Genesis: Historical research
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MAIN PAGE > Journal "Genesis: Historical research" > Contents of Issue ¹ 01/2024
Contents of Issue ¹ 01/2024
Anthroposociogenesis and historical anthropology
Dordzhieva E.V. - The image of the Kalmyks in the descriptions of foreign travelers of the XVII – first half of the XVIII century pp. 1-19



Abstract: The purpose of the work is to identify the features of the formation of an ethnic image and its constituent elements, which have become widespread in the works of foreigners. The subject of this article is the image of the Kalmyks, created by foreign travelers of the XVII – first half of the XVIII century. The research material is travelogues by foreign authors, which allow taking into account the subjective moment of perception, revealing the problem of historical reality and its representation in a historical source. The article assumes the solution of the following tasks: 1) identification of the factors that led to the perception of Kalmyks by observers, 2) description of the means used by foreign travelers, recreating in travelogues the main features of the image of Kalmyks, and their worldview, which influenced the construction of this image, 3) assessment of the socio-cultural consequences that arose as a result of the formation of ethnic stereotypes about Kalmyks. The historical discourse of otherness is revealed using the method of semiotics. The analysis of narrative details and the logic of the text revealed information about foreigners' ideas about Kalmyks and stereotypes associated with the perception of the "Other". The theoretical and methodological basis of the article is the works of Russian and foreign researchers in the field of imagology. There are no special imagological studies in Kalmyk historical science, which gives relevance to this work. The novelty of the work lies in the correlation of travelogues' information about the Kalmyks with the civilizational models prevailing in the public consciousness of observers in the XVII – first half of the XVIII century. Through the semiotic analysis of texts, the systematization of travelers' value judgments has been carried out. The results obtained indicate that the structure of the ethnic stereotype is characterized by a certain task. Foreigners' ideas about Kalmyks allowed them to take an inside look at their imaginary universe. Travelers imagined their world to be the center of the universe, on the outskirts of which were the Kalmyks barbarians. When explaining the difference between the "own" and "alien" world, the authors used the techniques of comparison and inversion. The interpretation of Kalmyk realities is achieved with the help of such a topos of ethnographic discourse as a story about miracles. Through the denial of negative traits attributed to "Others", one's own identity is being formed, a stable image of "One's Own". The ideas of travelers influenced the formation of the image of the Kalmyks in Europe and the Ottoman Empire.
History of law and state
Abdulin R.S. - The Emergence and Evolution of the Term "Judicial Management" pp. 20-27



Abstract: The object of the article's research is the process of the emergence and development of the concept of "judicial management". The subject of the study is the formation of the judicial management system and the evolutionary development of terms denoting such management. The author summarizes and systematizes theoretical knowledge on the formation and development of the concept of "judicial management", explores the terminological features and principles of modern judicial management. All this made it possible to objectively assess the process of formation and development of judicial management, to see its new facets, the categorical apparatus reflecting the content of the concept of "judicial management". The author is convinced that the theoretical understanding of the formation of the term "judicial management" has a practical effect not only for the subjects of law enforcement activity, but also for the legislator. The scientific novelty of the research consists in the fact that the article conducts a comprehensive interdisciplinary study in which, through the prism of the formation of the institute of judicial management, the formation of the terminological base of judicial management and its historical correlation is shown. On the concrete historical material, the emergence of the first terms denoting judicial management is determined, the formation and its development of the terminological system of judicial management is shown.The main scientific methods of researching the topic of the article were historical–legal and formal-logical methods with the help of which the characteristic properties of such a phenomenon were known as "judicial management". In addition, to achieve this goal, a set of general scientific (analysis, synthesis, deduction, induction, structural-system method) and private scientific methods were used.
History and Ideology
Glukharev N.N. - Formation of images of the future in the USSR in the 1920s. pp. 28-43



