' ' - 'Genesis: ' - NotaBene.ru
Journal Menu
> Issues > Rubrics > About journal > Authors > About the Journal > Requirements for publication > Editorial collegium > The editors and editorial board > Peer-review process > Policy of publication. Aims & Scope. > Article retraction > Ethics > Online First Pre-Publication > Copyright & Licensing Policy > Digital archiving policy > Open Access Policy > Article Processing Charge > Article Identification Policy > Plagiarism check policy
Journals in science databases
About the Journal

MAIN PAGE > Back to contents
Genesis: Historical research
Reference:

Proverbs and sayings in modern Chinese textbooks for studying Russian as a foreign language as tools of creating the image of Russia

Barsukova Elena Aleksandrovna

PhD in Philology

Associate Professor, Department of Area Sudies, Moscow State University

119234, Russia, Moscow, Leninskie Gory str. 1, pp. 13-14, office 209

tbarsukova@rambler.ru
Chzhan Yan'

Postgraduate Student, Department of Area Sudies, Moscow State University

119992, Russia, Moscow region, Moscow, Prospekt Vernadskogo str.37, 1610

916838821@qq.com

DOI:

10.25136/2409-868X.2024.1.68988

EDN:

DHAFKV

Received:

15-11-2023


Published:

06-02-2024


Abstract: In Russian as a foreign language textbooks, proverbs and sayings dedicated to Russian culture are often encountered. These fixed expressions enrich the foreign students associations with Russia and its people as well as comprehensively draw a truthful and vivid image of Russian culture, and enhance the students interest in studying the Russian language. In the present research, proverbs and sayings are considered not only as a culturological phenomenon but also as a means of shaping an image of Russia in Russian as a foreign language textbooks. The object of the study is the Russian proverbs and sayings in modern Chinese textbooks of Russian as a foreign language. The article examines the role of the Russian proverbs and sayings as the tools for creating the image of Russia in modern Chinese textbooks of Russian as a foreign language. The material of the paper consists of proverbs and sayings in the textbooks "Russian Language in Universities" published in China from 2008 to 2014. Using continuous sampling method, we have identified more than 250 Russian proverbs and sayings. The methodology of the work combines elements of comparative and content analysis of the source data. The scientific originality of the study involves identification of the structure of Russias image represented by the proverbs and sayings under consideration. The article identifies and analyzes the following components of the image of Russia created by proverbs: natural, historical images, images of spiritual culture and everyday life. Proverbs and sayings are a phenomenon of human existence, fragments and treasures of popular wisdom. They reflect the natural image, character, mentality, worldview of the people who created them, their traditions, customs, and history, etc. Considering both linguistic and extralinguistic factors, the author concludes that in modern Chinese textbooks of Russian as a foreign language, Russian proverbs and sayings have become effective and constructive means of stimulating rich associations about Russia among students, and they shape a typical natural image, a rich image of spiritual culture, multifaceted everyday life, and a comprehensive historical image of Russia.


Keywords:

cultural studies, proverbs and sayings, Russian as a foreign language, image of the country, Chinese textbooks of Russian as a foreign language, image of Russia, the natural image of Russia, spiritual culture of Russia, the image of everyday life, the historical image of Russia

This article is automatically translated. You can find original text of the article here.

According to D. S. Likhachev, "the greatest value of a people is the language, the language in which they write, speak, and think" [4, p.355]. E. M. Vereshchagin and V. G. Kostomarov also emphasized the importance of language for culture: "The language, considered as the property of all speakers of it, by virtue of its cumulative function is a genuine mirror of national culture" [1, p.15]. Russian Russian reflects the national and cultural originality of the linguistic picture of the world, it shows the peculiarities of the mentality and identity of the Russian people, as well as its interaction with other languages and cultures.

One of the main ways to spread and popularize the Russian language abroad is the Russian Language textbook. The RCT textbook often refers to the culture, history, literature and traditions of Russia, translating them through language learning. Russian scientist S. K. Miloslavskaya emphasizes: "due to its nature, the textbook of the national language as a foreign language can become a unique means of forming the image of the country and the people speaking this language" [5, p.14].

Proverbs and sayings dedicated to Russian culture are often found in Russian language textbooks. These sustained expressions enrich the associations of foreign students with Russia and its people, and at the same time more broadly and variously depict the living and truthful image of Russian culture, spread the image of the country and the people beyond its borders.

