Genesis: Historical research - rubric History and historical science
Genesis: Historical research
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History and historical science
Abdulin R.S. - The Role of Court Administration Authorities in Human Resourcing of the Judicial Service of the RSFSR (1917 - 1930) pp. 1-21


Abstract: In article the role of bodies of judicial management in staffing of judicial activity of the young Soviet republic is considered. The author shows that during the period with 1917 prior to the beginning of 1930 in the country there is a strengthened search of forms and trial and error methods and placement of personnel on judicial positions. The active role in providing judicial authorities with the corresponding shots was played by judicial authorities and superior courts which the author of article carries to bodies of judicial management. During the studied period selection and placement of personnel of judicial system I was not only under control of the National commissariat of justice of RSFSR and its bodies on places, but also the party and Soviet bodies which the author of article refers to subjects of the management of judicial system. Indications of party bodies were obligatory for bodies of judicial management. Problem and chronological and comparative-historical methods allowed to track dynamics of formation of staffing of judicial activity, at the same time formations and developments of institute of judicial management, to find out features of this process. The reconstruction of an objective historical picture was promoted by the system approach, allowed to find out the intrinsic nature, the principles of functioning and evolution of one of the directions of the Soviet judicial management in the specified chronological framework. Scientific novelty of article is caused by the statement of a problem and that the purposes and the tasks defined in it, of the contents, an object of research, methods weren't solved in domestic jurisprudence in full. Therefore for the first time in a domestic historiography complex research of process of formation of staffing of judicial activity as component of judicial management in the Soviet state in a context of social history during the period from 1917 to 1930 is presented.
Kenya I.A. - Traditions of Merchants' and Businessmen's Charity in the 19th and early 20th Century on the Example of Bryanski Region pp. 1-15


Abstract: The subject of the research is  to find out the background of charity work (mental, spiritual, social and economical) and motivation (mercy and compassion, religion, thirst for education). One of the reasons for the popularity of charity work in the 19th and early 20th centuries is a governmental support and stimulation. The article reviews the forms for such support. The reflection and interpretation of merchants’ and businessmen’s charity work is shown on the example of Bryanski Region represented by the following people: S.I. Maltsov, P.I. Gubonin, the married couple of V.N. and M.K. Tenishevs and the brothers S.S. and P.S. Mogiljovtsevs.  The article researches the contribution of these people not only in the social and cultural development of the region, but also their meaning for the Russian history. Different characteristics of men’s and women’s charity work are shown. The comparative method, method of historic retrospective, method of analysis and synthesis have been used in the course of the research. The methodology of the research is based on the correlation of motivation and background of the charity work. The traditions of merchants’ and businessmen’s charity work are based on the social position of merchants and businessmen, their spiritual needs and aspirations, their wish to be useful for their motherland. These traditions are reviewed in the following aspects: family charity work, men’s and women’s charity work. The following conclusions have been made: personal live principles, religion and family traditions became the foundation for the merchants’ charity work. The governmental support let the merchants’ charity become a unique phenomenon of the Russian history in the second half of the 19th century.
Makeeva V.I. - Acre and Alphito: to the question of Greek scary stories for children pp. 13-18


Abstract: This article is describes the Ancient Greek mythological characters Acre (Ἀκκώ) and Alphito (Ἀλφιτώ). Both of them are commonly attributed to surly persons who frighten and posed treat to the little ones, by analogy with Lamia, Mormo and Gello, who murdered children. The goal of this research is to determine the differences between the tales about Acre and Alphiro and the tales about demons who murdered children. The object of this work is the mythological representations of Ancient Greeks, while the subject is the Greek scary stories for children. The author analyzes the testimonies of ancient authors about Acre and Alphito. The conclusion is made that these characters differed from the typical children's monsters. Special attention is given to the tale of Acre due to better preservation of its history in the sources. She was a stupid woman, known for her absurd actions. Her name was associated with the origin of the words denoting stupidity; it also became a common name and was of proverbial nature. The foolish acts of Acre made her a fitting example of the wrong pastime. The tales of Acre and Alphito were not typical scary stories for children; their motif was not to frighten the little ones with their terrible doings as Lamia, Mormo and Gello, but to demonstrate not to waste their time in a foolish way.
Cherkasov A.V., Kozlov M.N. - Historiographical facts and historiographical sources in the study of the Paleolithic Era of the Crimean region pp. 23-32


