Genesis: Historical research
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MAIN PAGE > Journal "Genesis: Historical research" > Contents of Issue 08/2021
Contents of Issue 08/2021
History and Economics
Bochkareva I.A. - On the formation of the first Soviet industrial service of dosimetric control at the Ural nuclear plants (19451960) pp. 1-12


Abstract: The subject of this research is the process of organizing dosimetric service on the example of the Ural nuclear complex, primarily, the most powerful plutonium plant, the pioneer of the domestic nuclear industry – “Mayak” chemical plant in the 1945 – 1960. In the course of development of complex and hazardous for people and nature nuclear technologies, the problems of radiation protection of personnel at the first nuclear facilities became urgent, as most employees have been exposed to radiation. This required a set of emergency measures to create of safe working conditions and organize dosimetric control of nuclear energy workers. Based on the declassified archival documents, a substantial part of which is being introduced into the scientific discourse for the first time, as well as the reminiscences of the Soviet nuclear project participants, the article describes the peculiarities of formation of the first domestic service of industrial dosimetry, and provides periodization of this process. This defines the scientific novelty of the research. The use of historical and genetic method allowed outlining the prerequisites for the creation of the service of dosimetric control of the nuclear energy workers, its conditionality by the specificity of implementation of the Soviet uranium project, and a range of attendant problems. The method of historical periodization determined the key stages in organizing the dosimetric service in the context of establishment of the nuclear industrial complex. The historical-retrospective method allowed assessing the results of the activity of the scholars, leadership of the chemical plant “Mayak”, experts of dosimetric service aimed at solution of the issues related to radiation protection from the standpoint of time distance. The conclusion is made that the first domestic dosimetric service formed during the difficult period of the development of plutonium production in the Ural Region and committed work of its employees considerably contributed to ensuring safety of working conditions and preserving health and lives of thousands of the participants of the crucial for the country nuclear project
History and historical science
Makeeva V.I. - Acre and Alphito: to the question of Greek scary stories for children pp. 13-18


Abstract: This article is describes the Ancient Greek mythological characters Acre (Ἀκκώ) and Alphito (Ἀλφιτώ). Both of them are commonly attributed to surly persons who frighten and posed treat to the little ones, by analogy with Lamia, Mormo and Gello, who murdered children. The goal of this research is to determine the differences between the tales about Acre and Alphiro and the tales about demons who murdered children. The object of this work is the mythological representations of Ancient Greeks, while the subject is the Greek scary stories for children. The author analyzes the testimonies of ancient authors about Acre and Alphito. The conclusion is made that these characters differed from the typical children's monsters. Special attention is given to the tale of Acre due to better preservation of its history in the sources. She was a stupid woman, known for her absurd actions. Her name was associated with the origin of the words denoting stupidity; it also became a common name and was of proverbial nature. The foolish acts of Acre made her a fitting example of the wrong pastime. The tales of Acre and Alphito were not typical scary stories for children; their motif was not to frighten the little ones with their terrible doings as Lamia, Mormo and Gello, but to demonstrate not to waste their time in a foolish way.
Baitileu D.A., Ankushev M.N. - To the question of raw material sources of mining and smelting centers of the Paleometal Epoch in Central Kazakhstan pp. 19-27