In the framework of this study, proverbs and sayings are considered not only as a cultural phenomenon, but also as a means of forming the image of Russia in the textbooks of the Russian Academy of Sciences.

Russian Russian proverbs and sayings The purpose of this study is to identify the image of Russia and the Russian people embedded in Russian proverbs and sayings that can be found in modern Chinese textbooks of the Russian Academy of Sciences.

The research material was modern Chinese serial textbooks of the Russian Language in Universities [11]. They were compiled by the Institute of the Russian Language of the Beijing University of Foreign Languages and published in 2008-2014 by the Publishing House of Teaching and Research of Foreign Languages in accordance with the national planning for General Higher Education in the Eleventh Five-year Plan. The first four textbooks correspond to the basic level of education of the Russian Academy of Sciences, the last four textbooks correspond to the advanced level for philologists.

More than 250 Russian proverbs and sayings have been identified and analyzed. The first textbook focuses on phonetics, so proverbs and sayings are not included in it. Starting from the second textbook, proverbs and sayings appear in textbooks, including in the third lesson of the sixth textbook, where Russian oral folk art is systematically and in detail studied.

As for the distribution of proverbs and sayings, 21% of them are at the basic level and 79% are at the advanced level (Table 1). This illustrates the complexity and necessity of mastering proverbs and sayings by foreign students at the stage of in-depth study of the Russian language. In addition, the considered textbooks of the Russian Orthodox Church contain about 75% of proverbs and sayings about spiritual culture (Table 2). This demonstrates that the authors want students to immerse themselves in the spiritual atmosphere of the Russian language, get closer to understanding the basic values and worldview of Russia, which will contribute to the formation of the spiritual and cultural image of Russia.

Table 1. The proportion of the number of proverbs and sayings in textbooks "Russian language in universities"

Table 2. Percentage of proverbs and sayings related to various aspects of Russian culture

By comparing and analyzing the materials studied, the level of inclusion of proverbs and sayings in each section, it was found that their volume varies depending on the topic of the textbook section and the learning objectives. Most often, proverbs and sayings are found in sections related to such topics as tradition, customs, daily lifestyle, national moral values, history, etc. For example, if the text is devoted to the culture of work and leisure, then there are proverbs that relate to this area: "Business is time, fun is an hour" and "You can't easily pull a fish out of the pond."

Sometimes proverbs and sayings are used to teach such branches of linguistics as vocabulary, phraseology and grammar. To explain a generalized personal sentence, the proverbs and sayings "Live forever, learn forever" and "Money can't buy a mind" are used as examples.

The proverbs and sayings found in the textbooks of the RCT help students better understand specific topics or situations, expand their linguistic and cultural horizons.

Russian Russian Language in Universities Returning to the purpose of this work, let's consider how the image of Russia and the Russian people is reflected in more than 250 proverbs and sayings that can be found in textbooks of the Russian Language in Universities.

1. The natural image of Russia through the prism of proverbs and sayings

Many proverbs and sayings in Russian culture are closely related to nature and the changing seasons. This phenomenon reflects the deep connections between man and his environment, as well as the unique ability of the Russian people to use natural phenomena as metaphors to describe various situations and natural conditions.

When natural and climatic characteristics are mentioned in proverbs and sayings, it is found that most often there is a deep symbolic meaning associated with the change of seasons. For example, "Summer gathers, and winter eats" emphasizes the expectation and joyful result that the summer harvest brings, because summer preparations became the basis for the sustenance of the Russian people in winter. On the other hand, "Don't scare, winter: spring will come" conveys the hope that after a cold winter, spring follows with its restorative power and renewal.

In addition, during the research, a large number of proverbs and sayings were found related to such natural elements as forest, water (river) and animals, for example, "To be afraid of wolves is not to go into the forest", "The owner in the house is like a bear in the forest", "A good deed and not in the water melts", "Water does not flow under a lying stone", "A wolf in sheep's clothing", "And the wolves are fed and the sheep are safe" and others. They say that Russia is rich in natural forest and water resources, and the most common animals are wolves and bears. An associative chain is formed: wolves and bears forces domination forest.

To create an image of the diversity of the animal world, the textbook in question additionally demonstrates such phraseological expressions as "Dog in the manger", "Living like a cat with a dog", "White Crow", "Wet chicken", "Chickens for a laugh", etc.