Abstract: The subject of this publication is an analysis of the content and nature of the categories "historical source", "historiographical fact", "historiographical source" in relation to the problems of Paleolithic, Mesolithic and Neolithic studies of the Crimean region in the second half of the XIX - XX centuries. The research methodology is based on the complex application of key scientific principles: historicism, logical interrelation, objectivity, comparative historical approach, retrospection. The problem field and structure of the article includes: the specification of the conceptual and categorical tools for the historiographical study of the Stone Age of the Crimean region, the formulation of priority issues of the primitive archeology of the peninsula, as well as a comparative characterization of the corpus of relevant historiographical and historical sources. From the authors' point of view, a historiographical view of the phenomenon of the formation and development of regional primitive archaeology allows us to more accurately describe the process of its genesis, identify and characterize nominational directions in research, give biographical portraits of scientists and researchers of ancient history, identify social, organizational and scientific factors influencing the process of knowledge formation. In other words, the new role of historiography of archaeology, together with the cognitive capabilities of the history as a science, creates a favorable opportunity not only to study the history of Russian archaeological knowledge, but also contributes to clarifying the methodological foundations of this direction.
Adebayo K. - Analysis of historical perspective of the Nigeria-Russia diplomatic relations as an instrument for the current diplomatic ties pp. 25-29


Abstract: The diplomatic relations between Nigeria and USSR (Union of Soviet Socialist Republics) can be traced back to 1960, since which both countries have maintained warm political, economic and cultural relations. The establishment of their relation prompted by the political and military support of the Soviet Union to the Nigerian government during the Nigerian Civil War in 1967 and 1970. This article underlines the aftermath of dissolution of the Soviet Union, which influence in Nigeria and West Africa had drastically reduced. The author examines the traditional diplomatic relations between Russian and Nigeria from the historical perspective, based on the diplomatic theory as a paramount instrument for tracing the existing diplomatic relationship between the two colossal nations. However, in 1991 the Russia Federation being the successor to the Soviet Union proceeded to establish the diplomatic relations with the Federal Republic of Nigeria. Then President Olusegun Obasanjo officially visited Moscow in 2001; both governments signed a declaration on the principles of friendly relationship and partnership. The agreement on the program of bilateral and international relations was also signed.
Kotlyar N.V. - Public organizations in prerevolutionary Russia: classification issues pp. 41-55


Abstract: The goal of this research is to trace the evolution of views on public organizations (societies) of prerevolutionary Russia, determine the criteria for their classification based on various approaches, views and requirements of the time. The subject of this research is the classifications (typologies) of prerevolutionary societies that formed under the influence of sociopolitical realities, as well as their basic principles. The relevance of this topic is defined by the need to clarify the place and role of legal public initiative in the implementation of the demands of modern society through the prism of classification of public organizations. The research methodology leans on the synthesis of civilizational and formational approaches: public organizations of pre-evolutionary Russia are understood as a phenomenon of bourgeois society, subordinated to the interests of the ruling class, and at the same time, as the institution of modernizing society and nascent civil society. Systematic approach substantiates the polar conclusions of different epoch, and views the creation and activity of such societies as a gradual development of public initiative. Inductive method of transitioning from systematization to rather general representations allows determining the classification criteria for such organizations due to the specific role assigned to them at different stages of individual initiative in the Russian historiography. The novelty of this article consists in establishing correlation between the sociopolitical processes of prerevolutionary period of the Russian history and the classification criteria for public organizations adopted in the academic community. The author outlines the stages and principles of formation of the typologies of public organizations at different chronological segments of the late XIX – early XXI centuries. The article offers classification of prerevolutionary societies based on combination of the two categories: the “sphere” of public life and the “purpose” of activity of the organization.
Veselova I. - The works of Francisco Javier Clavijero within the framework of censure in the Spanish Empire during the late XVIII century pp. 43-49


