tambov). pp. 56-72



Abstract: The object of the study is the social and cultural space of the city of Tambov in the late XVIII – the first third of the XIX century. The source base of the study consists of documents of several funds of the State Archive of the Tambov region, as well as plans of the city of Tambov in 1781, 1803, 1828 and 1832. The main goal of the study is to present the mechanism of creating an interactive map of the cultural space of the city of Tambov. In the research, in addition to classical historical methods, the systematization and analysis of statistical, record-keeping, cartographic and visual sources was carried out by using geo-information technologies. The main scientific result of the research was the samples of analyses of statistical and visual material of the interactive resource. The chosen platform made it possible to present the scientific results in the form of diagrams of the distribution of the share of different estates in separate quarters of the city, lists of demographic data on the population of Tambov; cards with reference historical data on the cultural heritage objects of the city. Specific results of the study include the determination of the number of quarters inhabited by these or those class groups, as well as the identification of whole groups of quarters marked by a noticeable homogeneity of the class composition of the population. The main methodological and technological result of the research is the provision of an efficient mechanism for analyzing urban space, systematization of data on its development and inhabitants, which can be available to a wide range of users. The information and technology of the proposed resource shows the possibilities of its use not only for research activities, but also for educational, excursion and museum work.
Stepanova I., Savinova A.I. - Resettlement of the Karelians in the Upper Volga Region in the Middle – the Second Half of the 17th Century: GIS-Technology Test pp. 57-72


Abstract: The article summarizes the study addressing the resettlement of the Karelians in the Upper Volga Region in the middle - the second half of the 17th century after entry of a part of Karelia into the Swedish state. The study applies GIS-technologies and focuses on the location and the number of the Karelians in the Upper Volga Region. The study is based on written sources: scribal descriptions and acts. For localization purposes the authors used additional sources of the 18th-19th centuries such as General Land Survey data, statistical descriptions and maps. They have created GIS layers with “Korelyane” settlements. The layers show resettlement dynamics from 1640s to the late 1670s. Attributive tables include data on population numbers. The research novelty is a detailed picture of mass resettlement of the Karelians in the Upper Volga Region and stages of this resettlement. The earliest settlements of “korelyane” are localized in Bezhetskiy Verkh on manorial and monastery lands. In the 1650s-1660s palace Karelian territories are formed in Bezhetskiy Verkh, Novotorzhskiy uezd and the southern part of Bezhetskaya Pyatina and Derevskaya Pyatina. In the 1670s the Karelians continued to resettle on manorial and monastery lands. By the late 1670s “korelyane” had settled the territories near such rivers as Mologa, Medveditsa and Tvertsa. They grew in number too. The author is the first to use some new sources to analyze resettlement and demography of Karelian immigrants in the central regions of Russia in the 17th century. 
Shchekotilov V.G., Shalaeva M.V., Shchekotilova S.N. - Complexes of Multi-Sheet Plans of the 19th Century Territories as a GIS and a Geoportal Component pp. 58-67


Abstract: The article studies GIS and geoportal adaptation of multi-sheet plans of mid 19th century territories. The authors have revealed a layer of complexes of multi-sheet large-scale cartographical works of the mid 19th century presented in the form of territory plans on certain locations. One complex of 65 sheets belongs to Vetluzhskiy Uezd of Kostromskaya Guberniya. Other guberniyas can also boast such complexes. The plans demonstrate the boarders of landownings, populated regions and areas. To create various raster electronic maps the authors have suggested to use a method based on the evaluation of parameters of the sheet grid followed by virtual combining of plan sheets and formation of the agreed complex of raster electronic maps with preset parameters. They suggest to use raster electronic maps for geocoding the list of populated territories. The main conclusion is the possibility to use this approach for creating databases with raster electronic maps covering multi-sheet complexes of mid 19th century territory plans which can be further employed in GIS or geoportals when computerizing historical studies. The creation of such databases will add existing information resources covering large-scale topographic boundary maps of 8 guberniyas made by A.I. Mende and military topographic maps thus expanding research opportunities.
Stepanova I., Karpova M.V. - From the cadastral books to GIS: Toropets, Belaya, Rzheva borders in 15th – 17th centuries pp. 58-68



Abstract: The article presents the results of studying the regions located on the western boundary of the Russian state of the XVI-XVII centuries. The object of the study is Toropetsky Uyezd and its eastern volosts - Dubna, Rozhna, Bibirevo and Startsova, which in the XV century formed the Moscow-Lithuanian border. Territorial transformations of these volosts in the XV-XVII centuries are considered. Based on written sources, the GIS localization of the border between Toropetsky, Belsky and Rzhevsky counties, the most important in the study of border situations during the XV-XVII centuries, was carried out. The main sources of the study are scribal descriptions of Toropetsky, Belsky, Rzhevsky counties of the XVI-XVII centuries, including previously unpublished and introduced into scientific circulation. The study was conducted using geoinformation technologies. The use of geoinformation technologies in the work on the continuous localization of toponyms of scribal descriptions of three counties allowed us to get a more detailed idea of the territory of the Toropetsky district before its entry into the Russian State. Startsova Parish stretched south from Toropets to the large Peletsky Moss swamp. Its southeastern part, lying on the left bank of the Western Dvina, was assigned to Belaya even before Toropets and Belaya joined Moscow. Rozhnya and Bibirevo in the 1520s and 1530s also went to Moscow. Finally, Dubna changed its size and status as a result of the border conflicts of the XV century and land policy in Russia of the XVI-XVII centuries. The location of the Zhukopsky pit marking the road crossing the Moscow-Lithuanian border has been established.
Frolov A. - Dynamic Map as the Basis for GIS Historical Map pp. 61-73


Abstract: The article studies historical mapping on the basis of modern geographic information technologies. Today, historians are used to maps demonstrating historical dynamics by means of static images. However, dynamic maps which are more in line with the nature of historical research are considered more promising. The article describes different modes of transmitting reconfiguration of vector objects over time both in the desktop version of GIS-project and web-GIS. The approach proposed resides on data on the time when each objet appears and disappears (lower date and upper date) as its attributes. Basic principles of dynamic historical mapping were put forward around 20 years ago in English historiography. However, that map has not been widely used and specific solutions of its creation have not been discussed either. Rampant development of web-GIS technologies let us address the problem again. The research novelty is in the view on a dynamic map as a basic solution to develop a general GIS-platform integrating historical geography research results obtained by different historians. It is the first address to technical issues of a dynamic map creation in Russian literature.
Batyrbaeva S.D., Soltobaev O.A., Tursunova E.T. - Virtual Reconstruction of the Medieval Settlement of Koshoy-Korgon – a Fortress of Nomads on the Great Silk Road pp. 63-74


Abstract: The article discusses the role and importance of computer modeling in the reconstruction of historical and cultural monuments in Kyrgyzstan's part of the Great Silk Road. Due to a number of objective and subjective causes all monuments of ancient and medieval ages of Kyrgyzstan demonstrate that the abundant historical and cultural heritage has either not been preserved or has been partially or fully renovated thus resulting in its changed appearance. The authors have tried to carry out a 3D reconstruction of Koshoy-Korgon settlement on the basis of former practices aimed at reconstruction of fortification complexes, ancient settlements and historical landscapes. This settlement dates back to the 10th-12th centuries and was the nomadic and administrative center of the At-Bash Valley in the Karakhanid State. The process of Koshoy-Korgon virtual reconstruction was accomplished by stages on the basis of historical and archaeological studies with the help of  such programs as ArchiCAD, Photoshop CS3, Unity3D, Autodesk 3D Max, 3DWorldStudio. 3D virtual reconstruction of disappeared monuments of Northern Kyrgyzstan traditionally considered a region of nomadic cultures  will allow us to take a fresh look at architectural features of monuments along the Great Silk Road and scrutinize social, economical, cultural and political aspects of historical objects. 3D  reconstruction based on comparative analysis will provide for drawing parallels to find out the interpenetration of architectural styles of states along the Great Silk Road in Central Asia.
Kartashova M. - Localization of Home Crafts in the Russian Empire in the Late 19th – Early 20th Centuries (Spatial and Statistical Analysis) pp. 63-85


Abstract: The article studies home crafts of the Russian Empire. The territorial framework covers the Russian Empire as a whole including the central guberniyas, Asian Russia, the Caucasus, the Kingdom of Poland and Finland. The study was carried out on the territorial basis. The author analyzes statistics and reveals the home craft distribution level throughout gubernyas and oblasts using localization indices. At the second stage of the study home crafts are analyzed according to groups and types. Guberniyas and centers with prevailing home crafts are identified. The author employs interdisciplinary approach, localization indices, MS Excel statistical, spatial and statistical analysis in the MapInfo geoinformation system. It is the first time in history when home craft localization indices are used within the frames of the whole empire and indices are compared in relation to home craft population and factory workers. The data obtained allowed the author to identify 4 groups of guberniyas. The first group (Kamchatskaya Oblast) totally lacked home crafts. The second group covers 35 regions with the low home craft level scattered throughout the empire. The third group with the medium level of home craft localization includes 21 regions that are also scattered. The fourth group counts 9 guberniyas located in the northern and the central industrial parts of the empire, Tobolskaya Guberniya and Semipalatinskaya Oblast. More than half of the 32 guberniyas and oblasts understudy had low indices of the factory industry localization thus casting doubts on wide-spread conclusions about the decline of home crafts throughout the empire before the First World War. 
Vladimirov V.N., Krupochkin E.P., Sarafanov D.E. - A Subject-Oriented Historical GIS (the Example of Barnaul Infrastructure in the Late 18th – Early 20th Centuries) pp. 66-80


Abstract: The article studies the infrastructure of Barnaul city in the second half of the 18th - early 20th centuries. The study aims at acquiring new systematic knowledge about the way the infrastructure of West Siberian cities developed, the influence of infrastructural objects on city ecology, the correlation of demographical and ecological factors influencing the city development and urban population reproduction. The study rests on an extensive source database including written, cartographic and photo documents stored mainly in the state archives of Altai Krai and Tomskaya Oblast as well as a number of published sources. The methodological basis of the work is the systemic and interdisciplinary approaches, the general scientific as well as traditional historical research methods. Geoinformation analysis based on the subject-oriented historical geoinformation system created is used as the main way to obtain new information. The article analyzes spatial aspects of the city infrastructure and ecological factors of its development and demonstrates changes in the disposition of infrastructural objects in the late 19th – early 20th centuries. The article concludes that the negative impact of ecologically unfriendly city objects was exerted mainly through aggravating sanitary environment and ecosystems.
Trishin I. - Creation of Software on the Basis of Unity 3D Game Engine to Reconstruct Facades of the Saint George Cathedral in Yuriev-Polskiy (Vladimirskaya Oblast) pp. 68-74


