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Genesis: Historical research
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MAIN PAGE > Journal "Genesis: Historical research" > Contents of Issue є 03/2016
Contents of Issue є 03/2016
History of law and state
Logvinova I.V. - Peculiarities of administrative control of the Northeast of RSFSR during the 1930-1950Тs pp. 1-8


Abstract: In this article the author examines the peculiarities of the established in the 1930-1950’s special system of administrative control in the Northeast territory of RSFSR. The specificity of the state construction was substantiated by the fact that in this region had to solve sizeable issues on commercial development under the condition of complete absence of infrastructure, workforce potential, and geographical remoteness from the central government. In the conditions of totalitarian regime this task was imposed upon organization with a special status, which first was under control, and then became a direct subordinate of the People's Commissariat for Internal Affairs (NKVD). The history of Dalstroy (Far North Construction Trust) gives an idea about the scale of the political repressive machine, formed in USSR during Stalin’s regime. Scientific novelty consists in the fact that based on the archive data, the author was able to reveal the mechanism of administration in the production area of Dalstroy in the 1930-1950’s, which proves its special status. The example of Dalstroy demonstrates that in separate regions of the country has been introduced even a stricter and more centralized system of administrative control, directly regulated by NKVD. The principle of reasonableness in the context of totalitarian regime has been used even against the main principles of organization of the Soviet system of administration. Dalstroy was a state –owned institution that carried out complex tasks within jurisdictional region, based on camp system and using the entire potential of the punishment system of NKVD.  
Historical facts, events, phenomena
Androsov D.P. - Western German terrorism and mass media in the 1960Тs-1980: assessments of the Professor Andreas Elter pp. 9-17


Abstract: The subject of this research is the interrelations between the terrorist organization “Red Army Faction” and mass media in the Federative Republic of Germany. Special attention is given to the research in this area conducted by Andreas Elter – German Professor of the University of Cologne. Since the late 1960’s, left wing radical groups of FRG began to actively use mass media to influence the citizens of the republic via self-positioning and self-expression, as well to be a communication channel for delivering their messages. The author analyzes the content of Andreas Elter’s book "Propaganda der Tat. Die RAF und die Medien" and draws conclusions based on the scholar’s reasoning. The author determines and reveals the hidden, but mutually beneficial interconnections, established between the functioning and the principles of operation of mass media as the commercial structures, and the members of “Red Army Faction” terrorist organization in West Germany, who most vividly manifested themselves in 1970’s during the time of the acute political crisis, known as the “German Autumn”.
History and Politics
Androsov D.P. - The establishment of public opinion in Western Europe during the 1970Тs by means of mass media on the background of the fight of German Federative Republic against УRed Army FactionФ terrorist pp. 18-28


Abstract: The object of this research is the most resonant and exerted significant influence upon the establishment of public opinion in separate countries publications in major publishers of the continental Western Europe in 1970’s, pertaining to measures taken by the executive and legislative authorities of FRG in the state period, which are aimed at neutralization of threat to the Western German society and government that emanates from the left wing radical terrorist organization “Red Army Faction”. The author gives special attention to the development of the fundamental direction of the publicistic thought that touches upon confrontation between the state and the terrorist; he also analyzes the assessment of this fight given by the print mass media in FRG, France, Italy, Switzerland, and Netherlands, attempting to pursue regularities of the journalistic reasoning. For this research the publications of the 1970’s on the topic of the fight between the government of FRG and “Red Army Faction organization” have been selected in the following German publishers: “Frankfurter Allgemeine Zeitung”, “Die Welt”, “Bild”, “Die Zeit”, “Frankfurter Rundschau”, “Der Spiegel”, as well as in French, Italian and Swiss newspapers. The main conclusion consists in the establishment of the concrete regularities in the nature of the articles of the informational printed materials and their assessments, given to the anti-terroristic campaigns conducted by the law enforcement agencies of FRG, as well as to the decisions of the Western German judicial system with regards to “Red Army Faction” terrorists.
History of ethnicities, peoples, nations
Khotko S.K. - Inclusion of the Northwest Caucasus under the range of influence of the Ottoman Empire, 1475-1520 pp. 29-41