Abstract: This article, in the context of prohibition of Spanish publication “The Ancient History of Mexico” by Francisco Javier Clavijero, examines the problem of censure of historical works of the colonial authors by Spanish authorities. The New Spain of the late XVIII retained barriers for distribution of the European philosophical ides of Modern Era. Besides the “natural” obstacle – remoteness from the metropolitan country and Europe – existed the barriers associated with the censure from Church and government. The works that contained the most radical and “harmful” ideas from the perspective of Spanish authorities, fell under the ban. Thus, the article determines the relation of Spanish authorities to the ideas of Clavijero through studying the censure practices of the Council of Indian Affairs – the institute, which controlled the colonial press, as well as the degree of reliability of censure filter. The article introduces into the scientific discourse a number of archival reference sources pertinent to issuing of the license for publishing texts of the colonial authors in the territory of India and metropolitan country. As demonstrated in the research, censure was a weak barrier for distribution of the new historical and sociopolitical ideas in the colonial society. This process could not be halted, even in terms of banning the publications in Spanish language.
Davydova A.O. - The activity of book stores of state trade system in the districts of industrialization of the north of Western Siberia during the 1970s 1980s pp. 43-48


Abstract: The subject of this research is the book stores of state trade system during the period of intense development of the north of Western Siberia during the 1970’s – 1980’s. The author analyzes their activity on realization of printed goods in the new cities and townships of the region, formed as a result of development of gas and oil resources of the territory; analyzes the forms and methods of work of the book-trading companies with customers, as well as the ways of expanding the range of book trade, delivery of literature and coordination of efforts of the book stores with public distributors. The scientific novelty consists in the analytical review of the published and unpublished documents on the development of book trade in the north of Western Siberia during the 1970’s – 1980’s. as well as determination and comparison of the specificities of realization of printed goods in the conditions of industrialization of this territory. The conclusion is made that the advancement of state book-trading chain tended to follow the dynamic development of the north of Western Siberia; while the state chain of book trade, which specialized in selling literature attracting the resources of businesses and organizations of the region, was the main system of books distribution in the territory.
Domogashev O.S. - Current trends in development of wrestling in the Altai Republic, Republic of Khakassia and Tyva Republic (on the materials of regulatory legal acts) pp. 46-58


Abstract: The object of this research is the wrestling in the Altai Republic, Republic of Khakassia and Tyva Republic. The subject is the current trends in development of wrestling in these regions. The goal consists in examination of the key vectors in development of wrestling in the period from 1990’s to the first decade of the XXI century based on the materials of regulatory legal acts. The insufficient knowledge on this topic within the framework of historical science is underlined. The research material broadens the scientific knowledge on the history of wrestling in the Altai Republic, Republic of Khakassia and Tyva Republic. The main source for this research became the federal and regional regulatory legal acts on physical education and sports. The novelty of this work consists in the analysis of individual regulatory legal documents on physical education and sports, and their impact upon the development of wrestling in the aforementioned republics. A conclusion is drawn on the intensive development of wrestling, including its national varieties – khuresh, kures, kuras; as well as female wrestling, future development prospects of this sport in the named republics.
Kilin A. - Private trade in the years of NEP: Russian historiography of the 1920s1980s pp. 46-66


Abstract: The goal of this research lies in the analysis of Russian historiography of the 1920s–1980s dedicated to private trade in the years of NEP. The presented material is valuable for familiarization with the problem navigating through the variety of publications, as well as for in-depth study of the topic, such as writing historiographical sections of dissertations. The material is systematized on the basis of problematic-chronological approach, and includes stages that are traditional for the Russian historiography. The staged vary in content, covering NEP as a whole and its separate aspects, such as specificity of functionality of mixed economy, goods-money relations, analysis of commercial practices in different economic sectors, and social aspects of private entrepreneurship. The period of the new economic policy is the dynamic and contradictory stage of the national history; there are multiple opinions and discussions around the alternatives to the development of the country. Multistructurality of the economy implied multilayeredness and polemical sharpness of arguments that unfolded at that time and left a mark in the historiography of 1920s. On the other hand, monostructurality of the economy and ideocratic approach in science led to the interpretation of NEP as a ‘”departure”. In the historiography of 1930s – early 1980s, private trade was openly marginalized, and the variety of ongoing processes was reduced to the struggle of private owner with collectivized sector solely within the framework of the antagonistic concept of “class warfare”. Since the mid-1980, the researchers once again addressed the issues that were relevant in the 1920s. The return to variety of interpretations was on the background of convergence of the Russian and foreign historiography in the context of seeking the alternatives to the “Marxist-Leninist concept of the historical process”.
Makeeva V.I. - Greek demons who murdered children pp. 54-68