Abstract: The study aims at 3D reconstruction of the Saint George Cathedral facades (Yuriev-Polskiy) on the basis of white-stone décor by means of special software creation. The article discusses the creation of such a program which provides for reconstructing minute objects when merging their full-size models. The program is sure to be of interest both to scholars reconstructing cultural heritage monuments and readers who are interested in innovations in this field of history. The main methods are photogrammetry (digitization of stone reliefs) and programming of Unity 3D work C# environment. The author’s main contribution to this study is the creation of his own software designed for a user with minimum PC skills. As far as there are no specialized programs to reconstruct objects, the author hopes to help those who study the Saint George Cathedral and stimulate further ideas of software development in the sphere of historical and architectural studies. The result of this study is the program that is now being modified and tested.
Gasanov A. - Interactive Environment and Virtual Reality to Reconstruct Manufacturing Processes (Moscow Trekhgorny Brewery in the Late 19th - Early 20th Centuries). pp. 69-85


Abstract: The article studies the creation of virtual reality interactive environments as a form of presenting historical 3D-reconstruction results. This approach provides for restoring not only static objects such as architectural appearance and interiors but also dynamic ones. The latter are industrial processes of the past, for instance. The manufacturing building of Tryokhgorny brewery (the biggest in the Russian Empire) was an object for virtual 3D-reconstruction. The article describes the source base and the reconstruction of indoor spaces of the brewery building in the late 19th - early 20th centuries and reconstructs brewing processes as well. The result of the work done is the creation of a virtual reality application with historical sources verification and information tips systems included. The author tests technologies of mechanical animation and particle systems and forms interactive environment logic by means of basic software “Unreal Engine 4” through the visual programming interface “Blueprints”. The virtual environment created lets users take on the role of a brewery worker and make necessary brewing operations in virtual reality.
Agibalov E.D., Baranova E.V. - The Church of Pobeten in the XIV–XV centuries: historical and virtual reconstruction pp. 69-84



Abstract: The purpose of our work is to study the history and virtual reconstruction of the church of Pobeten, an object of historical and cultural heritage of the XIV-XV centuries. The method of analogy, creation of a digital model, photogrammetry, methods of historical informatics were used in the work. Special attention is paid to the history of the church of Pobeten and the work on creating its virtual copy. It describes working with various tools (Agisoft Metashape, Sculptris Alpha, Geomagic Studio and Sketch Up) to create photogrammetric and three-dimensional models of a historical object of the XIV century. The possibilities of using photogrammetry and three-dimensional modeling methods in the synthesis to create a virtual reconstruction of the Pobeten church are considered. The result of the work was the receipt of versatile historical data about the church of Pobeten and a virtual three-dimensional model based on them, which has the ability to edit: it can be supplemented with various elements, as well as integrated into larger works. The scope of application of the work and the results obtained can be historical local lore, preservation of objects of historical heritage, the use of the resulting product in museum installations. An interdisciplinary approach in historical research combined with computer science methods, specifically with three-dimensional computer modeling, provides exceptional opportunities, especially with the growth of information technology development, and is an actual tool of historical research in modern science.
Grishin E. - Spatiotemporal Technologies and Technique in Special Historical GIS-projects pp. 74-84


Abstract: The article studies a technique and technologies of dynamic historical GIS-projects development and the employment of spatiotemporal analysis to study historical processes. The study covers geoinformation systems, the use of cartographical method in history, electronic cartography, historical process modeling. The author pays special attention to a heuristic work with a historical GIS-map as well as regularities by searching for synchronized and consecutive alterations of attributive and metric data of map objects. The main method employed is a comparative one. The comparison is drawn between historical and mathematical GIS-projects. Historical geoinformation systems at hand have also been compared to analyze and search for more preferable variants. The research novelty is an attempt to set up basic principles of spatiotemporal analysis when working with historical GIS-projects. The author presents his own variant of a dynamic geoinformation system allowing for historical process modeling. The article concludes that historical geoinformation systems are a particular class of GIS-format projects demanding specific methodical and technological approach as well as development of specific functions for spatiotemporal analysis. .
Latkin V.A., Krupochkin E.P., Vladimirov V.N. - Technological approaches and applied aspects of 3D mapping of the Trans-Siberian Railway (on the example of the Tarmanchukan tunnel) pp. 74-91


Abstract: In connection with the implementation of the project for the preservation of cultural and historical heritage associated with the creation and reconstruction of the Trans-Siberian railway, the authors of this article propose a technology for constructing three–dimensional cartographic images and its implementation on the example of one of the most famous sections of the Trans-Siberian Railway - the Tarmanchukan tunnel, which is one of the longest in the world. The purpose of this work is to build a 3D map of the tunnel using the Prism3D game engine. The article describes in detail the basic principles of building 3D models and 3D maps, describes the procedure for step-by-step creation of a 3D map of the Tarmanchukan tunnel with high detail and texture. The created product is, in fact, a virtual reality object, the closest possible copy of the original. To use it, there is no need to use a special helmet, it is enough to use the interface of the recommended programs. The high level of detail of the model allows you to get complete information about the object being modeled, including small details. As a result of the presented work, the most realistic map of one of the most famous tunnels in the world – Tarmanchukansky - was obtained. At the same time, the geographical features of the relief and landscape are fully reflected on the 3D map itself, access and viewing of which will soon be possible on the website of the Faculty of History of Lomonosov Moscow State University.
Frolov A., Golubinskii A., Kutakov S. - Web-GIS «Drawings of the Russian State of the 16-17th Centuries» (http://rgada.info/geos2/) pp. 75-84


Abstract: The study aims at a web-GIS that has been publicly-accessible since the early 2017.The article describes the sources used, the algorithm of their processing, the software, the structure of GIS-project attribute table, the ways to geocode digital copies of drawings as well as the methods of closer linking of drawing’s image to a location. Web-interface is characterized as well. It lets a user work with the resource through any browser with the help of scaling and navigation tools, text search, reading of selected object attributes, variation of raster transparence and choice of cartographic underlay. The article also describes the possibilities to address the initial attribute table and its lookup and view undeformed (not geocoded) large-scale drawing image (including the possibility to scale, move and rotate an object). In spite of different techniques of drawings execution as well as their different purpose and origin, the drawings studied are rather good at describing historic reality. This provides for considering a set of drawings as a document complex that can undergo general procedures of online publishing. The technologies used are mainly based on the employment of “open” software (from creation of desktop version of GIS-project to spatial libraries used to visualize web-versions). Optimization of web-GIS work mainly relates to minimization of traffic between a server and a client. To do this the work is organized so that downloading of all raster and most of vector objects starts only after the client’s computer sends a user query for a definite object to the server. The main result of the study is a free Internet access to the complex of Russian drawings of the 16th-17th centuries. The number of cartographic drawings totals 1000 and most of them have good images. 49 drawings have been found that had been left out by V.S. Kusov’s catalogue. Over 700 drawings have been linked to a locality and 140 have not been localized yet. An original method to localize a territory shown on the drawing on the map has been developed.
Borodkin L., Mironenko M., Chertopolokhov V., Belousova M., Khlopikov V. - Virtual and Augmented Reality Technologies (VR/AR) to Reconstruct Historical City Building System (the Example of Moscow Strastnoy Convent pp. 76-88


Abstract: The article puts forward a new approach to the development of virtual reconstruction of historical and cultural heritage objects that is based on the advanced 3D modeling technologies and addresses the issues of historical urban science. Along with sociocultural significance and architectural importance of the lost cultural heritage objects (convent complex in this case) for virtual reconstruction tasks, an important criterion for their selection is the preservation rate of the source base. The article focuses on the use of virtual and augmented reality technologies in historical reconstruction tasks. As an additional opportunity to “plunge” into the historical past, the authors propose the creation of historical panoramas to use them in pads or smartphones. The article also studies the technology associated with the use of VR HMD. 3D modeling, digital sculpting, photogrammetry of monuments, layer projection technologies form an important part of methods used in this work. The article is the first in Russian historiography to address the practical use of virtual and augmented reality technologies to reconstruct the lost objects of the historical building system (by the example of Strastnoy Convent). The authors test the software module that validates / verifies the results of virtual reconstruction as well as enhances representation and visualization opportunities of these results. The authors simulate the augmented reality within the virtual reality and thus overcome limitations of AR. 
Babaitsev M.N., Stepanova I. - 3D Modeling and 3D Printing Technologies in the Preservation and Popularization of Architectural Monuments of the Vasilevo Museum-Reserve (Tver region) pp. 79-89



Abstract: The article presents the results of a project to create virtual models of architectural monuments of the Vasilevo Landscape Museum-Reserve in the Tver region with their subsequent 3D printing and creation of a large-scale layout. The Vasilevo Museum-Reserve is located on the territory of the Lviv estate of the XVIII-XIX centuries and includes manor buildings, as well as 16 monuments of wooden architecture of the XVIII-XIX centuries, brought and installed on the territory of the reserve of their various districts of the Tver region. Among them are objects of cultural heritage of federal significance: wooden temples, monuments of civil development. The museum is a branch of the Tver State United Museum and is included in the tourist route "Pushkin Ring of the Upper Volga region". As a result of the authors' project, virtual models and large-scale physical models of 19 architectural objects of the Vasilevo Museum-Reserve were made. Photogrammetry, polygonal 3D modeling, FFF 3D printing, and layout technologies were used in the work. The process of photographing to create a digital model using photogrammetry technology was carried out using a professional UAV and a SLR camera. The main software was Blender, Autodesk Meshmixer, Agisoft Metashape. The experience of digitizing objects has shown that photogrammetry makes it possible to capture fine details well in a computer model, which can be further reflected in large-scale models with 3D printing. In particular, these are wooden walls and ceilings of various designs, masonry, engraved images and inscriptions on stone. 3D printing was carried out on Creality Ender 3 and Creality Ender 5 3D printers. The printing material was polylactide plastic. The printed models were painted and reinforced in the form of a scale model. The finished model was transferred to the Vasilevo Museum and is used for museum display.
Korsakov S.A. - Virtual reconstruction of the main house of the Sennitsy estate situated in Moscow region: sources and research methods pp. 79-101