Such proverbs and sayings help students get to know animals typical of Russia. During the learning process, the teacher needs to explain the cultural significance of these linguistic units.

Russian Russian language continues to change, but the proverbs and sayings related to natural phenomena preserve the deep respect and reverence of the Russian people for nature. As shown in the proverbs "One day feeds a year" and "Every vegetable has its time", the Russian people honor nature and strive for harmonious coexistence with it. Of course, such material of proverbs and sayings allows students to expand the range of associations associated with images of nature. They play an important role in creating a common natural imagological image of Russia: a clear demarcation of the seasons, the wealth of water and forest resources, as well as the diversity of the animal world.

2. The spiritual culture of Russia through the prism of proverbs and sayings

Chinese scientist Wu Guohua pointed out: "Before the adoption of Orthodoxy by Russia, people were pagans. In Russia, people who lived by agriculture could not explain the forces of nature governing agriculture, and had to worship them as supernatural forces" [12, p.140]. Russian scientist A.V. Pavlovskaya also noted: "Orthodoxy has been the main religion on Russian soil for more than a thousand yearsRussian Russians cannot define the uniqueness of the Russian world and create a complete picture of Russian life without understanding the peculiarities of its existence in the country" [6, pp.435-436]. It is not difficult to notice that both religions had a profound influence on Russia, and this influence is reflected in proverbs and sayings.

In the material under consideration, pagan beliefs are reflected as follows: "Gold is known in fire, and man in labor", "Truth does not burn in fire and does not sink in water", "Like mushrooms after rain", "Not all bad weather, the red sun will also shine through", etc. As can be seen from the above examples, water, fire, sun, rain are considered as divine natural phenomena. Water, fire and rain symbolize suffering and difficulties. After overcoming these obstacles, a reward awaits a person. The sun, as an important element in pagan beliefs, brings light and warmth, symbolizes hope and happiness.

If paganism, reflected in proverbs and sayings, concerns the relationship of the Russian people with numerous natural and supernatural forces, then Orthodoxy in this context largely affects the relationship between man and God. Such a transformation is confirmed in proverbs and sayings: "God helps the good," "God gives to those who get up early," "Man assumes God disposes," etc. That is, proverbs and sayings reflect how, under the influence of Orthodoxy, the Russian people gained faith in one God. It is noted that in the studied material: "God loves the trinity," "Seven troubles, one answer," and "Seven do not wait for one," the numbers "three" and "seven" often appear. These figures also occupy a significant place in the Bible and Orthodoxy.

Such well-known biblical sayings as "What you sow, you will reap" (Gal. 6, 7-8), "A friend is known in trouble" (Sirach. 12, 8), "Do not rush with your tongue, hurry with your deed" (Ser. 4, 33), "A stranger's soul is darkness" (Proverbs. 20, 5), "Don't have a hundred rubles, but have a hundred friends" (Ser. 7, 20), etc. Indeed, these proverbs and sayings not only have special significance and often serve as a guide for moral and spiritual growth, but also say that the Russian people strive for high moral values values.

Russian Russian proverbs and sayings reflect the peculiarities of Russian culture related to religion. The Russian people worship and respect the natural forces and the power of God, and at the same time pay attention to such "inner spiritual forces" as kindness and diligence. Studying proverbs and sayings helps students form an idea of what it means to be Russian and create an image of Russia in their imagination.

Proverbs and sayings contain the accumulated experience and wisdom of previous generations, thus transmitting valuable lessons and principles that can be applied in life: "Proverbs are edifications, aphorisms, brief recommendations for various occasions" [3, p.9]. With the help of proverbs and sayings, one can deeply penetrate into the national worldview and understand the values of the Russian people.

The study of proverbs and sayings from the dictionary of V. I. Dahl [2] allows us to identify the values that underlie the Russian national character. In the material under consideration, it is provided: "You can't easily take a fish out of the pond" (Work Idleness), "Freedom is best" (Will Captivity), "To be afraid of wolves do not go into the forest", "The courage of the city takes" (Courage Courage Cowardice), "The world is not without good people", "Hurry to do good" (Kindness Mercy Evil), "Better death in battle than shame in the ranks" (Honor Honor), "Better the bitter truth than a beautiful lie" (Untruth Lie), "One in the field is not a warrior" (Loneliness), etc. These proverbs and sayings demonstrate hard work, willpower, courage, kindness, honesty, risk, patience, perseverance and collectivism.

