Genesis: Historical research
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MAIN PAGE > Journal "Genesis: Historical research" > Contents of Issue 05/2021
Contents of Issue 05/2021
Regions of the world in the global historical process
Belukhin N.E. - Historical patterns of foreign policy of Denmark: the reason for abandoning neutrality after the World War II? pp. 1-15


Abstract: Based on the historical analysis, this article attempts to give a detailed and comprehensive answer to the question about the reasons that forced Denmark to abandon the policy of neutrality after the World War II and become the member of the North Atlantic Alliance. The object of this research is the foreign policy of Denmark in the XV – XX centuries, while the subject is the balancing strategy of Denmark in the conditions of transition from the status of regional power to the status of second-order power, and ultimately, to the status of a small European state that seeks to ensure the own neutrality. Special attention is given to the analysis of strategic foreign policy decisions of Denmark in the conditions of major regional and European conflicts, such as the Dano-Swedish War of the XVII century, Great Northern War (1700-1721), Napoleonic Wars (1799-1815), First Schleswig War (1848-1850) and Second Schleswig War (1864), World War I (1914-1918) and World War II (1939-1945). The conclusion is made that reaching the actual neutral status for Denmark throughout its foreign policy history was virtually impossible due to the fact that conventional neutrality acquired either a pro-German or pro-British orientation, and in reality represented an attempt to find a complex balance between the interests of the great powers. The need for balancing overlapped the historical vulnerability of Northern European region to external influence. Since the great powers using bilateral diplomacy did allow close rapprochement countries between Nordic countries, the common defense alliance projects both prior to the World War II and after the World War II failed to implement  A crucial point in evolution of the foreign policy strategy of Danish politicians became the negative experience of the World War II, when strict conformity to the policy of neutrality did not prevent the German occupation of the country.
Social history
Sidorenko V. - The peculiarities of ideology of the first-wave feminist movement in Alberta: maternal feminism, Anglo-Canadian nationalism, and eugenics pp. 16-26


Abstract: This article examines certain ideological peculiarities of the first-wave feminist movement in the Canadian province of Alberta, and intertwinement of Anglo-Canadian nationalism, maternal feminism and eugenics in the ideological basis of the feminist movement in the early XX century. The author examines the fusion of the questions of gender and nationality in ideology of the feminist movement, and analyzes the formation and realization of a particular feminist agenda in Alberta, which was based on the specific ideology of maternal feminism. Paying special attention to similarity of the ideology and objectives of the Anglo-Canadian nationalistic and feminist movements in the province, the author notes the causes for rapid success of the feminist movement by pivotal goals of the agenda. The scientific novelty of this research is substantiated by the fact that the author is first within the Russian historiography to explore the intertwinement of nationality and gender in ideology of the feminist movement in Alberta. The conclusion is drawn on the interinfluence of Anglo-Canadian nationalism, maternal feminism and eugenics in the ideological basis of the first-wave feminist movement in Alberta, as well as placing in the agenda the question of equal rights of men and women as an important aspect in preservation of Anglo-Canadian ideals for the future generations in Alberta.
Historical time and space
Kolpakov M.Y., Mikheev D.V. - The cold route to Muscovy: European travelers of the XV XVII Centuries in the conditions of Russian winter pp. 27-56