Abstract: The problem of historical and cultural heritage preservation is very relevant these days. Increasing number of monuments is being destroyed every day; however, our compatriots are continuously becoming more interested in landmarks Russia. There has been a marked increase in the number of tourist routes in Moscow region. Numerous noble estates represent an important part of the region’s cultural assets. In Moscow region, there are lots of former estates of prominent families of the Russian Empire: today many of these properties are in ruins. Manor Sennitsy situated in Ozyory district of Moscow region is one of such gradually decaying cultural monuments with a rich history. This study analyzes a set of sources, on the basis of which the author creates a virtual 3D-reconstruction of manor Sennitsy in the period of late 19th – early 20th century when it was owned by the family of Count F.E. Keller. The source base for the study is very diverse: plans, drawings, cartographic materials, photographs, inventories of property, construction cost estimates. The author describes gradual process of 3D-modelling, in the framework of which softwares SketchUp and Twinmotion were used. Reconstruction of buildings of the Sennitsy manor complex allows to visualize an image of the destroyed monument of culture, as well as to demonstrate high potential of using 3D-modelling methods in history. This study is carried out within the framework of the Project of reconstruction of appearance of the noble estates of the Moscow region, supported by the Department of Historical Information Science of the Faculty of History of M.V. Lomonosov Moscow State University.
Boitsov I.A., Kim O., Moor V., Chernov S.Z., Entin A. - Archeological, Geological, Geomorphological and Archival Sources to Reconstruct the Eastern Part of Moscow Bely Gorod Historical Landscape (the 14th-16th Centuries): Podkopaevo and the Rachka River Valley Reconstruction pp. 80-163


Abstract: The article studies a part of Moscow's historical center within Bely Gorod boundaries and is written as a part of the project aimed at creating a 3D-reconstruction of the historical landscape and the city layout in the 1760s-1770s. The authors create a map reconstructing the natural relief in the 14th century and the earth surface in the 1760s-1770s on the basis of archaeological data on the surface depth that preceded the urban life (the 14th century) as well as geological drilling data. The most difficult task was to reconstruct the landforms of the Rachka river valley which is now almost completely covered with a cultural layer. To solve this problem, the map underwent a geological and morphological examination by comparing it with the valley of the river – a natural analogue. The resulting digital reconstruction map of the river valley was verified by overlaying the buildings shown on the instrumental plans of the 18th-19th centuries and corrected. The research results are a series of schemes where the earth surface similar to that in the 14th century is shown by means of elevation contours and a separate map of the Rachka river historic bed. When comparing various materials, contradictions and inconsistencies were revealed that cannot be resolved using the data currently available, but the authors think that a detailed workflow presentation is sure to provide for completing and correcting the reconstructions presented in the article.
Lemak S., Chertopolokhov V., Kruchinina A., Belousova M., Borodkin L., Mironenko M. - Optimization of Interface Elements Order in Virtual Reality (Virtual Reconstruction of Bely Gorod Historical Relief) pp. 81-93


Abstract: The article sets a problem focusing on how to optimize the order of 3D user interface for virtual reconstruction of Moscow historical center landscape in the 16th-18th centuries. To work with the interface a virtual reality headset, a motion tracking system and an eye-tracker were integrated. Spatial representation of the historical reconstruction is accompanied by a specialized interface that allows one to access the source database. The authors introduce a criterion that provides for estimating the optimum order of interface elements in the virtual space. The problem is handled in case there are unknown factors such as the size of user's hands, deviations in the position of an interactive object and restrictions related to the disposition of interface elements. The article sets the general problem and solves some internal problems related to the construction of acceptable multiple dispositions of interface elements and the modeling of eyesight movement from one interface element to another. The article is the first to suggest an algorithm to numerically optimize the interface in 3D virtual space modeling the relief and historical buildings in the center of Moscow. It provides for user’s movement and gives access to historical sources which are the basis for virtual reconstruction of the heritage understudy.
Borodkin L., Zherebyatyev D.I. - Virtual Reconstruction of Typical Railway Stations of the Great Siberian Railway of the late XIX - early XX Centuries pp. 84-102



Abstract: The paper deals with the issues of preserving the cultural heritage associated with the construction and operation in the late XIX - early XX centuries of the Great Siberian Way (later called the Trans-Siberian Railway - Transsib). The Trans-Siberian Railway is the largest infrastructure project of the Russian Empire, created with the state budgetary funds in 1891-1916. An important task for the builders of the highway was the creation of its infrastructure, including the construction of stations with all the necessary buildings and structures. In the smaller stations (and there were most of them), the passenger buildings were original wooden structures of architectural and functional interest. Almost all of them have lost their original appearance, characterized by the "Russian style" of the turn of the XIX-XX centuries. The purpose of this article is to create a virtual reconstruction of passenger buildings (as well as other buildings) that stood at small stations on the Great Siberian Way. The source base for creating 3D models of typical buildings of railway stations on the mainline, including drawings of these buildings, photographs of their construction period and a later period, Yandex satellite images, as well as text descriptions of virtual reconstruction objects, is considered in detail. 3D models of passenger buildings and other structures of railway stations are presented, their visualization is given on the Twinmotion Cloud online platform; it is available for viewing by QR-codes on mobile devices and personal computers on any operating system.
Chibisov M.E., Vladimirov V.N., Krupochkin E.P. - Development of Historical GIS to Study the Clergy and Parishes of Altai (Gornyi) Okrug in the Late 18th Century – Early 20th Century. pp. 85-95


Abstract: The article studies the issue of historical GIS development and offers methodical approaches and technological solutions realized by means of MapInfo and ArcGIS geoinformation systems. The key problem studied is the development of GIS-project “The Clergy of Altai Gornyi Okrug in the Late 18th c. – Early 20th c.” Special emphasis is laid on issues related to the development of a unified mathematical and cartographic basis for the GIS. A technological scheme have been developed and tested that includes operations with raster data and a group of operations with a set of vector data (GIS-layers). An important tool of the project is an opportunity to analyze GIS-statistical data on parishes and other territorial units by means of interactive maps creation. This basis provided for mapping parish population structure, settlement occurrence, church objects distribution, etc. The data sets gained as a result of the procedures employed allow for covering any attributive information and any spatial data irrespective of time. This provides for retrospective GIS-modeling and studying cause-and-effect relationship both in time and space.
Ivakin Y.A., Potapychev S.N. - Development of Geochronological Tracking Information Technology for GIS-Based Historical Studies pp. 85-94


Abstract: The article addresses logical and functional features of an applied geochronological tracking information technology. From the viewpoint of its applied aspect, this information technology is scientific methodological and program tools to automatize certain historical issues related to biographical and geographical data merge on the basis of geoinformation systems and corresponding geoinformation technologies. It is an example of a specific information technology developed to help historians employing geographical interpretation of their subject domain when solving research problems. The methodology bases on the object-oriented approach to modeling within GIS domains and ontologies widely used in modern programming and complex software systems development. The novelty of the solution proposed is the principles of biographical and geographical data integration for humanities. The article studies qualitatively new opportunities provided by such a GIS tool as software application of geochronological tracking which it acquires in the process of its development.
Ivakin Y.A., Potapychev S.N., Ivakin V.Y. - Testing of Historical Hypotheses on the Basis of Geochronological Tracking pp. 86-93


Abstract: Information technology of geochronological tracking is a total of processes that accumulate and integrate data on geographic relocation of historical figures for a given time interval and represent the results as a generalizing graph in GIS. Hypotheses about stable migration trends are represented as subgraphs of the graph. To test such hypotheses is to search and evaluate statistical significance of relevant graph isomorphism. The article describes these qualitatively new opportunities provided by such an approach as well as relevant mathematical and algorithmic tools. Methodology of the study grounds on graph theory, probability theory, mathematical statistics and statistical accuracy and stability evaluation methods. Information technologies of geochronological tracking form the methodological and program apparatus for automation of selected class of historical tasks, connected to fusion of biographical and geographic data based on GIS. The novelty of the study is a new class of methodical tools for historical studies addressing geospatial social and political processes on the basis of geoinformation systems and relevant technologies. The main theoretical conclusion is the applicability of mathematical tools of confidence figure evaluation when making a decision in historical studies on the basis of geochronological tracking net structures.  
Kanishchev V.V., Kunavin K.S. - GIS Measurement of Nobility's Lands in the Late 18th - First Half of the 19th Centuries pp. 86-102


Abstract: The article explores the way GIS technologies can be used to study historical dynamics of environmental processes in an agrarian society. It addresses several landowner estates in Tambovskaya Guberniya in the late 18th — first half of the 19th centuries when the vast steppe lands in the region were finally reclaimed. Since written documents have no clear evidence of the dynamics of sizes of various estate lands understudy, cartographic materials were the primary source for calculating this dynamics. Although there are some deviations from geographic coordinates in maps of the General Land Survey and Mende Land Survey, GIS technologies made it possible to determine (with a minimal error margin) changes in the area of the estates in general and residential, arable, meadow, forest and erosion lands in particular. Promising results of geoenvironmental calculations provided a solid foundation for a historical case study of environmental processes in landowner estates of the forest-steppe belt of Russia. The estates understudy were expanding due to the growth of settlements and arable lands at the expense of meadows and steppes and were characterized by a lack of forest exploitation. A technique introduced can be of value when studying the history of landowner and other estates which can boast preserved plans without distinct geographical references.
Stepanova I., Frolov A., Gavrilov P.V., Savinova A.I. - The scribe book of the Tver half of the Bezhetskaya Pyatina in 1545: publication of the source in the web gis environment pp. 87-103