Abstract: The article is devoted to the trends in the formation of images of the future in the USSR in the 1920s. The subject of the study is the image of the future as an object of design during the formation of a new state of society, the search for guidelines and practices of social development. Design in a broad context is considered as an active creative activity to shape the image of the future. Design may imply certain deadlines for its implementation, or it may be based on approximate calculations, on some guidelines that do not have a strict time limit. The research methods were historical-analytical, historical-comparative, historical-genetic, system-analytical. The postulates of F. Polak and E. Bloch were adopted as the methodological basis for studying images of the future. The article identifies the subjects of designing images of the future in the period under study, among whom are the leaders and ideologists of the Communist Party, as well as representatives of the urban intelligentsia. The main factors in the formation of images of the future are identified, among which are noted: the “current present”, political programs and ideological attitudes of the power elite, ideological trends of previous decades, scientific achievements, value systems. Projecting images of the future by subjects in the 1920s, experiencing the influence of various factors, led to the formation of images of a predominantly utopian nature, defining the horizons of the “expected” or “possible” future. Given the schematic and vagueness of the political guidelines for communism and the diversity of its author’s figurative variants, the future society was presented in the general categories of collectivism, science-centrism, technocratism, the ideals of a new socially determined person, and the subordination of nature to society.
History of ethnicities, peoples, nations
Kadyrov R.R. - Religious syncretism in the funeral and memorial rites of the Crimean Tatars in modern times pp. 44-51



Abstract: The author touches upon the funeral and memorial customs and rituals of the Crimean Tatars, in particular their content and transformation. The main purpose of the study is to examine the mutual influence of religions and identify elements of ancient pre-Islamic beliefs in the funeral culture of the Crimean Tatars during the late XVIII-early XX centuries. Based on this, the author of the work had two main tasks: 1. To highlight and characterize the main customs and rituals that formed the funeral and memorial complex during the specified period; 2. to highlight the rituals that are conditioned by religious prescriptions and rituals formed as a result of the mutual influence of ancient Turkic views with Islamic religious norms. In general, based on the fact that customs and traditions imply an inherited set of behavior, studying the ritual component will allow us to assess the stability of the development of the spiritual culture of the Crimean Tatars. An analysis of ethnographic descriptions, diaries and records of travelers published in the XIX - early XX century was carried out on this topic. The 20th century allows us to reconstruct the funeral rite and identify elements not related to religious dogmas. The novelty of the research lies in the fact that the conducted rituals are considered through the prism of Islamic doctrine, which allowed us to partially determine the degree of religious syncretism in the culture of the Crimean Tatars and identify specific elements associated with ancient pre-Islamic views. As part of the study, it can be concluded that Muslim religious norms were generally observed. Among them: the order for the speedy burial of the body, the correct corpse laying and the vestments of the deceased. At the same time, there are separate descriptions of the funeral rite, where some variability in the performance of rituals is presented, in particular, improper sitting of the corpse and the presence of inventory, which is explained by religious competence and the preservation of echoes of ancient pre-Islamic cults. The echoes of ancient cults are mainly traced in memorial rites, through a ritual meal. Cooking, especially the food that the deceased loved, refers us to the veneration of the cult of ancestors, which was represented among the Turkic-speaking tribes before the adoption of Islam. At the same time, since the meals were accompanied by the recitation of prayers for the deceased, they were firmly associated with religious norms among the inhabitants.
History of regions of Russia
Ryabova Y.V. - Economic aspects of the effectiveness of forced labor in the Soviet camp system in the first half of the 1950s. (based on the Southern Kuzbass Corrective Labor Camp of the USSR Ministry of Internal Affairs of the USSR materials). pp. 52-64



Abstract: Using the example of the Corrective Labor Camp of the USSR Ministry of Internal Affairs of the USSR, some economic aspects of the effectiveness of forced labor in the Soviet camp system in the first half of the 50s are considered. The twentieth century particular attention is paid to the issue of expenses and income of the forced labor camp. Based on archival materials from the current archive of the Main Directorate of the Federal Penitentiary Service for the Kemerovo Region, a list of expenses is given, as well as the amount of money spent by the state on the maintenance of the prison population and the forced labor camp as a whole. Data on the costs required to maintain the camp economy are correlated with the amount of money for which the contingent produced marketable products annually. Information is provided on the amount of financial assistance received by the forced labor camp from the state budget and from the departmental unit under the jurisdiction of which it was located. The novelty of the research lies in the appeal to unpublished archival documents of the current archive of the Main Directorate of the Federal Penitentiary Service for the Kemerovo region and in local history topics that have not received widespread scientific coverage. The author comes to the conclusion that the income received from the labor activities of the prison population not only did not compensate for the costs of servicing the activities of the correctional labor camp, but also significantly exceeded them. Analysis of documentary material clearly showed that the use of forced labor was not cheap for the state, much less free. The state spent significant sums to organize camp production and maintain the prison population. The camp existed thanks to annually received government grants and subsidies.
World history: Eras and seasons
Kyrchanoff M.W. - The concept of the "long 19th century" as an ideal model for studying socio-political transformations in Indonesia at the regional level pp. 65-80