Abstract: The XV – XVII centuries mark the intensification of trade, political and cultural contacts between the European countries and the Russian State. The large territory of the country, geographical peculiarities, road network, trade and political interests required long winter travels from the Europeans. The final data array, which describes the experience of European travelers is comprised of 27 essays and  reflects 32 visits or stay in the territory of the Russian State. From the representative range of sources, the author determines the characteristics of winters, assessments of the quality of winter roads, descriptions of clothes and road equipment, main methods of transportation, stories about the peculiarities of winter indoor and outdoor night lodging, common and uncommon methods against cold weather, and methods of treating freeze burns. The subjectivity or objectivity of “winter” testimonies of the foreigners was established in accordance with the climatic characteristics of simultaneous regional winter seasons in the texts of the Russian chronicles. The results of analysis of the natural and climatic conditions in Europe and the Russian State against the background of changes in heliophysical parameters allow asserting that European travelers of the so-called period of “Little Ice Age” came from the region with longer or colder winters. In the European part of the Russian State, abnormal freezing temperatures were marked later and not so longstanding. Over the three centuries of winter travels to Muscovy and trips to the domains of the tsar, the Europeans have adopted the experience and technologies of the local population, as well as developed the original recommendations for foreigners, who desired to live and work in the conditions of the “Russian winter”. A new stage in adaptation of economic activity and everyday life of the population to the impact of cold climate would become possible after the emergence of new types of transport and improvement of communication system in Modern Age.
Issues of war and peace
Adeshkin I.N. - The participation of African Americans in the American Expeditionary Forces during the World War I pp. 57-63


Abstract: This article examines the participation of African Americans in the World War I in the ranks of the American Expeditionary Forces in Europe during the 1917 – 1918. The author studies the attitude of the African-American community towards participation in the World War I, describes the peculiarities of military service of African American soldiers in the American Expeditionary Forces, and reveals the manifestations of racial discrimination. The article also reviews the attitude of French soldiers and officers towards African American soldiers of the U. S. Army, analyzes the impact of the acquired combat experience and sociocultural interaction with foreign soldiers upon the activity of African American population in fighting for their rights and freedoms in the United States. In Russian historiography, the participation of African Americans in the American Expeditionary Forces during the World War I, peculiarities of their service, and the impact of war on self-consciousness of this category of military servicemen have not previously become the subject of special research. Based on the article. The conclusion is made that the attitude of African American community towards participation in the World War I was quite ambiguous. Their soldiers faced different forms of discrimination during their military service: they could not serve in the Marine Corps and other elite units, and most of the time were engaged in the rear. A different experience received African American soldiers from the units transferred under the leadership of the French Army, whose officers treated them with respect; the blood shed for their country, combat experience and respectful of the allies enhanced desire of the African Americans to gain equal civil rights and freedoms in their homeland.
History of regions of Russia
Kuz'mina A.V., Komogaev V.S. - The role of large industrial enterprises in the everyday life of Sevastopol in the 1980s (on the example of the Sevastopol instrument-making plant "Parus"). pp. 64-70


Abstract: The subject of the study is the role of large industrial enterprises in the daily life of Sevastopol in the early 1980s on the example of the Sevastopol instrument-making plant "Parus", since 1980 renamed the Sevastopol instrument-making plant named after V.I. Lenin. The authors motivate the choice of this enterprise as an example and object of research by the fact that the plant was one of the most significant enterprises both for Sevastopol and for the entire instrument-making industry of the Soviet Union. Based on archival sources, the authors consider in detail the specific episodes of the plant's activities that influenced the lives of citizens and the appearance of the city. In particular, the article discusses the activities of the plant for the construction and commissioning of residential buildings and infrastructure facilities, the organization of children's leisure. In addition, the authors tell about the activities of the enterprise itself to improve the working conditions of workers, as well as about the work of the Komsomol organization. The authors come to the conclusion that the instrument-making plant "Parus" played a significant role in the life of Sevastopol, especially one of the districts of the city - the Northern side: the enterprise developed and demonstrated success, created new jobs, expanding the range of products, and improved working conditions. Thanks to the plant, new residential buildings (apartment buildings and dormitories), kindergartens, shops, a library, and infrastructure facilities were built. Most of these buildings on the North Side of Sevastopol exist and are still used for their intended purpose. Also, the authors, relying on archival sources and, above all, reports of office documentation, state that much attention was paid to children's leisure, health improvement and education.
West - Russia - East
Bogdanov A.P. - Russia and the West in the Information exchange of the late XVII century pp. 71-124