Abstract: The article discusses the experience of online publication of the scribe book of the Tver half of the Bezhetskaya Pyatina of the Novgorod land in 1545 on the NextGIS Web platform. The scribe's Book of 1545 is the most complete source describing the territory of the Tver half of the Bezhetskaya Pyatina of the XVI century. The book reflects the composition of landowners not only of the XVI century, but also of the period of independence of Veliky Novgorod. The paper describes methods of working with the geographical information of the book, creating geodata based on it and ways of presenting them in a web format. Attention is paid to various technical solutions, their strengths and weaknesses are considered.   The novelty of the research lies in a new look at the auxiliary element of the NextGIS Web web map, which is the Description displayed on the functional panel of its interface. The proposed approach turns the interactive geographical pointer accompanying the map into a platform for full-text publication of the source, in which the map performs the function of a container, always ready to display exactly the spatial context in which the geographical object selected by the user exists from the text of the historical source of the source. The main conclusion of the work is the conclusion that the proposed method allows you to combine the transmission of the main elements of the paper publication of the source with the advantages of a modern digital format, expanded due to the cartographic component.
Gasanov A. - Virtual Reconstruction of the Industrial Heritage: 3D-Reconstruction of the Architectural Appearance of Moscow Tryokhgorny Brewery Production Building at the Turn of the 19th Century pp. 88-114


Abstract: The article virtually reconstructs the historical appearance of Moscow Tryokhgorny Brewery production building in the late 19th and early 20th centuries. Through the decades, Tryokhgorny Brewery held the leading position in the brewing industry of both the Russian Empire and the Soviet Union. This study describes virtual 3D-reconstruction methods applied, addresses the issue of using various source types (narrative, graphical and photographic materials) and considers the issue of data incompleteness. It briefly describes the history of Tryokhgorny Brewery and the subject of research and preservation of industrial heritage. The source base gathered led to the conclusion that its informative potential is enough for creating scientific virtual 3D-reconstruction. As a result, the renders of virtually reconstructed “Varnya” production building were created in Unreal Engine 4 software. In 2006 Tryokhgorny Brewery stopped working and turned into a possible industrial heritage object as its main buildings were constructed in the late 19th century. Historical research and virtual reconstruction of Tryokhgorny Brewery are specifically topical today because despite its importance as an object of industrial heritage it is in danger of complete destruction. .
Zhurbin I.V. - Complex Studies of Archeological Sites and Geoinformation Analysis of Interdisciplinary Data pp. 89-105


Abstract: Modern approach to the study and preservation of archaeological sites is based on the complex application of natural-science and archaeological methods. The development of archeological site study algorithm (aerial photography, geophysics, soil examinations, etc.) is a topical research trend. An effective tool to compare different data is a geographic information system which contains not only traditional cartographical and thematic layers, but also transformed maps (which result from the application of operators to initial maps) and interpretation layers (which result from the comparative analysis of the transformed maps). The article addresses the Kushmanskoe settlement dated 9th-13th centuries AD. It was one of medieval Finno-Ugrian settlements in the basin of Cheptsa river (the northern part of the Udmurt Republic). To interpret the interdisciplinary data complex the author offers informative markers to estimate the preservation state of the cultural layer and decision rules to recognize the areas with characteristic properties. As a result, the author has determined the boarders of the settlement parts with different preservation state of the cultural layer: that with transformed surface and a substituted one. He has also found a part of “household periphery” Uchkakara – a boarder of the cultural heritage object. The analysis of mutual alignment of geophysical anomalies related to local underground objects let the author reconstruct proper layout of the settlement.
Borodkin L. - Virtual Reconstruction of Historical Urban Landscape of Bely Gorod pp. 90-96


Abstract: The article addresses methodological and methodic issues concerning the study of historical urban landscape. The methodological basis of the work is a concept suggested by UNESCO. It is a developing field of contemporary historical urban science. Its methodic and technological basis is digital technologies, primarily 3D-modelling and 3D GIS. The article describes foreign and Russian studies reconstructing historical landscapes with the help of modern technologies. The research subject is a virtual reconstruction of Bely Gorod’s landscape in the 15th-18th centuries – a historical site in Moscow’s center. The author describes the interdisciplinary research project, its source base including different sources as well as technologies of their analysis and synthesis. The sources and methods used provide for the first virtual reconstruction of the landscape and the main objects of Bely Gorod which 3D models are “introduced” into the historical landscape being reconstructed throughout its three centuries of evolution. Additionally, laser scanning and digital aerial survey technologies providing for building 3D models of objects at their later time slices are used in the study.
Beklyamisheva A.A. - 3D modeling methods and architectural history of the mansion on Tverskaya 21: a noble estate, the Moscow English Club, a museum pp. 92-107


Abstract: The article presents architectural history of the building of the Moscow English Club, located in the center of Moscow on Tverskaya Street using the methods of three-dimensional modeling. The object of study is an object of cultural heritage, which during its history used to be a city estate, a noble club and now is a museum. Features of its location, historical events, socio-cultural context and change of purpose have influenced both the external design of the building and its internal structure. The author identifies and analyzes causes of changes in the architecture of the building, summarizes information from archival sources, identifies inaccuracies and contradictions that are found in documents. Based on materials from the funds of the Schusev State Museum of Architecture, the Central State Archive of Moscow and published sources, the author systematized the architectural history of the building and information about its owners. The data on the reconstruction of the building, based on the comparison of drawings and explanations to them, applications and projects, sketches and site plans, were shown in the scheme. For 3D visualization in 3Ds max six time periods were chosen: 1830s, 1875, 1883, 1896, 1912, 1940s. Agisoft PhotoScan and Adobe Photoshop were also used in the work.
Entin A. - Application of Geoinformational Technologies to Reconstruct and Analyze Historical Relief Surfaces pp. 97-107


Abstract: The article discusses an application of geographic information systems (GIS) to virtually reconstruct the historical landscape. The reconstruction of historical land surfaces is a necessary part of this big challenge. To solve this problem one has to use different and heterogeneous spatial data, interpolate heights on the basis of different geometries. Within the frames of geographic information analysis and mapping, algorithms and methods have been developed for creating digital elevation models (DEM) - digital representations of height fields which are considered to be relatively continuous (within a certain predetermined area). The paper considers the algorithms used to interpolate heights and create DEMs, the possibilities of two-dimensional and three-dimensional visualization as well as the solution of graphical and analytical problems. The author also considers the issue of comparing various sources of spatial information (archaeological and geological surveys) using GIS technologies and takes the case of the part of Bely Gorod ("White City") of Moscow (16th-18th centuries) as an example. He has demonstrated that the area understudy is characterized by a systematic difference in the surface heights of the natural ground as evaluated from these different sources. This factor, nevertheless, does not exclude the possibility of their joint use.
Kim O., Moor V., Zherebyatyev D.I. - Virtual Reconstruction of Dominant Historical Buildings in Moscow’s Bely Gorod (16th-18th Centuries) pp. 100-134


Abstract: The history of medieval Moscow has been attracting attention of researchers for many years. Huge bulk of data accumulated needs to be systematized and summarized. These can be done by means of digital technologies. A method of this study is the creation of virtual reconstructions of the urban landscape: 3D-models of the historical relief, the urban environment and particular buildings. The article describes the source base of the visual reconstruction of historical buildings of Moscow Bely Gorod in the 16th-18th centuries, characterizes different types of sources both written and visual (graphic, pictorial ones as well as photographs). The authors analyze the relationship between the type of sources and the 3D model reliability. A separate part of the article describes a method for obtaining full-scale data on partially preserved objects that is 3D scanning and aerial photography technology which uses modern technical means (a laser scanner and a copter). As examples of 3D models created by different methods, the article reconstructs three objects that were the architectural dominants of the eastern part of Bely Gorod. These are the Church of Vladimir in Starykh Sadekh (the 17th-18th centuries), the old cathedral of the Moscow Ivanovskiy Monastery (the 16th-18th centuries) and the Palaty of Princess N.S. Shcherbatova with the individual church named after the Kazan Holy Mother in Podkolokolnyi Bystreet (the late 17th-middle 18th centuries).
Zherebyatyev D.I., Pimonova D.A. - Virtual reconstruction of small architectural forms of the Bogoroditsky Palace and Park ensemble of the estate of Counts Bobrinsky of the late XVIII century pp. 102-128



Abstract: The article is devoted to the virtual reconstruction of small architectural forms of the Bogoroditsky Park of the Bobrinsky estate. In addition to the unique architectural ensemble, this place was famous for its park, and all thanks to its creator – the estate manager Andrey Timofeevich Bolotov. It was A.T. Bolotov who left the most detailed memories of the construction of the park ensemble, as well as a whole album with sketches of the views of the park, which allows us to present the beauty and grandeur of the estate today. The focus of the virtual reconstruction is on the most beautiful part of the park, which was located to the northwest of the palace, closer to the shore of a Large pond. The article discusses the techniques of landscape design used by the estate manager A.T.Bolotov at the end of the XVIII century, the features of the construction of the park and the difficulties encountered in creating objects of small architectural forms. The methods and technologies of computer modeling used in creating a three-dimensional historical reconstruction of small architectural forms, the relief of the park, reservoirs and green spaces based on historical sources are analyzed in detail. The work contains a study on the history of the construction of the Bobrinsky Estate park, its development after the resignation of the manager A.T. Bolotov, development and restoration in the XX – XXI centuries, provides an overview of historical sources, including materials of the Restoration and Architecture LLC project in 2014, which allow restoring the historical appearance of the palace and park ensemble of the estate.
Borodkin L., Gerasimova Y.N. - Virtual Reconstruction of Historical Manor Complexes: Cooperation of Historians and Archivists, Project Activity of Students pp. 103-111


Abstract: The article aims at characterizing the joint project of archivists and historians, the Main Archive of Moscow Oblast and Moscow State University. The project virtually reconstructs historical manors using 3D modeling technologies on the basis of archival materials. The paper briefly examines the evolution of dvoryanstvo manors in the 18th - early 19th centuries, their role in the formation of rural society and their culture as well as the manors’ state at present when most of the remaining manors are in ruins. The article formulates three principles that should be observed when choosing objects for their virtual reconstruction. The author shows the optimal set of sources for solving the problems of such projects. These are, first of all, graphic and text sets of design and restoration documentation which was created for restoration work in the second half of the twentieth century including dimensional drawings, opinion of engineers on the state of structures, draft restoration projects, working drawings for strengthening structures, etc.) as well as albums of photographs characterizing the current state of the object. The final part of the article describes the project work of students to virtually reconstruct five historical manors of Moscow Oblast which are objects of cultural heritage of federal or regional significance.
Zhurbin I.V., Pislegin N.V., Churakov V.S. - An Industrial Enterprise in an Agrarian Region: The Influence on the Population Dispersal and Migration System (a Case of Pudem Iron Works, the 18th-19th Centuries) pp. 103-123