Abstract: The subject of this research is the copper deposits, copper-ore resource, and sources of alloying raw materials for mining and smelting production of the Paleometal Epoch in Central Kazakhstan, namely within the Kazakhstan mining and smelting region and Zhezkazgan-Ulytau mining and smelting center. The article provides the interim results of comprehensive research of geoarchaeological production facilities in the territory of copper deposits within the Zhezkazgan-Ulytau mining and smelting center, which allow determining the peculiarities of metallogenic complexes that used to be potential objects of the development of copper-ore reserves during the establishment of copper metallurgy, as well as making a predictive assessment of mineral raw materials potential of the region. The initial premise of this research lies in the authors' pursuit to integrate natural scientific methods of research into the field of humanities to the maximum effect via studying smelting slags and ore relics from the ancient settlements of the region for the purpose of reconstructing the mining and smelting process of the Bronze Age in Central Kazakhstan. The authors offer the variants of localization of the mineral raw materials complex of Zhezkazgan-Ulytau mining and smelting center within the Kazakhstan mining and smelting region. Based on examination of the ores and smelting slags of Bronze Age settlements in Central Kazakhstan, the authors believe that the main copper raw materials in the Zhezkazgan-Ulytau region were the oxidized malachite-azurite and rich sulfide ores, as well as the zones of secondary sulfide enrichment of copper sandstones of the Zhezkazgan ore region. The conducted research allow to get closer to establishing patterns of localization of various types of copper deposits and development of copper-ore resources for mining and smelting production of Zhezkazgan-Ulytau region during the Paleometal Epoch.
History and Politics
Atakishieva D.G., Naumova N.N. - The evolution of integration policy of Charles de Gaulle (mid 1950s late 1960s) pp. 28-44


Abstract: This article traces the evolution of the Western European policy of the General Charles de Gaulle during his presidency. In the early 1950s, he willingly cooperated with the European countries in terms of creating the economic union; however, in the course of solution of decolonization issues and, namely the Algerian problem that constrained the implementation of the key vectors of state policy, the president began focused on advancing the concept of national mightiness of France and commitment to the principles of intergovernmental cooperation in the development of integration. Charles de Gaulle fought for the foundation of the political union “Europe of the Homelands”, in which France would be assigned a significant role. The article analyzes de Gaulle’s failures in negotiations with the “P5+1” countries, which once again demonstrated to the Europeans that building integration is a long and complex process that does not tolerate rapid decisions and requires the ability to compromise. Special attention is turned to the development of integration policy of the General Charles de Gaulle based on his formal speeches, correspondence, and memoirs. De Gaulle's efforts in the sphere of integration policy of the Fifth Republic yielded certain results. First and foremost, he was able to establish the superiority of national principles in addressing the general policy issues in the European Community. Secondly, he prevented the Great Britain from joining the Common Market, as from his opinion it was an economic and political competitor of France. Thirdly, de Gaulle strengthened the international reputation of France as the country that was at the dawn and in the lead of the integration processes in Europe.
History of regions of Russia
Timaralieva A.V. - Collectivization and dekulakization in Chechnya during the 1920s 1930s pp. 45-54


Abstract: This article examines the system and methods of transformation of agriculture in Chechnya during the 1920s – 1930s, peculiarities of the main reforms – collectivization and dekulakization, as well as confrontation between the government and society in the course of such transformation. The author analyzes the changes in social sphere, namely the status of kulaks; how the compromise between the government and society improved productivity in agricultural sector. The relevance of this topic is substantiated by the current European economic policy towards Russia. The gaps, results, and implications of the Soviet agrarian policy of this period should serve as lesson for Russia in the future. The scientific novelty lies in revealing common features of the current agrarian policy with collectivization, as well as an alternative approach towards the reform. Import substitution is the example of how to achieve top results without implementation of coercive measures. This reform applies not only to agriculture, but also to other industries, however the emphasis is placed on manufacturing of products for the goods exchange within the country. Such necessity was also observed in the Soviet Union. The modern world, prior to introduction of innovations, turns to the experience of the past, analyze negative and positive sides, and then proceeds to the reforms.
Melekhovets V.F. - Industrial and sociocultural activity of the Belarusian Society of the Deaf in 20062010 pp. 55-68