Some of the proverbs and sayings given in the textbook relate to the attitude of the Russian people towards family and friendship. These proverbs and sayings in the textbook under consideration are highlighted as follows: "It's good to visit, but it's better at home", "The owner should smell like wind, the hostess should smell like smoke", "Friends are known in trouble", "A new thing is better, an old friend is better", "A friend is known in trouble" and others . Such examples demonstrate the basic values of Russian culture: family, friendship, loyalty and support. They emphasize the importance of deep and long-term relationships between people and remind that the real value lies not only in external factors, but also in spiritual connection.

"The seal of centuries-old truths lies on many folk sayings, through them the connection of times and generations is realized. Through proverbs, we become likeminded people of our distant predecessors, and they become our contemporaries" [8, p.26]. Russian Russian folk art allows students to get acquainted with the axiological picture of the world of the Russian people, conveys edification, and also contributes to the formation of a positive image of Russia and the Russian people.

3. The image of Russian everyday life through the prism of proverbs and sayings

Proverbs and sayings originating from oral speech are closely related to what people have heard, seen, experienced and felt. They perfectly illustrate the everyday reality of the Russian people. Thus, proverbs and sayings are closely intertwined with the everyday culture of the Russian people.

First of all, a person cannot live without food, so food culture is an important part of everyday culture. In the studied proverbs and sayings, you can find many expressions related to food, cooking. The proverb "Cabbage soup and porridge are our food" emphasizes the importance of such traditional Russian dishes as cabbage soup and porridge, which in ancient times were part of religious rituals. Such proverbs and sayings as: "Who gets up late, that bread is missing", "The hostess in the house is like pancakes on honey", "The hut is not red with corners, but red with pies" demonstrate that bread, other flour products (pie, pancakes) are the main part of Russian nutrition, and "Not man lives by bread alone" emphasizes that life is not only the satisfaction of material needs, but also spiritual values. In the proverbs "Tastes are not disputed" and "There is no comrade for taste and color", the opinion of the Russian people about food preferences is revealed.

In addition to the culture of cooking and eating, the daily life of the Russian people is also closely related to clothing, housing and transport. The Russian ideas about clothes in the textbooks under consideration are highlighted as follows: "Take care of the dress from scratch, and honor from a young age", "They meet you by clothes, they see you off by mind", "Measure seven times, cut once", etc. These proverbs and sayings show that the Russian people pay attention not only to their appearance, but also to their inner qualities. Such oral folk art emphasizes the importance of self-respect, wisdom and caution in various spheres of life.

As for housing, the following interesting example can be found in the studied material: "The hut is not red with corners, but red with pies." The hut is a typical wooden dwelling and its architecture demonstrates centuriesold traditions in the construction of dwellings. However, in the same proverb, we see that the culture of food and cooking prevails the importance of food compared to architecture is emphasized. In this context, it is especially interesting that the red corner in the hut is the location of Orthodox icons.

The attitude to transport and its use in ancient Russia is described as follows: "A woman with a cart is easier for a mare," "Prepare a sleigh in summer, and a cart in winter." It can be seen that the mare was the main means of transportation in Russia in ancient times, and the sleigh and cart correspond to the time characteristics of the seasons (in winter, a sleigh is used, in summer a cart). These proverbs reflect the historical features of ancient transport and illustrate the importance of adaptation to the environment.

As a result, the studied proverbs and sayings demonstrate to students the diversity and uniqueness of everyday Russian culture, while revealing ancient cultural traditions. Russian Russian culture provides the material life of the Russian people and at the same time represents a philosophy of life that makes the life of the Russian people worthy and meaningful. With the help of these floorboards and sayings, students see Russia with a rich culture of everyday life.

4. The historical image of Russia through the prism of proverbs and sayings

Researcher U. N. Tselishchev suggests: "The proverbs and sayings of the Russian people have a long history. Already in Ancient Russia, we find them in folk legends and in chronicles" [10]. Proverbs and sayings are historical memory recorded and preserved by the nation.