Abstract: A feature of the Ural mining districts which developed in the second half of the 18th-19th centuries was that new industrial production was locally "introduced" into the existing agricultural settling system. To build a plant a new undeveloped plot was taken. The main criteria were the excess to natural resources necessary for manufacturing and transport routes. According to this principle many iron works and copper works were built in Udmurtiya. Pudem Iron Works were a case too. The main task was to evaluate the impact of the emerging innovations in economic activity on regional development. The formation of the settlement network was found in maps, written and statistical sources of the 17th-20th centuries. Historical data are used that demonstrate the initial stage of settlement, the period when Pudem Iron Works were in its prime and the years of decreasing manufacturing intensity. The use of historical maps demanded their transformation to a modern topological basis and the need to analyze the dynamics of the territory development required the construction of a geoinformation system of settlements. A comprehensive analysis provided for correlating the trends in the formation of a settlements network with migration processes. The initial formation of Udmurt agrarian settlements was influenced by external migrations. Cheptsa banks (the main river of the region) were the first to be developed. Later the banks of its tributaries were settled. After the first wave of external migrations the "oldest" settlements became the centers of internal settlement. Internal migrations occurred until the end of the 19th century. The analysis of the territory settlement dynamics has demonstrated that the creation of Pudem Iron Works (1758) practically did not affect the settling system of the region. Until the beginning of the 20th century the industrial component in the region was limited to the ironworks district and its nearest district. A characteristic feature of the 19th century is the external and internal migration of the Russian population. But at the same time the newly created settlements focused exclusively on the agricultural system of economy.
Pavlov K.V. - A Source Complex for the Construction of a Scientifically Based Virtual Reconstruction of the Spaso-Preobrazhensky Cathedral of the Nizhny Novgorod Kremlin of the XIX - early XX Centuries. pp. 103-134



Abstract: The article is devoted to the problem of forming a source complex on the history of the Spaso-Preobrazhensky Cathedral of the Nizhny Novgorod Kremlin of the XIX - early XX centuries in order to create its scientifically based virtual reconstruction. As a result of many years of work, the author has collected a significant documentary base on the history of the temple, which includes four large groups of sources: written, pictorial (graphic), cartographic and material (museum exhibits). Each of them is analyzed in detail with the allocation of materials that are most important for the three-dimensional reconstruction of the designated historical object. The paper also discusses methods and technologies for analysis, verification and initial digital processing of pictorial sources from its composition. The scientific novelty of the study is expressed in the fact that for the first time a relevant source complex on the history of the Spaso-Preobrazhensky Cathedral of the 1830s was formed, which radically distinguishes this study from previous excursion and tourist virtual reconstructions of this temple. In addition, the technique of digital processing of visual sources and their translation into 3D format, developed by the author and presented in this article, has a certain novelty, which allows to preserve their original appearance as much as possible. The collected documentary base on the history of the Spaso-Preobrazhensky Cathedral of the Nizhny Novgorod Kremlin allowed us to assert the possibility of its authentic historical virtual reconstruction.
Grishin E. - Henry IV’s Spatial Mobility in 1063-1073 as the Factographic Basis for Information Dissemination in Medieval Germany pp. 106-122


Abstract: The article studies spatial mobility and information dissemination within the medieval space. The research object is the factors of information conductivity such as geographical activity of the population and individuals as well as general spatial characteristics such as topographic conditions, population density and communication routes. The author pays special attention to the geographical outlook of the authors of narrative sources and their ability to remotely monitor Henry IV’s movements. Particular attention is paid to the influence of geographical imperatives that determine the content of sources. The author explains the distortion of localizations and inconsistencies of dates. The research method is the predominant application of the cartographic method followed by the space-time analysis. The research data were presented as a chronologically oriented geoinformation system. The research novelty is the topics raised. These are the information dissemination in a specific historical context and its influence on various aspects of historical processes. The author also stresses the importance of regular spatial activity of the population for studying historical geography of the region and potential and productivity of the information dissemination from the viewpoint of narrative sources analysis. From the viewpoint of methodology, the research significance is to demonstrate the capabilities of the complex geoinformation project for solving multiple problems. 
Malyshev A.A., Dryga D.O., Mochalov A.V., Moor V.V. - Digital Technologies to Reconstruct Anthropogenic Landscapes of Ancient Sindika pp. 108-121


Abstract: The article describes the results of the complex archeological studies in the northern part of historical Sindika which aimed at collecting and analyzing data on the elements of the ancient anthropogenic landscape in the region. The most importantsettlement in Sindika and Bosporan State was Semibratnee Gorodishche which developed and blossomed due to the proximity to navigable Kuban' River. Two kilometers away from the gorodishche there are Bol'shie Semibratskie Burial Mounds. To search for anthropogenic relief elements photogrammetry has been used. Site aerial photography provided for the necessary information about the relief. To get more precise and better data the authors carried out high-precision geodetic ties with the help of GPS receivers which provide for getting data on the plan and height location of objects with accuracy to centimeters. Digital aerial photography allows one to capture the modern landscape which changes in the region understudy are very rapid in the last decade. The effectiveness and the speed of archaeological research increases thanks to aerial photography. One can examine bigger objects within a short time period. At the same time, photogrammetry data processing provides for the demanded precision of work while the spatial super resolution attracts the researcher's attention to objects unseen during land surveys. Collection and visualization of data in GIS provide big opportunities to structure materials. Digital environment makes it possible to tie different and time heterogeneous sources thus often allowing a researcher to locate an object and its digital reconstruction within a lost historic anthropogenic landscape.
Stepanova I., Gavrilov P.V. - Land ownership in the Bezhetskaya Pyatina (Tver Region) at the end of the Novgorod independence period: localization in GIS pp. 111-149



Abstract: The article gives the historical and geographical characteristics of the Novgorod land ownership on the territory of the the Bezhetskaya Pyatina in Tver Region. The main sources of the research are the scribal books of 1498/99 and 1545 years. The work was carried out using geoinformation technologies based on the previously performed localization of toponyms of scribal descriptions of 1498/99 and 1545. Using the Voronoi Polygons module and further combining polygons on the basis of belonging to a specific landowner, an idea was obtained about the spatial location of the land holdings of the Novgorod boyars, residents, fellow countrymen, monasteries and the Novgorod archbishop in the churchyards-districts of Pyatina. The web gis is available on the Internet on the website of the Laboratory of Historical Geoinformatics of the IVI RAS. The composition of landholdings (a single territory or separate enclaves) is analyzed. Localization made it possible to establish that a number of relatives' possessions were located compactly, which made it possible to identify family possessions belonging to Yuryev, Ovinov, etc., dating back to large single patrimony of common ancestors. The largest by area were the vladychnaya volost of Udomlya and the volost of Ivan Loshinsky's Slezkino. There is also excessive land ownership by the end of the period of independence of Novgorod. The concentration of small landholdings of foreigners and those living in the west of Pyatina, in the Mlevsky churchyards, was also revealed. The data obtained as a result of the use of gis technologies on the size of land holdings were compared with information on the number of settlements in them from scribal books. The population indicators obtained for the most fully localized volosts on average amount to 0.4-0.7 settlements per 1 sq. km. The territories with the highest (in the south of Pyatina and in the basins of the Medveditsa and Mologa rivers and their small tributaries) and the lowest (in the north) indicators of population were identified. After the annexation of Novgorod to Moscow, almost all landholdings were confiscated and distributed to estates that were not comparable in size to the old volosts.
Sorokina K. - Virtual Reconstruction of Olgovo Manor near Moscow: Research Sources, Methods and Technologies pp. 112-135


Abstract: Each year the problem of historical and cultural heritage preservation becomes more piercing as an increasing number of monuments are gradually ruined. Manors once being a special cultural phenomenon of the social history of our country are no exception. The article analyzes the complex of sources with sufficient information value for creating a virtual 3D-reconstruction of the main house and elements of Olgovo manor complex near Moscow in the late 19th - early 20th centuries as well as scrutinizes the sources and papers to study the history of Olgovo and its owners (17th - 20th centuries). The reconstruction of the main house and the elements of Olgovo manor complex allows the author to visualize the appearance of the currently ruined cultural heritage monument and demonstrate the practice of applying methods of three-dimensional computer modeling to historical research by the example of manor reconstructions. The author describes the use of modern software (Adobe Photoshop CS6, SketchUp and Twinmotion) to solve the goals set. The research was carried out within the project of the Historical Information Science Department of Moscow State University aimed at reconstructing virtual appearance of Moscow Oblast manors in close cooperation with the Central State Archive of Moscow Oblast.
Pimonova D.A. - Virtual Reconstruction of Bobrinsky Estate Landscape Park in Bogoroditsk: Sources, Methods and Research Technologies pp. 115-133


Abstract: The article virtually reconstructs Bogoroditsky Park of the Bobrinsky estate located in the city of Bogoroditsk, Tula region. The author briefly describes the history of the city and the estate, the biography of the park creator A. T. Bolotov, presents the results of the analysis of historiographical studies on the history of the development of Russian landscape art and the features of its development in the 18th century. Some paragraphs of the article study the formation of a complex of historical sources that served the basis for reconstruction, their criticism, as well as methods and technologies for creating a virtual reconstruction of the park ensemble of the Bobrinsky estate. The author illustrates the article with still frames of the virtual reality created. The virtual reconstruction of Bobrinsky estate park ensemble is one of the first works within the frames of historical 3D modeling where the landscape park is the central research object. The result of the work is the virtual reconstruction of the A. T. Bolotov's Park on the territory of the Bobrinsky estate in Bogoroditsk. The project is of quite great practical importance since the study addresses the federal level object. The virtual reconstruction can be used in the Bogoroditsky Palace-Museum and park as well as the State Historical Museum where an album of A. T. Bolotov's watercolors is kept. In addition, the project could become the basis for a real reconstruction of the park in Bogoroditsk.
Shchekotilov V.G., Shalaeva M.V., Shchekotilova S.N. - Geographic Information Systems and Databases in Search of a Duty Area and a Death Place of the Missed in Action pp. 123-145