Abstract: This article describes the Ancient Greek mythological characters who were attributed with murdering children: Lamia (Λάμια), Mormo (μορμώ) and Gello (γελλώ).The ssuperstitions associated with these demons remain in Greece to this day, although their images have undergone certain transformation. The object of this research is the mythological representations of the Ancient Greeks, while the subject is demons who murdered children. The goal of this article is to determine the role of children's horror stories in life of the Ancient Greek society. The author reviews the facts testifying to the existence of characters as Lamia, Mormo, Gello and Empusa in the Greek and Roman texts, as well gives characteristics to their images based on the comparative analysis. The conducted analysis reveals the common traits of the demons who murdered children: frightening appearance, combination of human and animal traits, ability to transform, identification with Hecate, as well as the story of the failed motherhood underlying the history of emergence of the demon. The key functions of these mythological characters consisted in explanation of the sudden infant and maternal mortality typical to the ancient times, as well as teaching children and adults a lesson. The first could be frightened with such stories, and the latter had to learn from the tale that demonstrates the harm of reckless following the temptations or refusal of fulfilling the prescribed social roles, socially acceptable behavior.
Matveev A. - Prerevolutionary historiography on N. K. Schilder pp. 58-68


Abstract: The subject of this research is the reflection of the main works of N. K. Schilder in prerevolutionary historiography. N. K. Schilder (1842-1902) is one of the leading historians of the “official” discipline, whose major works were publishes at the turn of the XIX-XX centuries. The goal of this research lies in examining Schilder’s essays in the context of antecedent to Russian historiography. No large research were published prior to the revolution, therefore the fundamentals of Schilder’s writings before the revolution were analyzes in the three types of works: comments on the books, scientific criticism of the essays, and obituary on his death. The basis of this work is the historiographical method that allows reflecting on the legacy of the historian in the articles and books published prior to the revolution. The conclusion is made that the end of the indicated time period marks the establishment of the generally accepted opinion of N. K. Schilder, which included the recognition of his important role in historical science and identification of the specific features of his works. The positive features include the demand of Schilder’s works among the reading audience, usage of multiple historical sources, psychologism; the negative include the lack of criticism of the sources, excessive overload of his books with quotations, prevalence of narration over analyticity.
Khristinich I.V. - Execution of the Fire Safety Law Under the Prosecutor's Supervision Over 300 Years pp. 60-71


Abstract: It is well known that the prosecution authorities have started to significantly influence the level of legitimacy in Russia since the very moment those authorities were created. Prosecutors deal with all legal spheres of life activities including fire safety. In the pre-revolutionary Russia fire safety was already controlled by prosecutors along with the issues of national security. The main goal was to inform the authorities about all incidents of fire and fire safety measures. In the pre-revolutionary period all fire safety agencies and organizations were under the supervision of prosecution agencies.  The main regulatory and administrative documents of the Prosecutor General of the USSR describe the following directions of prosecution supervision in the sphere of fire safety: supervision of the execution of laws by administrative agencies conducting preventive maintenance and fire safety investigations, control over the execution of orders and instructions and supervision of the execution of laws on responsibility for violation of fire safety rules.  Based on this insight into the history, the author of the article makes a conclusion that as an independent activity, prosecutor's supervision over the execution of fire safety rules started to form at the post-socialist period of Russian history. 
Deveykis M. - Periodization of the history of museology (on the example of Saint Petersburg museums) pp. 66-75