Abstract: A considerable amount of foreign books in the libraries, the study of Western languages by the Russians, and close contacts with foreigners in Russia and abroad in the 1680s – 1720s had insignificant impact on the Russian authors, who preferred to describe the events using traditional literary forms. Even the first historical monographs, although contained Western scientific forms, retained the Russian literary style. The attempts to influence public opinion made by V. V. Golitsyn using the inspired by him, which were distributed in foreign countries and translated as foreign In Russia, had a tactical success, as they did not correspond to the Western ideas on the barbarian Muscovy. Western publications about Russia were affected by the fantastic version of organization of the Moscow Uprising of 1682 by the boyars and Tsarina Sofia, initiated by the regency government and supporters of Chancellor A. S. Matveev, who propagated it abroad with particular success. In the XVIII century, this version was explicated in the essays of the Count A. A. Matveev and his mentor L. I. Poborsky. The comparison of Russian origins and reflections of the version with its Western interpretations, including those translated in Moscow, allowed assessing the uniqueness of foreign outlook on Russia. The synthesis of Russian and foreign interpretations of the fantastic version of conspiracies underlies the representations of many historians on the Streltsy uprising of 1682.
History and historical science
Smirnova T.A., Machinskii S.A. - Preparation of research report based on the results of field explorations as a creation of historical sources on the example of the activity of survey expedition The Burning Stones pp. 125-139


Abstract: This article examines the application of experience on preparing a research report based on the field explorations carried out on the territory of military operations of the period of the Great Patriotic War. The object of this research is the conduct of exploration works in the area of the Mountain Gankashvaara, the Kestenga direction of the Karelian Front since 1941 until 1944, which has not yt been studied by the historical science. Special attention is give to studying the theory, practice and legal status of exploration worlds of the detachments of the Russian Federation, distinctive features such type of works in relation to archaeological explorations, as well as the possibility of application of the experience of exploration work as a research mechanism for historical science. The relevance of this article is defined by the importance and need for application of scientific experience of preparing a research report in exploration works for the purpose of preserving the history of the Great Patriotic War in the historical memory of Russia. The questions are raised pertaining to commemoration of the defenders of the Homeland and perpetuating the memory of heroes. The article describes the practical experience of the authors in the field of search and perpetuation of the memory of the defenders of the Homeland, who died or have gone missing during the Great Patriotic War, as well as in analysis of the records and materials for continuing the research activity in this sphere.
Interdisciplinary research
Danilov A.A. - Judicial practices of the Eastern Christian saints in the beginning of the IV middle of the V centuries pp. 140-150


Abstract: This article is dedicated to the study of activity of the saints in the area of justice during the Late Antiquity, and is structured upon the examination of theirs hagiographical works. The period of Late Antiquity, with its peculiar attitude towards the questions of crime and punishment and their social meaning is virtually out of the field of regards of modern historians. This article places emphasis no so much on the legal issues as on the social aspects of the practice of saints. The object of this research is the phenomenon of the saint, which emerged on the East of the Late Roman in the early IV century with the advent of the Christian monasticism and asceticism. The subject of this research is the practical activity of the saints associated with dispute settlement, conflict resolution, and crime prevention. The conclusion is made that the judicial activity of the saint reflects the perspective on justice that differs from the traditional systems. The saint uses an informal mechanism of mediation for reconcilement of adversaries and bringing them to a compromise. It is based on the need for a new outlook upon the problem of aggression that existed in society of the Late Antiquity, as key source of criminality. The actions of the saint are aimed at alleviation of human aggressiveness and rejection of violence and policy of frightening that were typical at that time, thereby preventing the offender from committing an offence. The main instrument in activity of the saint is the ability to accomplish a miracle, which reflects the power of the saint to overcome the traditional principles of justice.
Historical sources and artifacts
Maksimova I.V. - Cholera as a present-day concern in perception of the dwellers of the county town of Tsaritsyn (based on the materials of the newspaper Volzhsko-Donskoy Listok) pp. 151-168