Abstract: The purpose of this study is to analyze the possibility of using the concept of the “long 19th century” as an interpretative model of historical science that claims to be universal. The author analyzes the concept of the “long 19th century” proposed by Eric Hobsbawm. The subject of the article is the concept of the “long 19th century”, the object is the possibility of its application and transplantation into Indonesian historical research. The novelty of the study lies in the analysis of the concept of the “long 19th century” as an interpretative model that allows us to analyze the features of the historical, social and cultural development of the territories of Indonesia, reduced in this article to Aceh. It is assumed that the interpretive models proposed by Western historians have a claim to universality, although the effect of their transplantation into non-Western historical contexts may be limited. The article analyzes 1) the features of the social and economic components in the transformation of Aceh during the “long 19th century”, 2) the role of the Islam in political changes in the region is revealed, 3) the consequences of the “long 19th century” for the subsequent history of the region are studied. The article shows the potential of the concept of the “long 19th century” for analyzing the history of social and political transformations in Indonesia through the prism of regional history. The results of the study suggest that the effect of using the concept of the “long 19th century” is limited. The author believes that this interpretative model is relatively effective and useful for analyzing social and political dynamics through the prism of religious institutions as sources and incentives for change, transformation and change in a modernizing society, to which Aceh belonged during the analyzed period of history.
History of economy and business
Ryabova O.V., Zykova T.V., Kochkurova E.A. - Hotel enterprises in Nizhny Novgorod in 1918-1939. pp. 81-91



Abstract: The market reforms that began in the late Soviet period and continued after the collapse of the USSR radically changed the country's hotel industry. The changes have affected literally all aspects of the industry. Similar large-scale changes were already taking place in the hospitality industry at the beginning of the twentieth century, after the socialist revolution of 1917. Therefore, it is interesting to find out how the young Soviet state, in the most difficult conditions of the civil war and foreign intervention, was able to practically rebuild the country's hotel industry. Because of this, the experience of hotel construction in the first two decades of Soviet power can be useful. The subject of the research in this article was the development of hotel enterprises in Nizhny Novgorod, such as communal hotels, "Peasant Houses", night shelters during this period.  The paper provides an analysis of the main directions of development of the Nizhny Novgorod hotel industry from 1918 to 1939. The article is based on materials from regional archives (TSANO and GOP NO), periodicals, and scientific literature. The article uses historical-systemic and historical-comparative methods, as well as general scientific methods such as description and comparison. The conducted research showed that the hotel industry of the city was in a difficult situation by 1918. The change in the social system in the state, the decline in the standard of living of the population, and the refugees provoked a crisis in the hotel industry of Nizhny Novgorod. The mass closure of enterprises was avoided only by nationalization and municipalization of enterprises. The opening of the Peasant's House in 1925 was able to alleviate the acute shortage of hotel stock for a short period. But in the 1930s, due to the growth of foreign tourism, the problem of a shortage of high-class hotels worsened. The construction of the Volna, Rossiya and Intourist hotels partially solved this problem. But for ordinary Soviet citizens, hotels are still inaccessible. At the same time, the level of service was at an extremely low level.
History of public institutions
Tarabara D.O. - G. E. Rein's Healthcare Reform Project: Missed Opportunities for Modernization of the Russian Empire 1906-1917. pp. 92-110



Abstract: The article is devoted to the analysis of the most ambitious and promising project of the reform of medical and sanitary legislation developed by the central government of the Russian Empire in 1906-1917. The measures proposed by the reformers to optimize health care management, modernize medical and sanitary legislation and provide the population with public medical care are considered; special emphasis is placed on ensuring a balance of interests of state authorities and local self-government bodies. The object of the study is the healthcare system of the Russian Empire at the beginning of the twentieth century, the subject is the corpus of bills in the field of medical law developed by the Interdepartmental Commission for the Revision of Medical and Sanitary Legislation, as well as the Ministry of Internal Affairs under the Office of the Chief Medical Inspector. The author used traditional methods for historical and legal research: analysis, synthesis, systematic approach, formal legal and statistical. The conclusions are drawn that the reform project under study corresponded to the trends of the development of Russian statehood and pan-European trends in medicine policy, was adequate to the needs of domestic healthcare of the period under review, and also sought to take into account, if possible, the long-standing traditions of Russian public medicine. The reasons for the failure of the reform are primarily associated with subjective political factors, rather than with its internal shortcomings. The results of the study allow us to correct the traditional historiographical approaches to public health policy in the early twentieth century and to the relationship between state authorities and local self-government in the inter-revolutionary period.
Cultural heritage
Barsukova E.A., Zhang Y. - Proverbs and sayings in modern Chinese textbooks for studying Russian as a foreign language as tools of creating the image of Russia pp. 111-120