In the textbooks of the Russian Language in Universities there are proverbs and sayings depicting historical facts. For example, "Here's to you, Grandma, and St. George's Day" reflects a historical event associated with the enslavement of peasants. "In the middle of the XV century. peasants were allowed to move from one owner to another once a year a week before St. George's Day and a week after itAt the end of the XVI century. the transition of peasants to St. George's Day was prohibited" [9, p.40]. This meant the loss of hope for improving the lives of the peasants. The peasants no longer had a drop of freedom, they lived in disappointment and grief, which really reflects the historical image of Russia in the XV-XVI centuries.

You can find examples about fighting invaders. For example, the proverb "An uninvited guest is worse than a Tatar" says that when Russia was under the yoke of the Golden Horde, the people experienced suffering and humiliation inflicted by the aggressors on the local population. It reflects that "The people expressed an extremely negative attitude towards foreign enslavers" [7, p.13]. Another example tells about the plight of the Napoleonic army after the capture of Moscow: "A hungry Frenchman and a crow are happy." To destroy the enemy forces, local volunteers burned food and houses, leaving no resources for the invaders. Plotnikov I. E. describes it as follows: "The towns and villages through which the Napoleonic soldiers now had to retreat were devastated, and there was nothing to profit from. The food situation of the "great army" was getting worse. It came to the point that the French soldiers began to eat the fallen horsesThere were cases when French soldiers did not disdain being shot by crows" [7, p.68]. From here it can be seen that Russia, which dared to fight for freedom and independence, showed hidden irony towards the invaders in the proverb.

So proverbs and sayings reflect how the Russian people fought against the serfdom and foreign invaders, demonstrated a desire for freedom and independence, and showed love for the country. Thanks to such oral folk art, a full-fledged historical image of the Russian people is formed in the minds of students.

Many years have passed since the appearance of proverbs and sayings, but they are developing in the modern speech of the Russian people and are changing in accordance with the realities of today. This change is confirmed in the textbooks of the Russian Language in Universities. For example, "Whoever wants, he will achieve." (from English) and "The one who laughs last laughs well" (from French) are borrowed from other cultures. Some have been transformed or reinterpreted: "A dollar with a cart is easier for a ruble" (Traditional version: A woman with a cart is easier for a mare), "Default comes during a crisis", "Interest also comes during research" (Traditional version: Appetite comes during a meal). Obviously, the authors of the RCT textbook intend to introduce Chinese students to these new forms of change. In modern versions of proverbs, components such as the dollar, ruble, and crisis appear, reflecting the ideological change of the Russian people under the influence of a market economy. The use of the "language game" technique in order to create a comedic effect corresponds to the general trend in the development of modern mass culture. Of course, it cannot be denied that to a large extent this enriches the modern image of Russia.

Proverbs and sayings are a phenomenon of human existence, grains and treasures of folk wisdom. They reflect the natural appearance, character, mentality, worldview of the people who created them, their traditions, customs, customs and history, etc. It is this special cultural nature of proverbs and sayings, regardless of time, that makes them an indispensable educational material for foreign students. Russian Russian Language in Higher Education Institutions, analyzing the material of proverbs and sayings set forth in the textbooks of the Russian Academy of Sciences, it can be concluded that the proverbs and sayings in question show a typical natural image, a rich image of spiritual culture, a multifaceted daily life, a full-fledged historical image of the Russian people. In short, proverbs and sayings in Russian Language textbooks not only help to increase students' interest in learning the Russian language, but also become effective and creative means of stimulating students' rich associations about Russia and forming a positive image of Russia and its people.