Abstract: The article studies the use of GIS and DB to analyze text and cartographic materials of the information systems “Memory of the People” and “Memorial” and non-digitized materials of the Defense Ministry’s Central Archive to identify soldiers accounting for inexact data and data about those missed in action (after being wounded). The key element of the studies is the adjustment of the Great Patriotic War archival maps of the portal “Memory of the People” and a resource of the American Association of Historians “Gutenberg” to functionally use them in GIS and geoportal. The research methodology is the following techniques: step by step studies starting from a supposition through data search to a hypothesis, its test with the help of specialists and individual search for supporting documents with the aim to further perpetuate the memory of the fallen. The scientific component is the creation of database complexes covering the Great Patriotic War maps and those of the prewar periods as well as geocoded data, the formation of the regiments’ configuration, the cross-matching of data of reports on those lost, documents specifying the losses, memory books, financial statements, etc. The research novelty is the complex use of data of the Great Patriotic War maps, both old and modern ones, as well as data of the database “Memory of the People” and “Memorial” and other documents stored in the Defense Ministry’s Central Archive with the application of GIS, DB and authors’ software for cross-matching. The main conclusion is the efficiency of GIS and DB in search of data of those wounded soldiers who are considered missed in action.
Frolov A. - Evaluation of Coordinate Points Consistency in Medieval Geographical Manuscripts (the case of Ibn Sa'id's Data on the Southern and Eastern Mediterranean) pp. 124-143


Abstract: The article develops a technique for analyzing mathematical data (longitude and latitude) characterizing the location of cities in medieval Arabic geographical manuscripts. The calculations made at the coordinates of 19 points given by the Arab-Spanish traveler of the 13th century Ibn Sa'id. These data are taken from his text and from the book of Abu-l-Fida referring to Ibn Sa'id. With the help of the Python - PostgreSQL technological stack for each pair of cities a set of spheroids was determined that fit for placement them in the corresponding coordinates. Then the options for intersecting the sets in all possible combinations are analyzed. The consistent exclusion of all possible combinations of cities from the entire set allows these cities to be arranged according to the degree of consistency of coordinates for any number of withdrawn points. The results tell us that most of the coordinates were not the result of astronomical observations. One of the tasks was to test a hypothesis that some of the cities the coordinates of which were determined more accurately served as “reference” points serving the basis for calculating coordinates of the rest of the cities. Complete consistency of coordinates was achieved with the exclusion of 14 cities from the set in the first version and 13 cities in the second one. However, the geography of the rest cities in Ibn Sa’id’s version does not support the “reference points” hypothesis. Abu-l-Fida’s version can boast a result that is more close to the hypothes, but to prove it one has to solve the problem of data origin used by Abu-l-Fida to correct coordinates. The technique described can be applied to any other set of coordinates of ancient geographical descriptions to evaluate the degree of their consistency and search for “reference” points.
Vladimirov V.N., Frolov A. - All-Russian Scientific Workshop “Geoinformation Systems in Historical Research: Integration Approaches” pp. 128-132


Abstract: The article discusses a scientific workshop held in January 2018 at the history department of Lomonosov Moscow State University called “Geographic Information Systems in Historical Research: Integration Approaches”. The workshop discussed the achievements and problems of GIS usage in historical research. The central issue was the problem about the creation of historical spatial data repository as well as the way to integrate geodata collected by various research teams and individual researchers working in the field of historical geo-information systems. The authors analyze the viewpoints presented in the main reports and their argumentation and briefly describe the main reports during the round table. The problem of creating a historical geodata repository is new to the national historical science. It has not been completely solved by foreign researchers either. The professional community has recommended to further develop both domains of this problem field discussed at the workshop - accumulation of geodata and aggregation of metadata. .
Grishin E. - A Fund of Historical and Cartographic Materials as a Means to Unify Historical GIS and Digital Cartography pp. 133-142


Abstract: The article studies the development of a technique of historical digital cartography and geographic information systems. The article substantiates the proposals for the creation and operation of a collection of historical cartographic materials and names forms of historical spatial data interaction and the possibility of their implementation. Of particular importance is the institutionalization of historical cartography which can solve problems of methodological support of spatially oriented research and achieve unification of historical geodata. The article also speaks about issues of the preparation of topographic bases for the construction of historical maps and cartographic support of historical research and enumerates the main requirements for historical and cartographic materials. The research method is based on a retrospective review of the development of historical cartography. A comparative method is widely used to compare the achievements of general mapping and geoinformatics with corresponding disciplines in the historical segment. The main conclusion of the article is the need to form an institutional core of historical cartography that could take on the functions of solving methodical problems and creating reference mapping solutions for historical research. The article is the first to formulate the main types of interaction of historical and cartographic materials. The basic requirements for the presentation of historical digital maps and the basic content of geographic information projects are defined.
Malandina T.V. - Virtual 3D-Reconstruction of the Interiors of Moscow Oblast Manor Complexes (18th – early 20th Centuries): Ceremonial Interiors of Nikolskoye-Uryupino Manor Complex pp. 134-170


Abstract: Historical interiors of manor complexes as one of the main forms of spatial organization of life in the Russian Empire in the 18th – early 20th centuries are unique historical monuments that unite both social and individual elements charactering everyday life of the privileged classes of the Russian Empire. Stylistically and compositionally, historical interiors of Moscow Oblast manor complexes have a special place increasingly attracting the attention of Russian history and culture researchers. However, today most of Moscow Oblast manor complexes are ruined and their interiors are completely lost. The latest computer technologies grant unique opportunities for their virtual 3D-reconstruction and further preservation. The article generalizes types of interiors of Moscow Oblast manor complexes of the 18th – early 20th centuries and describes the transformation of t interiors throughout the main periods of classical manor complex culture development. The author clarifies a ceremonial interior type by the example of Nikol’skoe-Uryupino manor (Krasnogorsk district, Moscow region, Russia) and reconstructs the interiors in the Main Building and the White House by collecting an extensive database of visual and textual historical sources. The result of this work is 3D-reconstruction of the main ceremonial interiors of Nikol’skoe-Uryupino manor made in Autodesk 3DsMax and visualized in Corona Renderer software. The research was conducted in collaboration with the Central State Archive of Moscow Oblast.
Bogdanov V.O., Lagutkina E.V. - Territorial and administrative division of the left bank of the Volga River (side of Prince Fedor Borisovich) of the Rzheva Volodimerova district in the first quarter of the XVII century.: application of GIS technologies. pp. 134-149



Abstract: The object of the study is the volosts and camps of the left bank of the Volga River (half of Prince Fyodor Borisovich) of the Rzhev Volodimerov district in the first quarter of the XVII century. The main source in this work is the scribal and boundary book of Rzheva Volodimerova "Prince Fedorov's sides of Borisovich" letters and measures of Leonty Skobeltsyn and the clerk Makar Chukarin 1624-1625. In total, the source provides information on 2,691 toponyms. The subject of the study included the localization and characteristics of the geography of the volosts, the allocation of "assigned" ones from other counties among them, the identification of the causes and chronology of their entry into the Rzhev Volodimerov county, the study of the dynamics of the development of the territory of the county from the end of the XV century to the 1620s. The work was carried out using geoinformation technologies based on the methodology of localization of toponyms of scribal description with using sources of the XVIII-XIX centuries. The use of geoinformation technologies in the work on the continuous localization of toponyms of the scribal description of the county allowed us to get a more detailed idea of the location of the administrative boundaries of volosts and camps. Such a feature of the territorial organization of the county as the interlaced location of the lands of a number of volosts and camps has been revealed. The vagueness of some internal boundaries of the county is a reflection of the instability of its territorial organization, due to the dynamics of population and land ownership during the XVI-XVII centuries. Among the causes of this phenomenon are border conflicts, oprichnina, and ruin during the period of Troubles. The work with the assembly material allowed us to establish the key role of the oprichnina in increasing the size of the territory of the county in the second half of the XVI century. Thus, the results obtained became the basis not only for clarifying the boundaries of the county of the XVII century, but also for their formation in historical dynamics during the late XV – XVI centuries.
Chernov S.Z., Boitsov I.A. - Archeological Sources to Visually Reconstruct the Landscape of the Eastern Part of Moscow Bely Gorod (14th-16th Centuries). Ivanovskaya Gorka pp. 135-178


Abstract: New digital technologies of the 21st century have sparked the interest in preserving the historical and cultural heritage through the use of three-dimensional modeling methods, in particular, virtual reconstruction of urban historical landscapes. The most important stage in the implementation of such projects is the formation of a source base with sufficient completeness and reliability of information about the topography of the studied area and its evolution under the influence of natural and anthropogenic factors. When forming a complex of sources in such studies, the emphasis is mainly laid on archaeological data. The creation of such a source complex and its justification is a new interdisciplinary task.The article discusses an approach to solve such a problem addressing a research project virtually reconstructing the historical landscape of Bely Gorod - the territory in the center of Moscow in the 14th-16th centuries. The research object is one of the most interesting areas of Bely Gorod known as Ivanovskaya Gorka which is characterized by a rare variety of original natural landscapes. At the authors’ disposal there are detailed descriptions of this area made in the 17th and 18th centuries and materials of archaeological explorations carried out in the late 1980s early 1990s which focused on the study of this historical landscape. The materials presented in the article are used to virtually reconstruct the Ivanovskaya Gorka relief.
Mamonova S.A. - Virtual Reconstruction of Pushchino-on-Nara Manor near Moscow: Research Sources, Methods and Technologies pp. 136-165


Abstract: Manors of the 18th - early 20th centuries located near Moscow can boast their specificity within the socio-cultural context of the history of Russia. After a period of oblivion for most of the twentieth century, the manors of Moscow Oblast started to attract researchers of Russian culture, architecture and everyday life in pre-revolutionary Russia. Today most of the well-known manors of Moscow Oblast, once famous for their architecture, park culture, remarkable social history associated with the names of the famous Russians are in ruins. One of the main characteristic features of the manor culture is its synthetic nature that requires combined efforts of specialists belonging to different interdisciplinary approaches to study it. The article analyzes the complex of identified sources that have the potential for creating a 3D-reconstruction of the main house of the manor and elements of the manor complex and which, taken together with the literature, make it possible to study the history of Pushchino-on-Nara manor and its owners. Virtual reconstruction makes it possible to visualize the appearance of this cultural heritage site and demonstrate the opportunities to use three-dimensional computer modeling techniques in historical research by the example of the manor reconstruction. The article also tells us about the author’s use of modern software (Adobe Photoshop, SketchUp and Twinmotion) to solve the goals set. The research was carried out in collaboration with the Central State Archive of Moscow Oblast.
Frolov A. - On the Way to the National Historical GIS of Russia: Two Approaches to Integrate Research Geodata pp. 143-151