Abstract: The object of this research is the regional press as a source on the history of cholera epidemics of the late XIX century. The subject is the public moods and behavioral practices of the dwellers of the county town of Saratov governorate – Tsaritsyn, which was affected by cholera epidemic of 1892, in coverage of the regional press. The historiographical framework consists on the versatile and unique materials of the municipal newspaper "Volzhsko-Donskoy Listok", which are introduced into the scientific discourse for the first time. A detailed analysis of the annual publications of local press allowed tracing the chronology of the traditional approach towards perception of the poorly studied in literature cholera epidemics of 1892 in Tsaritsyn in the context of studying the history of everyday life. The author reveals this topic up until September 1893. Special attention is turned to examination of different stereotypical models of behavior that appeared to be widespread among the population, and became a somewhat response to the emerged situation of biological and social nature. The research is based on the interdisciplinary approach that implies comprehensive examination of the problem, involving the achievements in the history of medicine, historiography, psychology, sociology, etc. This article is the first attempt within the regional historiography to holistically examine the cholera epidemic of 1892 in Tsaritsyn. The conducted analysis of the newspaper “Volzhsko-Donskoy Listok” allowed to highly rate the informative capabilities of the regional press for studying cholera epidemics and their impact on life of the population in the post-reform period. The author offers the original classification of the whole variety of materials on the topic, as well as outlines the ways for their further usage.
History of ethnicities, peoples, nations
Timaralieva A.V. - School construction in Chechnya during the 1920s 1936s pp. 169-178


Abstract: This article is dedicated to the question of eradication of illiteracy among school-age population of Chechnya during the 1920 – 1936. The author explores the role of religious figures in education; the cohort of students and construction of schools in the cities and rural areas; the arrangement of school curriculum, creation of alphabet, and solution of the problems with professional personnel shortage; as well as the system of dropouts and grade repetition. The republic is currently experiences one of the most difficult periods in its history. The leadership of the Chechen Republic is doing everything possible to ensure that education is evaluable to every resident. The reference to the historical experience of school construction allows reconstructing the severely deformed educational processes. The scientific novelty consists in studying the problem from the perspective independent of the Marxist-Leninist outlook upon the educational processes. The government, supporting the atheistic worldview, set the task to build a new personality, with no presence of religion what so ever, whose mentality would be all about building the Communism and fight the Capitalism. As of today, religion is an integral part of every Chechen; simultaneous secular and religious education has a positive impact upon personal becoming. Emphasis is placed on the fact that there were very few girls in the schools. This indicator has remained consistent for virtually the entire period of school reform in Chechnya.
Personality in history
Sokov I.A. - Canadian intellectual F. R. Scott and his impact upon the establishment of political culture in Canada in the XX century pp. 179-193


Abstract: The subject of this research is the personality of the Canadian intellectual Francis Reginald Scott and his impact upon the state and development of political culture in Canada in the XX century. The evolution of Canadian political culture during the life of F. R. Scott affected by the objective historical factors that formed its distinctive features, new political traditions and new Canadian values, as well as by intresubjective factor, through which manifested the influence of Canadian intellectuals, politicians and public figures. The research methodology leans on the scientific principles of historicism, systematicity and objectivity, intersubjective and societal approaches; and special historical methods of research, such as comparative, typological, genetic and systemic. The scientific novelty lies in tracing the evolution of Canadian political culture in the XX century. The acquired results can be used in further research of the history of political cultures of foreign countries, as well as in scientific-pedagogical activity. The author concludes the evolution of Canadian political culture during the life of F. R. Scott was affected not only by objective historical factors, but also by intresubjective factor, through which manifested the impact of political and social activity of F. R. Scott. The author’s special contribution consists in the new approach towards characterization of political cultures of different nations, which obtained their uniqueness in the course of historical development.
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