Abstract:     The subject of this research is the establishment of the Ottoman control over the western areas of the Northwest Caucasus throughout the period of the late XV – early XVI centuries. After the Ottoman occupation of the Genoese Caffa (1475) and first invasion into Circassia (1479), the ethnopolitical history of the Northwest Caucasus has marked the beginning of a long era, the content of the events of which to a certain extent were determined by the character of relationships with the Ottoman Empire. In order to conquer the country of Circassians, the Ottoman government used a powerful military resource of the vassal Crimean Khanate. At the same time, the Ottomans were making efforts to prevent the spread of the Khan authority in Circassia, and encouraged the direct vassal ties of the Circassian dukes with regards to the sultan. All of the key events in the history of Ottoman- Circassia relations are examined on a broader scale of events associated with the Ottoman conquest of Crimea, Balkan Peninsula, and the Near East (Syria-Egypt Empire of the Mamluks), as well as the influence upon Circassia from the Crimean Khanate and Russian state. The author made the following conclusions: 1) clarification of the institutional character of the Ottoman dominance in the Northwest Caucasus; 2) inclusion into the scientific discourse of the problematics of the Cirkassian presence in Mamluk Egypt, which affected the vector of the Istanbul- Circassia relations; 3) influence of the Ottoman military-political presence in Crimea and Caucasus (Caffa  vicegerency)  upon the character of Crimea- Circassia connections.    
History of regions of Russia
Ippolitov V.A. - Dekulakization in the Central Black Earth Region at the brink of the 1920Тs Ц 1930Тs: the role of Komsomol pp. 42-56


Abstract: This article examines the role of Komsomol organizations in dekulakization of the Russian peasantry in the late 1920’s – early 1930’s.  Mechanism of youth participation in elimination of the kulaks as a social class is being revealed. The author demonstrates the contradictory attitude of the members of Komsomol towards this campaign, as well as examines the causes of attempt on the life of members of Komsomol by peasants. The geographical frameworks of this research contain the territory of Central Black Earth Region of RSFSR. The materials and documents from the State Archive of Sociopolitical History of Tambov Oblast comprised the foundation for this article. Special attention is given to the analysis of documents of the initial Komsomol organizations, which allows the author to determine the peculiarities of their activity and the attitudes of the regular members of the union, as well as to better understand the sociocultural phenomenon of Komsomol.  On the author’s opinion, the significant role of Komsomol in dekulakization is justified by the multiple facts of attempts on life and murders of the Komsomol members, as well as by presence of the big portion of the representatives of the poorest strata of the peasantry. The reputation of Komsomol in the villages was significantly undermined. The terms and the methods of conducting of campaign (later condemned) were dictated to Komsomol by the higher authorities. The active efforts of Komsomol were accompanied by constant threats of being excluded from the union. But majority of the Komsomol members did not support the idea of class warfare and preferred to remain neutral. A small part of the youth had openly protested the anti-peasantry policy of the party.
Regions of the world in the global historical process
Belkovets L. - Soviet diplomacy in struggle for the establishment of neighborly relation with the United Kingdom during the 1920Тs pp. 57-85


Abstract:   The subject of this research is the process of establishment of relations between the Soviet Russia and the Great Britain in the 1920’s. The author considers explores the circumstances of an exit of the countries from blockade and the conclusion of bilateral agreements on a diplomatic recognition of the Soviet Russia by England. Special attention is given to the attempts of the Russian diplomacy to prevent the breach of relations, as well as emergence of "Chamberlain's note" of 1927.  The circumstances and consequences of the diplomatic conflict are being reviewed. The author gives definitions to the accusation of the Soviet Union of the “anti-British propaganda” and “derogation of England’s prestige” in the countries of the East. Special attention is given to the instigated by England white émigré extremism aimed at population and Soviet government structures, as well as to the subsequent reaction. The author conducts the analysis of the combination of historical and legal facts and implements a method of their scientific evaluation. The original concept of events along with the real image of historical process in all its natural sequence and conditionality is being suggested. The author assesses the position of the global community that ensured support to USSR, which has found its recognition in the peaceful foreign policy.  
Grigor'eva O.G. - International legal cooperation of USSR on civil affairs during the period of 1922-1956 pp. 86-101