Abstract: The article discusses two approaches to integrate historical geodata that have been created by various research teams and individual scholars with different goals and in different ways within the context of the general movement of historians’ community using geo-information technologies to the national historical GIS. The author believes that creation of a special fund accumulating geodata of different owners is not a good solution. Much more effective solution is metadata aggregation. The main difference between these two approaches is an answer to the question whether it is necessary to alienate geodata from their owners in order to provide access to interested users? The answer to this question determines the feedback between a user and the contents of a database. The organization of such interaction is of fundamental importance for the professional community of researchers. Some technical solutions recommended for organizing user access to geodata by means of aggregation are described in the article in more detail. The main conclusion is the relevant integration of various historical geodata by aggregating their metadata in a certain internet resource which must make some technical demands on data providers, be a mediator between a user and a database and delegate a user geodata access rights established by a geodata owner.
Borisik A.L., Pyatigorskiy E.V. - Reconstruction of German Coastal Defense Line in 1942-1944 and Search for Military Historical Heritage Objects. Bolshoi Tyuters Island. Data of Geophysical Methods and Excavations. pp. 144-161


Abstract: The article describes the results of full-scale geophysical 2017-2018 studies conducted with the purpose of detecting military historical heritage objects on Bolshoy Tyuters Island. Sand dunes located in the eastern part of the island were studied in a short time by detailed magnetic exploration with an observation step of about 1 m. The most interesting anomalies of the magnetic field were investigated with the georadiolocation method. The processed results provided for mapping the anomalous magnetic field and creating georadiolocation sections and a dimensional relief model which demonstrate anomalies related to German defense and are promising for further excavations. The pinpoint excavations of the identified anomalies made it possible to explain their nature and discover objects of historical value at depths of up to 5 m. Despite high "contamination" of the dunes with metal debris, the use of geophysical methods with a dense observation system made it possible to detect a large number of objects of military historical heritage and significantly reduce the volume of excavations. Linking of the German positions archival scheme at hand additionally provided for comparing the location of the objects found with symbols made on it. After systematization and generalization of all the information obtained during 4 years of research on the island, it is possible to reconstruct the system of German defense in the area of sand dunes with a high degree of reliability.
Ivakin Y.A., Potapychev S.N., Ivakin V.Y. - Rational Algorithm to Test Spatial Historical Research Hypotheses on the Basis of GIS Geochronological Tracking pp. 147-158


Abstract: Information technology of geochronological tracking in history is a combination of processes which accumulate and integrate data about geographic relocation of historical figures for a given time interval and present the results as a generalizing graph in GIS. Hypotheses on stable migration trends are sub-graphs of this graph. To test such trends is to search and evaluate statistical significance of isomorphism (structural similarity) of corresponding graphs. Rationalization of algorithm is achieved by means of a reasonably chosen basic method searching for isomorphic embedding into geochronotrack graph basis. The basic methodological approach is a combination of representative and analytical methods of modern geoinformatics and graph theory. Full-featured development of computer interpretation of graph theory methods based on geochronological tracking provides for new quality of historical studies using modern GIS-tools. Namely, a researcher can use quantitative methods of a corresponding logical-analytical apparatus. The article addresses qualitatively new possibilities of such an approach and a corresponding algorithmic apparatus. .
Lysenko K.D. - Virtual reconstruction of the Trinity Cathedral in Stavropol-on-Volga in the first half of the twentieth century: sources, methods and research technologies pp. 150-180



Abstract: This work is devoted to the current direction of historical urbanism – the creation of virtual reconstruction of objects of historical urban development. Specifically, the task of creating a 3D reconstruction of the Trinity Cathedral in Stavropol-on-Volga (currently Togliatti, Samara region) is being solved. This cathedral was rebuilt four times and moved twice, and in the end it was blown up and flooded during the construction of Kuibyshev (Zhigulevskaya) Hydroelectric power station in 1955. The main purpose of the study is the reconstruction of the final version of the appearance of the stone temple in the middle of the twentieth century. The work contains a study of the history of the cathedral, the urban area where it was located, as well as a description of the process of creating a virtual reconstruction and related problems. Due to the complete loss of the building, as well as the lack of development of its virtual reconstruction at the last stage of its existence, the creation of a 3D model of the Trinity Cathedral is an urgent project that will contribute to the preservation of the common cultural heritage of the city of Togliatti, and will also probably help attract public attention and investors who can help in the restoration and preservation of this monument historical and cultural heritage. The study was conducted with the support of the Togliatti Museum of Local Lore, which provided numerous materials for research with the desire to place the virtual reconstruction obtained during this work in its exposition.
Dvoretskaya A.P., Pikov N.O., Slabukha A.V., Mekhovskii V.A. - The sacred space of the Yenisei North in virtual projects pp. 150-166



Abstract: The historical and cultural heritage of the Yenisei North has been formed over several centuries. The article provides recommendations on the use of new methods related to the graphic, digital reconstruction of unique sacred objects of Russian old-timers of the Yenisei North. The novelty of the research lies in the fact that the article for the first time analyzes the results of research and design work with cultural heritage, its presentation by means of 3D modeling and the creation of virtual tours of the Siberian Federal University, since 2009. The author's developments on modeling the lost objects of Yeniseisk and the Lower Angara region, prepared on the basis of photographic documents and scientific and technical information, are analyzed. The information potential of panoramic photography of more than 20 objects of religious heritage of the Yenisei North, the territory of the primary settlement of Russians in Eastern Siberia is revealed.  Using the example of the information system of the Siberian Federal University "SACRA", developed by the authors, a classification description of objects and methods for providing distributed access to data on sacred objects to representatives of the professional community and a wide audience are proposed. It is concluded that such a digital platform allows to reveal the cultural potential of the Yenisei North, expands the possibilities of branding the territory, promotes the popularization of the historical and cultural heritage of the most remote territories, and increases historical knowledge about individual objects. New digital technologies make it possible to create aesthetically outstanding visualizations while preserving the historical authenticity of the reconstructed objects. In addition, it remains possible to introduce interactive technologies and publish virtual reconstruction on the Internet. The created virtual "product" has the possibility of long-term improvement, it is designed for development, expansion and possible correction.As new sources, historical information, artifacts are revealed, as well as new technological opportunities appear, the already created digital complex of the sacred space of the Yenisei North will receive both updated content and an updated creative form of presentation.
Shchekotilov V.G., Lazarev O.E., Lazareva O.S., Shchekotilova S.N. - Repository of Archival Maps and Geocoded Data: Goal-Setting, Audience, Structure and Functionality pp. 152-159


Abstract: The article addresses the formation of a repository of databases and computer programs in the field of archive cartographic materials of historical maps and geocoded data regarding goal-setting, audience, structure and functionality. The authors suggest that the object of storage be practical results of scientific research provided by authors, in particular those supported by grants. Databases of raster and vector electronic maps based on archival and historical maps, geocoded data, Internet navigators, websites can be repository objects. When forming the basic variant of a repository it is offered to use technologies of geographic information systems, databases and the Internet.  The research novelty is the offers to form the steady environment for accumulation, preservation and effective automated functional use of practical results of researches in the form of databases based on raster and vector electronic maps, geocoded data, information models of space-time objects and also computer programs in the form of Internet navigators, geoportals, programs for database inquiries.
Zherebyatyev D.I., Malandina T.V. - Virtual Reconstruction of the Interior of Nicholas’s I Small (Bottom) Study in the Winter Palace in 1850-1855 pp. 159-200


Abstract: Modern epoch of information and computer technologies provide new opportunities for solving the problem of cultural heritage preservation. Virtual reconstruction of historical interior is a task different from 3D reconstruction of monasteries, palace and park ensembles or historical urban buildings. Studies of great historical characters are conspicuous of their way of life, personal traits, activity and those internal changes which a person sooner or later transfers to everything around including the surroundings. The article thoroughly discusses a technique of virtual reconstruction of the interior of Nicholas’s I "Bottom" Study in the Winter Palace in 1850-1855 with the help of augmented reality and panoramic video technologies. The topic of historical interior virtual reconstruction often arises in the context of museum studies and is currently underdeveloped. However, the personal side of interiors is no less important for history than external architectural reconstruction.  
Vladimirov V.N., Krupochkin E.P. - About the Necessity to Establish and Develop a Fund of Spatial Historical Data pp. 160-168


Abstract: The article addresses the creation and development of a spatial historical data fund. Nowadays we can talk about the readiness of the community of historical geoinformatics specialists to cooperate in the field of data storage and use. The article discusses similar studies both in domestic and foreign historiography. The authors propose a way to create a system for managing spatial historical data, consider some problems arising herewith and make suggestions about possible solutions. The main message of the article is that the amount of studies based on geo-information technologies has clearly begun to outnumber the quality. The article uses descriptive and historiographic methods. The main conclusion is the creation of a historical geoportal which, together with a historical spatial data fund, can be integrated into the national spatial data infrastructure. It seems that the idea to develop a historical geoportal should ground on both the convenience of fund navigation and the ability to perform analytical operations.
Kim O. - Database "Parceling and Building System of Moscow Bely Gorod in the 18th Century": a New Tool to Study Historical Landscapes pp. 164-178


Abstract: The article presents the goals and the structure of the database "Parceling and Building System of Moscow Bely Gorod in the 18th century”, created within the framework of the project "Spatial reconstruction of the historical landscape of Moscow Bely Gorod in the 16th - 18th centuries (with the use of modern information technologies)". The database was created in MS Access DBMS and accumulates text and graphic sources characterizing parceling, planning and development of the eastern part of Moscow Bely Gorod in the 18th century as well as urban planning and personal information obtained from the analysis of these sources. The database is the basis for creating spatial 3D reconstruction and one of the main components of the geographic information system being developed. The database as a tool for systematizing text and graphic historical information is a new method to study and reconstruct historical landscapes. It presents sources that served the basis for the reconstruction in an organized way thus greatly simplifying the verification of conclusions and results of the study. The article describes the main objects of the database (historical sources including graphic, town-planning objects (driveways, households, buildings) and personalities (owners of courtyards)) and their interconnections and methods of data formalization. The article pays special attention to the features associated with the processing of property owners' biographical and genealogical information.
Poshevelya S.A. - Virtual Reconstruction of Petrovskoe-Alabino Manor near Moscow: Research Sources, Methods and Technologies pp. 166-184