Abstract: In Russian as a foreign language textbooks, proverbs and sayings dedicated to Russian culture are often encountered. These fixed expressions enrich the foreign students’ associations with Russia and its people as well as comprehensively draw a truthful and vivid image of Russian culture, and enhance the students’ interest in studying the Russian language. In the present research, proverbs and sayings are considered not only as a culturological phenomenon but also as a means of shaping an image of Russia in Russian as a foreign language textbooks. The object of the study is the Russian proverbs and sayings in modern Chinese textbooks of Russian as a foreign language. The article examines the role of the Russian proverbs and sayings as the tools for creating the image of Russia in modern Chinese textbooks of Russian as a foreign language. The material of the paper consists of proverbs and sayings in the textbooks "Russian Language in Universities" published in China from 2008 to 2014. Using continuous sampling method, we have identified more than 250 Russian proverbs and sayings. The methodology of the work combines elements of comparative and content analysis of the source data. The scientific originality of the study involves identification of the structure of Russia’s image represented by the proverbs and sayings under consideration. The article identifies and analyzes the following components of the image of Russia created by proverbs: natural, historical images, images of spiritual culture and everyday life. Proverbs and sayings are a phenomenon of human existence, fragments and treasures of popular wisdom. They reflect the natural image, character, mentality, worldview of the people who created them, their traditions, customs, and history, etc. Considering both linguistic and extralinguistic factors, the author concludes that in modern Chinese textbooks of Russian as a foreign language, Russian proverbs and sayings have become effective and constructive means of stimulating rich associations about Russia among students, and they shape a typical natural image, a rich image of spiritual culture, multifaceted everyday life, and a comprehensive historical image of Russia.
Historical sources and artifacts
Kostrikov S.P., Kostrikov S.S., Kazarova N.A. - Reports of Swedish diplomats on the events of the First World War (based on the decryption of diplomatic correspondence) pp. 121-133



Abstract: The subject of the study is the decrypted telegrams of Swedish diplomatic missions sent to the Minister of Foreign Affairs of the Swedish Kingdom K. Wallenberg, intercepted by the special services of the General Staff of the Russian Army at the end of 1915-1916. Sweden, while remaining a formally neutral power, nevertheless not only closely followed the events on the fronts of the First World War, but also conducted active trade and provided transit services to both Germany and Russia, deriving huge economic benefits from this situation. The documents of this period mainly cover the events in the Balkans, where the allied forces of the Entente tried to deploy the so-called Salonika (Macedonian) front to help the Serbian army and to divert enemy forces from other fronts. Based on the methods of historicism and systematic research, the reports of diplomats who informed their leadership about the events around Thessaloniki, about the situation and actions of the allied forces and the troops of the Central Powers, about the further intentions of the opposing forces, about the fate of Serbia and Montenegro, express assessments and opinions on specific issues and the prospects for the development of the war. Since there were supporters of both the Entente and the Austro-German bloc in the Swedish elite, the following conclusions can be drawn from the documents under consideration. They allow us to assess the range of issues of the most interest to Swedish diplomats and the Swedish government, as well as the degree of their awareness, the quality of information sources and the level of understanding of the content of the events taking place. These documents are very important for clarifying Sweden's position during the First World War. Since there were supporters of both the Entente and the Austro-German bloc in the Swedish elite, it can be understood from the documents under consideration that during this period it became increasingly obvious to Swedish diplomats that despite all the difficulties, including in the Balkans, the preponderance of the Entente countries was more likely. Most of the analyzed archival materials are being introduced into scientific circulation for the first time.
Social history
Dolidovich O.M., Starovoitova E.N. - Krasnoyarsk Mutual Fire Insurance Society (1904-1917) pp. 134-147