Abstract: The object of this research is the activity of the Belarusian Society of the Deaf during 2006–2010. The subject is the structure of the Belarusian Society of the Deaf, its industrial and sociocultural activity in the period under review. The article reflects the consequences of 2008 global financial and economic crisis, which negatively affected the socioeconomic development of the Belarusian Society of the Deaf. The timely adopted measures by the end of 2009 have ceased the crisis processes, which allowed achieving effective results of the five-year plan, delivering success in the economy and sociocultural activity of the Belarusian Society of the Deaf during 2006–2011. The proposals for new revisions of the Law “On Prevention of Disability and Rehabilitation of Persons with Impairments” and the Law “On Social Protection of Persons with Impairments in the Republic of Belarus” (2009) have been implemented; this ensured the support of sign language, right of the persons with impairments to acquire information, and retention of the Article 37 of the Law “On Social Protection of Persons with Impairments in the Republic of Belarus” that renders tax incentives to nongovernmental organization. Triumphant in the history of sports for the hearing impaired people became the performances of the athletes of the Republic of Belarus in the 21st Summer Deaflympic in Taipei. The Belarusian Society of the Deaf actively cooperated with the World Federation of the Deaf in terms of signing the international legal document – the United Nations Convention on the Rights of Persons with Impairments”. The author is firs to cover this topic. The novelty consists in filling the gap in historical science, since the national historiography did not reflect this period of activity of the society. The author collected relevant information on the subject matter using the principles of general logical analysis (deduction, induction); descriptive, documental, ideographic methods; situational analysis; and content analysis.
Philosophy of history, historiography, chronology/source studies
Kosmovskaia A.A. - Source base of financial policy of the voivodeship chancelleries of Prikamye in the XVIIXVIII centuries pp. 69-78


Abstract: The subject of this research is source base of financial policy of the voivodeship chancelleries of Prikamye in the XVII–XVII centuries.  Systematization of the material that contains records on the financial administration in the Russian State, including regional material, is relevant at the current stage of the development of historical science. Detailed analysis is conducted on the sources for studying the financial policy of the county establishments of Prikamye, preserved in the Russian State Archive of Ancient Documents and other archives of the Russian Federation; characteristic is given to the content of funds. It is noted that most informative material on the history of financial policy of the county establishments of Prikamye is stored in the Russian State Archive of Ancient Documents, which is substantiated by the peculiarities of acquisition of central archives. The scientific novelty lies in systematization of the source base for studying the financial policy of voivodeship chancelleries of Prikamye in the XVII–XVIII centuries. The author reviews the types of sources stored in the Russian State Archive of Ancient Documents. The financial reports stored in other archives are not as representative for the research of the topic at hand. The provided overview of the archival funds and materials introduces the source base into the scientific discourse that gives perspective on the local financial administration. The conclusion is made that the studied material is sufficient for characterizing the financial peculiarities of operation of voivodeship chancelleries of Prikamye during the XVII–XVIII centuries.
Historical facts, events, phenomena
Kravchenko E. - Commercial practices of the Italian merchantry during the XIIIXV centuries: cross-cultural communication pp. 79-88


Abstract: The problem of cross-cultural contacts is one of the most relevant topics in the research field of culturology. This article turns to the question of cross-cultural interaction on the example of medieval colonization of the maritime republics of the Apennine Peninsula. The object of this research is the economic and cultural processes of Italian expansion in the XIII–XV centuries. The subject is the commercial practices of the merchants, specifically from the republics Amalfi, Genoa, Venice, Pisa, and Florence. The goal of this article consists in the analysis of operations and practices introduced into the European economy from the culturological perspective. The leading methodological vector relies on the theory of cultural transfer developed by the French researcher Michel Espagne. It is established that that a range of economic and cultural phenomena is the product of cultural transfer. The application of M. Espagne’s theory of cultural transfer to the analysis of the phenomenon of Italian colonization is carried out for the first time, which defines the novelty of this work. The research results lies in the analysis of establishment of the economic and cultural phenomena, determination of cooperation of the republics of the Apennine Peninsula within the region and other European states and Arab culture, as well as the consideration of the republics of the Apennine Peninsula as trade partners, rather than competing countries alone. The provided materials can me valuable in the sphere of Mediterranean studies, for the development of cross-disciplinary scientific projects in the area of culturology and economics, as well as for profound research of Italian culture and the phenomenon of expansion of the republics of the Apennine Peninsula in the Middle Ages.
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