Abstract: The article describes methods and technologies of virtual 3D architectural historical reconstruction by the example of the exterior restoration process of Petrovskoye-Alabino manor (18th century) located in Naro-Fominsk District of Moscow Oblast. Currently the object is ruined, the interiors have been completely lost, the facades have also been almost unpreserved and the park has completely disappeared. Petrovskoe-Alabino was a summer country estate built by Nikita Akinfievich Demidov for his wife Aleksandra Evtikhievna who had not seen the manor completion. Having not achieved its main purpose, the manor, despite its unique appearance and aesthetic splendor, did not become famous and left no noticeable traces in historical sources. The primary purpose of the estate determined its special architectural type that is "Monplaisir" which is not often found in Russia. The manor was ruined in the 20th century and is now unprotected. It has not been reconstructed before and all the studies at stake are rather art reviews than historical studies. This article emphasizes the need to preserve cultural heritage and record the current state of destroyed objects as well as describes the process of virtual three-dimensional reconstruction of the manor based on archival and published materials as well as those collected during the research. The work grounds on drawings, sketches and measurements made by professional commissions in the 20th century as well as photographs of various eras, text descriptions of the manor and a set of graphic files created during the process of aerial and land photography of the current state of Petrovskoe-Alabino. Not only have the buildings of the complex been reconstructed, but also the courtyard, the main park alley and the landscape of the main manor territory. The work was carried out in close cooperation with the Central State Archive of Moscow Oblast.
Oleinikova E.I. - Crime Dynamics in European Russia Guberniyas in 1896-1912: Statistical and Geoinformational Analysis of Regional Data on the Number of Convicts pp. 171-203


Abstract: The article addresses crime dynamics in European Russia provinces (guberniyas) in 1896-1912 accounting for data on the number of convicts. It studies regional features of the process as well as its differences from the general dynamics in the Russian Empire. The focus is two groups of convicts. The first one is those sentenced for personal crimes, the second one is those sentenced for property offences. The author has created thematic maps distributing convicts within guberniyas in 1896 and 1912. Moreover, she has correlated this information with the data on the size of the urban, rural and working population at the beginning and the end of the period and has visualized the dynamics of the convict number growth in 10 guberniyas of different regions of European Russia. The article concludes that the regional dynamics of the convict number growth differs from that characteristic of the Russian Empire as a whole. A GIS method applied has demonstrated that guberniyas grouped by convict numbers are similar at the beginning and the end of the period understudy. The author has revealed a correlation between the number of convicts sentenced for personal crimes and property offences. Moreover, taking into account the number of property convicts the study demonstrates rapid increase of the number of property offences by the end of the period understudy.  
Abramova K.D. - Virtual Reconstruction of Troitskiy Cathedral in Stavropol-on-Volga (18th-19th Centuries): Sources, Research Technologies and Visualization of Results pp. 179-201


Abstract: This article discusses historical 3D-reconstruction of Troitsky Cathedral – a cultural heritage object of the 18th-20th centuries in Stavropol (present day Tolyatti, Samarskaya Oblast of the Russian Federation). This cathedral was rebuilt four times, relocated two times and finally was blown up and submerged when Zhigulevskaya HPP was constructed in 1955. The study aims at reconstructing the initial appearance of the stone cathedral in 1750 to trace its further changes when it was rebuilt many times. The article tells about the history of the cathedral, the area where it was located as well as describes the process of virtual reconstruction and related problems. There is a special part characterizing the sources used to create three-dimensional models of the temple and the historical urban surroundings. The author names descriptive, visual and cartographic sources. Three-dimensional reconstruction of the relief (which has a complex shape in the given area) is of particular importance. The study is the first to address these sources. The topicality of the issue is determined by the idea to build a new cathedral with the old name in Tolyatti as well as the great importance of the temple in Stavropol’s history. The study is supported by the Tolyatti Museum of Local History. The result of this study (virtual reconstruction of the cathedral) is to be presented in the museum exposition.
Entin A. - Virtual Reconstruction of the Eastern Part of Moscow Bely Gorod Relief by Means of GIS Software pp. 179-191


Abstract: Virtual reconstruction of an urban historical landscape over a relatively large area requires the reconstruction of historical land surfaces. To solve this problem one needs to obtain a detailed spatial data on the Earth surface elevation for a certain historical period as well as the information about the way it changed over time. The reconstruction can be performed using different software. One of the convenient options is to use geographic information systems (GIS) since this approach assumes work with georeferenced data “by default” thus providing for easier combinations with other reconstruction components. The article describes the creation of digital relief models (DRMs) of the eastern part of Moscow Bely Gorod reflecting the state of the land surface in the 16th, 17th and 18th centuries via GIS software (MAG, SAGA, QGIS). Input data for this research are contours from 1:2000 topographic plans and generalized materials of archaeological sources. Using this basis as well as GIS analysis methods, three gridded DRMs (one for each epoch) have been constructed. These DRMs are suitable for use within the GIS environment and for export to other software.
Kondrasheva D.I. - Virtual Reconstruction of Molodi Manor near Moscow: Research Sources, Methods and Technologies pp. 185-210


Abstract: This article describes virtual reconstruction of Molodi Manor near Moscow which has the status of a monument of federal significance. As research methods, the author uses 3D modeling technologies and restores the virtual appearance of the main building, the outbuilding of the barn and the surrounding park complex of the first half of the 19th century. The author uses such modern software as Autodesk 3ds Max, AutoCAD, CorelDRAW, AdobePhotoshop and some others. In addition to a detailed description of the process and modeling methods, the work also studies the history of the manor itself. The article is divided into three parts each reflecting separate stages of the research. The first one speaks about the history of Molodi Manor. The second part gives a brief description of the sources used to create a three-dimensional model of the manor complex understudy. Some particularly important graphic sources, in particular photographs, maps and drawings, are included in the article for illustrative purposes. The basis of the reconstruction is dimensional plans, sections and other drawings provided by the Central State Archive of Moscow Oblast. The third part deals with the practical stage of the research. It reveals methods and technologies for constructing the 3D model, tells the reader about the difficulties that the author inevitably faced in the process of virtual reconstruction. The research is carried out within the project of the Historical Information Science Department of Moscow State University aimed at reconstructing virtual appearance of Moscow Oblast manors.    
Mironenko M., Chertopolokhov V., Belousova M. - Virtual Reality Technologies and Universal 3D Reconstruction Interface Development pp. 192-205


Abstract: The article summarizes the results of a two-year study of the issues related to the virtual reality and augmented reality technologies use to virtually reconstruct Moscow Bely Gorod in the 16th-18th centuries. The authors describe mathematical methods, software and hardware which grant access to the historical reconstruction of historical urban landscapes. An important feature of the reconstruction is the source verification module which was used to construct three-dimensional models of the landscape, buildings and the general scenery. The article names the basic principles which the verification module and its interface are based on and considers some optimum problems solved when constructing the interface. The project uses a hybrid motion tracking system as a combination of optical and inertial data. The archival sources used in the reconstruction process are presented in the virtual environment by means of a 3D graphical user interface for the virtual reality. The information displayed is generated from the database of historical sources which includes information about the urban development and individual buildings of Bely Gorod, their parts, location, purpose, owners and construction date. The database contains both text and graphic historical sources. The results obtained also include new algorithms, software and hardware systems as well as the experiment results. 
Zakharov A.V., Frolov A. - GIS “Spatial Mobility of the Szlachta under Peter the First” in a Prosopographic Study pp. 206-218


Abstract: The article discusses possibilities of geochronological tracking technology for studying the spatial mobility of social groups in Russia in the past. The GIS proposed is necessary to visualize and analyze spatial data in a prosopographic research of about 400 szlachta representatives in Peter’s Epoch. Spatial mobility is understood as the intensity of person's translocation through settlements and his ability to respond to external challenges by moving. The archival materials of the Senate inspection of the szlachta (1721-1723) served the basis for the study and the resource formation. Particular attention is paid to the design of software research tools – the PostgreSQL database and the web GIS based on the latter. It is the first time when geochronological tracking as a geoinformatics method was used to prosopographically study the Russian nobility. The methods of historical source spatial data representation and visualization are implemented in the form of a geodatabase that is publicly available. Two program modules (the GIS among them) grant a wide range of Internet users an access to historical sources text data as well as synchronically visualized data on the szlachta service under Peter the first.  The authors conclude that it is promising to create a special web interface which provides users with flexible text and geodata filtering and analysis. The web project created can be used both for research in the field of social history, historical geography, genealogy and for educational purposes in such courses as “historical computer science” and “digital humanities”.
Trishin I. - 3D Reconstruction of Nikolskoe-Uryupino Manor Complex (Krasnogorskiy Urban Okrug, Moscow Oblast): Research Methods and Technologies pp. 211-234


Abstract: This article addresses spatial reconstruction of the manor complex with the help of 3D modeling and 3D visualization. The topicality of the issue is determined by a big number of dvoryane architectural monuments in Moscow Oblast which have been partially or totally lost, but bear historical and cultural importance at the local or the regional level. Not many of them will be restored but most of them are related to famous or influential noble dynasties that had played an important role in Russian history.  Virtual reconstruction of these complexes is a way to “revive” this history and search for new aspects of dvoryanstvo’s life in the 17th – early 20th centuries. The article describes the main methods and technological solutions of spatial reconstruction of a manor complex by the example of Nikolskoe-Uryupino Manor (Krasnogorskiy Urban Okrug, Moscow Oblast). The manor has become known due to Golitsyny dynasty that created a picturesque architectural and park ensemble. The current state of the complex and many different sources at hand provide for detailed reconstruction of the main buildings as well as create the surrounding space similar to the original one. The reconstruction is described in details starting with the source analysis and methodical studies to the description of the virtual projects visualization.
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