References
1. Vereshchagin, E. M., & Kostomarov, V. G. (1990). Language and culture. Linguistics in teaching Russian as a foreign language. Moscow: Rus. Yaz.
2. Dahl, V. I.(Ed.). (1989). Proverbs of the Russian People: A Collection. In 2 volumes. Vol. 1. Moscow: Khudozh. Lit.
3. Mokienko, V. M. (2009). A Comprehensive Dictionary of Russian Proverbs (Compilation Experience). Problems of history, philonology, and culture, 2(24), 5-18.
4. Likhachev, D. S. (2000). Russian Culture. Moscow: Iskusstvo.
5. Miloslavskaya, S. K. (2008). Textbook of the Russian language as a foreign language is a unique means of forming the image of Russia in the world: towards a theoretical substantiation of linguopedagogical imagology. Vestnik. RUDN. Seriya: Voprosy obrazovaniya: yazyki i spetsial'nost', 4, 10-15.
6. Pavlovskaya, A. V. (2009). Russian World: Character, Life, and Customs. Vol. 1. Moscow: Slovo/Slovo.
7. Plotnikov, I.E. (2006). History of Russia in Proverbs, Sayings, Jokes, Anecdotes, and Winged Words. (2nd ed.). Kurgan: Izd-vo Kurganskogo gos. un-ta.
8. Sobolev, A.I., & Selivanova, F.M. (1983). Russian Proverbs and Sayings. Moscow: Sov. Rossiya.
9. Felitsyna, V.P., & Prokhorov, Y.E. (Ed.). (1988). Russian proverbs, sayings, and idioms: A linguistic and cultural dictionary. Moscow: Russian Language Institute.
10. Tselishev, N.N. (2023, August 9). Treasury of Folk Wisdom (Proverbs and Sayings). Retrieved from https://cyberleninka.ru/article/n/sokrovischnitsa-narodnoy-mudrosti-poslovitsy-i-pogovorki/viewer
11. Institute of the Russian Language of the Beijing University of Foreign Languages. (2008-2014). Russian language in universities. In 8 volumes. Beijing: Publishing House of Teaching and Research of Foreign Languages.
12. Wu, Guohua. (1998). Russian Russian language and culture. In 8 volumes. Beijing: Military Publishing House "Yiwen".

Peer Review

Peer reviewers' evaluations remain confidential and are not disclosed to the public. Only external reviews, authorized for publication by the article's author(s), are made public. Typically, these final reviews are conducted after the manuscript's revision. Adhering to our double-blind review policy, the reviewer's identity is kept confidential.
The list of publisher reviewers can be found here.

The article "Proverbs and sayings as a means of forming the image of Russia in modern Chinese textbooks of the Russian Academy of Sciences" is sent for review. The relevance of this topic leaves no doubt, because, as the author of the article rightly notes, "one of the main ways to spread and popularize the Russian language abroad is the Russian Language textbook." In the presented work, the author clearly and concretely defines the subject and purpose of his research: "Within the framework of this study, proverbs and sayings are considered not only as a cultural phenomenon, but also as a means of forming the image of Russia in the textbooks of the Russian Academy of Sciences. Russian Russian proverbs and sayings The purpose of this research is to identify the image of Russia and the Russian people, embedded in Russian proverbs and sayings that can be found in modern Chinese textbooks of the Russian Language of Culture." The research methods and materials based on which it was conducted are also constructively stated. The author notes: "By comparing and analyzing the studied materials, the level of inclusion of proverbs and sayings in each section, it was revealed that their volume varies depending on the topic of the textbook section and learning tasks," illustrating this conclusion with tables. All this, of course, confirms the scientific novelty of the work. Structurally, the main part of the article consists of four parts, each of which the author concludes with a final thesis. So, in addition to the logical construction and stylistically literate language of presentation, the content of the article demonstrates a lot of other advantages, including the author's detailed awareness of the issue under study, involvement in the research process, etc. The bibliography, consisting of twelve sources, is quite detailed and corresponds to the topic of the article. However, the order of the sources in the list remains unclear the numbering is not in alphabetical order, and not in the order of references in the text. I would also like to expand the list somewhat by adding the latest (over the past five years) research in the field under study. At the end of the article, the author masterfully manages to summarize the results of the conducted research and summarize its analytical, significant result with succinctly formulated conclusions: "Proverbs and sayings are a phenomenon of human existence, grains and treasures of folk wisdom. They reflect the natural appearance, character, mentality, worldview of the people who created them, their traditions, customs, customs and history, etc... Analyzing the material of proverbs and sayings set out in the textbooks of the Russian Language in Universities, it can be concluded that the proverbs and sayings in question show a typical natural image, a rich image spiritual culture, a multifaceted daily life, a full-fledged historical image of the Russian people. In short, proverbs and sayings in Russian Language textbooks not only help to increase students' interest in learning the Russian language, but also become effective and creative means of stimulating students' rich associations about Russia and forming a positive image of Russia and its people." The article is able to arouse the interest of a wide audience (including scientists, teachers, graduate students, students and students of various degrees) who are interested not only in philology and linguistics, but also in Russian culture, history, and traditions.
Link to this article

You can simply select and copy link from below text field.


Other our sites:
Official Website of NOTA BENE / Aurora Group s.r.o.