Abstract: The subject of the study is the organization and activity of the Krasnoyarsk Mutual Fire Insurance Society. On the basis of the historical and genetic method, the reasons for the origin of the insurance business in the Yenisei province, the leading trends in its development during the second half of the XIX - early XX centuries, changes that occurred under the influence of the First World War are analyzed. The application of the historical-systematic method allowed the authors to determine the role and place of the city mutual insurance society in the emerging fire insurance system in one of the provincial centers of Eastern Siberia. The historical-comparative method made it possible to identify the differences between mutual insurance companies and joint-stock companies. The statistics of fires and the scale of losses from them grew in the Russian Empire in the second half of the 19th - early 20th centuries. At the same time, a fire insurance system was being formed. A specific non–commercial form of insurance was mutual insurance (the main types are zemstvo and city), which arose due to the fact that the services of private insurance companies were inaccessible to a wide range of the population. In the Yenisei province , the only society of this type appeared only at the beginning of the XX century. Krasnoyarsk City Mutual Insurance Society for a short period of its existence could not significantly change the situation in the local insurance market, where the dominant position was occupied by branches of joint-stock insurance companies. Nevertheless, his activity has had a beneficial effect on the development of the insurance business in the city by reducing tariffs, supporting fire-fighting measures of the city authorities. The First World War carried the threat of loss of organizational and financial independence of mutual insurance companies, since the government became interested in the idea of introducing a state monopoly of fire insurance in order to compensate for the budget deficit.
Prishchepa A.S., Khazov V.K. - Organization of the educational process in the post-blockade time in Leningrad pp. 148-160



Abstract: This article is devoted to the organization of the educational process in post-war Leningrad. This process is described as one of the factors of the rapid and sustainable recovery of urban industry in the second half of the 1940s. The blockade lasted for a long four years. The result of it was a massive destruction of the city. However, the main damage that Leningrad suffered and which significantly slowed down the process of its restoration was the mass death of people. The city is faced with an acute shortage of workers, primarily high-class professionals. The blockade caused huge damage to the material part of Leningrad universities. The elimination of this damage, carried out largely by the work of their employees, students and teachers, is one of the Great Pages of history. It was the combination of pedagogical and scientific thought that allowed many post-war profiles of industrial enterprises to appear. Students and young scientists actively contributed to the resumption of production of almost the entire range of pre-war products, as well as the development of new types of products, modern machines, machine tools, devices. As a result of the set of measures analyzed in this article, the Leningrad industry in terms of gross output reached the pre-war level in the late 1940s, and was able to exceed it by 1950.
Personality in history
Stepanov I.N. - Robert Morrison's Missionary Work in the Qing Empire pp. 161-166



Abstract: The subject of the study is the activity of Robert Morrison and his role in Protestant missionary activity. The author offers a description of the beginning of this missionary activity in the 19th century in the person of Robert Morrison. The study attempts to determine the characteristics of Morrison in this field and his motivation. When writing the article, the following sources were used: an article by Russian historian Vladimir Grigoryevich Datsyshen about the history of Christianity in China, a biography of Morrison authored by William John Townsend, the head of the Methodist Church, the work of James Alexander, a professor of rhetoric at the College of New Jersey, a contemporary of the missionary, as well as a retrospective by William Milne describing the activities of Protestant missionaries in that time period.   The novelty of the article is to familiarize Russian-speaking readers with the problems of Protestant missionary activity in the 19th century through works that have not been translated into Russian. A small practical result in the spread of Christianity in China is confirmed, despite the accumulated theoretical base. The study confirmed the role of the opium trade as an activity that harmed missionaries, and therefore criticized by Morrison because it became one of the reasons for the rejection of Christianity by the Chinese. It also describes a huge amount of work in the translation of literature carried out by missionaries in order to familiarize the Chinese with the fruits of Western culture.
Issues of war and peace
Gonta S.N. - Armed Forces and Police of Independent Rhodesia (1965-1979). Part 1: Police pp. 167-179