Abstract: This article examines the little-studied problem of periodization of the history of museology. The author describes the existing approaches of various scholars towards periodization, conducts their critical analysis, and offers original concept. The recommended model of the development of museology is based on the criterion of evolution of state power in the country. The subject of this research is to determine the peculiarities of museum construction in Saint Petersburg (the emergence of new profile groups, changes of social functions, impact of government policy upon museology) during the imperial, Soviet and presidential periods. The proposed methodology does not repeat any of the previously proposed periodization, which defines the novelty of this work. The recommended periodization, first and foremost, would allow conducting comparative analysis of the history of museum construction in different regions, both horizontally – each period, and vertically – between the periods; secondly, it is universal tool for all researchers in solution of research tasks and problems of museology; thirdly, it provides broader regional coverage – for identification of specific, common to certain areas, processes of the development of museology, as well as for introduction of regional material into the overall trend of museum development in Russia.
Bulatov I.A. - Russian organizations for children and youth in Harbin during the 1920s1930s in modern Russian historiography pp. 67-77


Abstract: The subject of this research is historiography dedicated to the history of Harbin organizations for children and youth of the Russian immigrants during the 1920s – 1930s, which was published over the last thirty years. The article provides a general overview of the literature and key aspects on the topic. The author analyzes and groups the publications by the types of organizations reviewed therein, which gives a better perspective on the level of knowledge on all movements and compare the available data. This, in turn, reveals the contradictions in different works and helps finding gaps that require further research. The article explores the materials dedicated to the well-known organizations of the immigrants, such as the Scouts (NORS-R and NORR); collective, but solely exclusively Manchurian – musketeers and young fascists; small-numbered and virtually unknown – the 13, Black Ring, Black Hand, etc. The conclusion is made that the main organizations for children and youth in Harbin are well studied. The author notes the need for further analysis of the programs and ideologies underlying these organizations, as well as for the development of universal classification of immigrant movements that allow gaining better understanding of these organizations.
Smirnova T.A., Machinskii S.A. - Tragedy of the civilian population in the encirclement of the 2nd Shock Army: the experience of pilot work as the evidence of Nazi crimes in the occupied territories pp. 68-85


Abstract: The object of this research is the destruction of civilian population that fell into the encirclement of the 2nd Shock Army during the Lyuban offensive operation of aimed at relieving the siege of Leningrad. The relevance of the topic of the tragedy of civilian population is substantiated by the the need to recognize extermination and genocide of USSR population during the Great Patriotic War on the international level, due to initiation by the Investigative Committee of the Russian Federation of a criminal case on the genocide of USSR population by the Nazi and their accomplices.. This requires the search community to be directly involved and document the results of pilot work and discovered information on the destroyed civilians. The authors indicate insufficient coverage of the tragedy of civilian population in comparison with the study of the fate of army and military personnel. The facts of the genocide of civilians – children, women, and senior population – were established in the course of pilot work. The article describes the experience of finding a previously unknown place of mass shooting of the dwellers of the Village of Vditsko of Novgorod Oblast, during search operations; as well as discloses the information about the factors and circumstances of destruction of the civilians based on pilot work, exhumation, reminiscences of the locals, and archival materials.
Tkachenko I.Y. - Food supply service of the Russian army in the Seven Years' War (17561763) pp. 69-80


Abstract: This article discusses the events of the Seven Years' War from the perspective of supplying the troops of the Russian army with food and adapting it to the European military campaign. An overview is given to the key battles of the Seven Years' War, reflecting the nutrition of troops and activity of certain individuals on maintaining military capability of the army. The author also touches upon the fate of A. V. Suvorov and the beginning of his service as a supply officer, which left an imprint on his future career. The article is based mostly on archival materials of the Russian State Archive of the Ancient Acts, as well as literary sources of scientific nature. The article describes the time of the dawn of the absolutist Russian State, being a powerful international force. The history of food service on the example of the Seven Years’ War of 1756– 1763 is dedicated to the history of food supply of the Russian army and population throughout the Seven Years' War (1756–1763), the main type of supply changed depending on the financial situation of the state. The history of food service in Russia is one of the most remarkable pages in military history. Food service, which established with the advent of the Russian regular army, has been one of the main vectors of activity of the military department for centuries.
Venikova M.S. - Institutionalization and educational activities of the public universities in Imperial Russia pp. 70-81