Abstract: This research is devoted to the study of the functioning of the Rhodesian Security Forces (the general name for the police and army forces of Rhodesia) during the years of its de facto independence from 1965 to 1979. The relevance of the study is due to the absence in domestic historiography of any fundamental research that would be devoted to this issue. The subject of the study is the Rhodesian Security Forces. In this (first) part of the work are considered the activities of the Rhodesian police after its declaration of independence. The author has studied the history of the development of the Rhodesian police from its founding until the official cessation of activity in 1980. Also, the author presents data on the number, racial composition, technical equipment, structure of units and other information about the police forces of Rhodesia. After the declaration of independence, the Rhodesian police faced difficulties, but even in such conditions they managed to maintain combat effectiveness and continue to improve. Based on this article, conclusions can be drawn about the important role played by the Rhodesian police in maintaining law and order in a country that was actually involved in the counter-terrorism struggle throughout its existence. Also, we can conclude that the Rhodesian police were only partly a “racist” structure, since most of the police were of African origin, although there were certain restrictions for them.
Historical memory
Tishkina K.A., Valkova K.V., Tishkina T.V. - Perpetuation of the memory of an outstanding countryman as a social practice: the name of M.A. Vrubel in the urban space of Omsk in 1923 pp. 180-190



Abstract: The subject of the study is the social practice of the Omsk intelligentsia in the 1910s-1923 in order to perpetuate the memory of the artist M.A. Vrubel (1856-1910). The problem of preserving the historical memory of famous personalities of the past in the public consciousness is very relevant in modern historical science, since it largely determines the image and historical and cultural potential of the region. At the beginning of the XX century, the desire of the intelligentsia of large cities for the right to transform them into cultural and artistic centers of the region was recorded on the territory of Siberia. In this situation, the continuity of provincial and metropolitan culture, primarily carried out through famous countrymen, played an important role. In the 1910s, the appeal to the personality of M.A. Vrubel was of great importance in determining the identity of the Omsk artistic intelligentsia, ensuring the high status of Omsk as a cultural center of Siberia, as well as the heir and admirer of the creative traditions of the famous countryman. The subject field of the study correlates with the "history of memory", in which the treatment and attitude to the name of M.A. Vrubel in Omsk directly depended on historical time, the emergence of new needs, practices and meanings. Methodologically, the study is based on a socio-cultural approach that allows us to consider the role of M.A. Vrubel's personality in improving the image of Omsk in general, as well as the cultural level of its residents, in particular. Despite the fact that the personality of the master is important in determining the historical and cultural potential of Omsk, the information related to the initial stage of perpetuating his memory in the city is fragmentary. Based on archival documents, periodical materials and research on the topic, the authors characterized the process of founding the Omsk Art and Industrial College, as well as naming it after M.A. Vrubel in 1923, which laid the foundation for further involvement of the famous artist's name in the historical and cultural heritage of the region. It is concluded that despite the fact that M.A. Vrubel left Omsk in early childhood, subsequently the significant contribution of the master to the development of Russian art made his personality significant for the formation of the historical and cultural landscape of his native city.
The path of the Scientist: anniversaries, milestones, an epitome
Shamak S.A. - The Life Path of a Scientist, a Police Officer, a Prominent Statesman, Eduard Nikolaevich Berendts pp. 191-205



Abstract: Determining the prospects for the development of the Russian state, identifying patterns of changes in the legal status of the police, developing new approaches to solving fundamental problems of the theory of state and law in modern conditions cannot be carried out without taking into account the theoretical heritage of outstanding Russian lawyers, among whom belongs Eduard Nikolaevich Berendts (1860-1930), whose name was unreasonably forgotten in the Soviet period. The subject of the study is the biography of Eduard Nikolaevich Berendts. A detailed study of the life, teaching, and service in various departments of E.N. Behrendts helped reconstruct the stages of his state-legal views. In particular, the study of Berendts' life in the Republic of Estonia from 1918 to 1930 helped to find the scientist's works, translate them into Russian, evaluate his views and introduce them into scientific circulation.   The novelty of the study lies in the fact that the biography of E. N. Behrendts has not been fully studied by modern scientists. The little-studied scientific and social activities of the scientist even caused some misunderstandings and inaccuracies, attributing to him publications of which he is not the author. The special contribution of the author of the article lies in the fact that he works with the works of Berendts created in the Republic of Estonia in 1920-1930; with acts resulting from the state and public activities of Berendts in the Russian Empire and his participation in legislative activities in the Republic of Estonia; with the materials of Berendts' private correspondence; with the help of work in the Russian The State Historical Archive, the State Archive of the Russian Federation, the Central State Historical Archive of St. Petersburg, the State Archive of the Yaroslavl Region, the National Archive of the Republic of Estonia, the Department of Archival Documents of the Russian National Library was able to recreate Berendts' biography in detail. This contribution helped to track the dynamics of the development of state-legal ideas and the rich theoretical heritage of E. N. Behrendts.
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