Abstract: This article examines the history of institutionalization and work of the  people's universities (at initial stage) of Imperial Russia. The research is conducted in the context of general problem of the establishment of civil society in Imperial Russia in the late XIX – early XX centuries. In modern Russia, after a sustained period of time, emerges a similar social transformation, which determines the relevance of the existing historical experience and scientific research on this topic. The object of the study is the people's universities that existed in Russia as public organizations (or - NCOs in the modern interpretation). The subject of research is determined by the characteristics provided in scientific literature of the people’s universities in Imperial Russia as the public institutions. One of such characteristics reflects the sociological views and considers the people's universities as institutions of civil society. Another one reflects the view  upon the people's universities as a phenomenon of the history of pedagogy and education, as well as defines them as a form of extracurricular education for adults. Proceeding from the first definition, the subject of research implies studying the forms and methods of self-organization, self-management and self-financing of the people's universities. The purpose of the study lies in the identification of the people's universities of Imperial Russia as the institutions of civil society, as well as revelation of the specific historical features in self-organization of these institutions. The author establishes the presence of common features in the creation and operation of the Societies of People's Universities that are characteristic for determining the presence of the developing civil society at the turn of the XIX and XX centuries in Russia. The materials of the first all-Russian congress of members of the Societies of People's Universities and other privately initiated educational facilities are analyzed. The scientific novelty consists in the fact that the author carries out a gradual (rather than fragmentary) comparison of the capital and provincial universities in terms of the basic parameters and characteristics. The characteristic of the phenomenon of people's universities leans not only the a priori (although unquestioned) judgments, but also on the comprehensive analysis of specific forms and manifestations of their self-organization, self-management and self-funding.
Veselova I. - Francisco Javier Clavijero (1731-1787) and the Society of Jesus: the impact of order upon life and works of the New Spanish historian pp. 113-123


Abstract: Francisco Javier Clavijero is a New Spanish historian, philosopher and a member of the Jesuit order. His most famous work became the “Ancient History of Mexico” published in Cesena in 1780-1781. Clavijero wrote it during his stay in Italy after the expulsion of Jesuits from Spain and its overseas colonies in 1767. The article examines Clavijero’s activity within the framework of his religious career as a member of the Society of Jesus. Based on the analysis of archival and published sources, the author determines the milestones in establishment and development of the New Spanish historian as a member of one of the most influential Catholic monastic orders. The Society of Jesus played the pivotal role in life and creative path of Francisco Javier Clavijero. The atmosphere, prevailing in the Jesuit collegiums in the middle of the XVIII century, contributed to the development of philosophical and scientific knowledge. In virtue of joining the order, Clavijero met the prominent contemporaries and took a great interest in studying the history of pre-Columbian civilizations. Even despite the uneasy relations with the primates, Clavijero remained entirely faithful to the order, for which he permanently left New Spain.
Smirnova T.A., Machinskii S.A. - Preparation of research report based on the results of field explorations as a creation of historical sources on the example of the activity of survey expedition The Burning Stones pp. 125-139


Abstract: This article examines the application of experience on preparing a research report based on the field explorations carried out on the territory of military operations of the period of the Great Patriotic War. The object of this research is the conduct of exploration works in the area of the Mountain Gankashvaara, the Kestenga direction of the Karelian Front since 1941 until 1944, which has not yt been studied by the historical science. Special attention is give to studying the theory, practice and legal status of exploration worlds of the detachments of the Russian Federation, distinctive features such type of works in relation to archaeological explorations, as well as the possibility of application of the experience of exploration work as a research mechanism for historical science. The relevance of this article is defined by the importance and need for application of scientific experience of preparing a research report in exploration works for the purpose of preserving the history of the Great Patriotic War in the historical memory of Russia. The questions are raised pertaining to commemoration of the defenders of the Homeland and perpetuating the memory of heroes. The article describes the practical experience of the authors in the field of search and perpetuation of the memory of the defenders of the Homeland, who died or have gone missing during the Great Patriotic War, as well as in analysis of the records and materials for continuing the research activity in this sphere.
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