Abstract: The subject of this research is the genesis of the international legal cooperation of USSR with foreign countries on civil affairs during the period of 1922-1956. Based on the international agreements and treaties, as well as other international legal acts of the Soviet Union, the author reconstructs a historical picture of interaction between the competent authorities of the Soviet State and a number of foreign countries in providing the legal support on civil affairs, including collection of the alimony payments to minors, inheritance, custody, etc. The scientific novelty consists in the fact that the work uses the materials from the State Archive of the Russian Federation and the Archive of the Ministry of Foreign Affairs of the Russian Federation, which have been introduced for the first time into the scientific circulation. Among these materials is the diplomatic correspondence, agreements between the Soviet Union and other foreign countries, and others. During the course of this research, the author uses a historical method, which allows analyzing the examined legal phenomenon in dynamics, as well demonstrate its interconnection with the existed public relations and events that took place in the global arena during the aforementioned period of time.
History and Ideology
Danilova V. - The cult of Imperial house during at the time of Trajan pp. 102-109


Abstract: The subject of this research is the role of the cult of imperial house in ideology of the Roman Emperor Trajan (98-1170). The article reveals correlation between the image of Trajan’s family and the formation of the image of the emperor himself within the official ideology. The author examines the peculiarities of the cult of imperial house pertaining to such relatives of Trajan, as his adoptive father Nerva, biological father Trajan Senior, wife Plotina, sister Maricia, and niece Matidia. The author highlights two stages of development of the imperial house cult at the time of Trajan. The scientific novelty consists in the fact that this article is first in the Russian historiography to thoroughly explore the role of the imperial house cult in Trajan’s ideology. The immediate circle of the emperor had to correspond the image of the emperor himself. At the beginning of Trajan’s reign (98-105) we can observe moderation in favors, modesty, honor of his adoptive father Nerva, and respect for other family members. At the second stage (105-112), we can observe a significant amplification of the imperial house cult, which expressed in deification of Trajan’s the dead relatives and glorification of those alive. The author also notes the uniqueness of the situation, in which the Emperor Trajan simultaneously had two deified fathers, as well as reveals the essence of the conflict between honoring the biological father and the adoptive father.
History and Politics
Ovanesyan I.G. - Style of the work of Komsomol organizations of the 1950Тs as a factor of evolution of political culture of the Soviet youth pp. 110-129


Abstract: This article makes an attempt to comprehensively evaluate the style of the work Komsomol organizations of the 1950’s and its impact upon the political culture of Soviet youth. In the author’s opinion, the study of the political culture of the society during one of the pivotal stages of historical development alongside the clarification of the factors influencing its formation, creates the prerequisites for the establishment of high culture of political relations as a sign of civil society, as well as for their rationalization and intellectualization.  This material increases its relevance due to the 100th anniversary of the Communist Union of Youth. Komsomol is being viewed as a peculiar Soviet “ministry of youth”, a so-called interlink between the government and the youth. The research demonstrates that many negative trends in life of the union have not been determined even at the end of a decade. The triumph of bureaucratic tendencies in Komsomol contributed into manifestations of nihilism within the youth environment, youth’s disbelief in their own strength, as well as indifference towards everything. The style of the Komsomol activity encouraged the entrenchment of double standards among youth, the difference between the words and actions, official and daily behavior. At the same time, the author notes the rise of tendencies which overall played a positive role in formation of the youth’s political culture in the life of Komsomol, such as: strengthening of the elements of self-governance; riddance of the campaigns against “public enemy”; criticism of welfare mentality; rejection from the practice of mass transference of Komsomol personnel; consideration of age peculiarities of the youth; increase of attention towards organization of leisure among the members of Komsomol and the youth.
Culture and cultures in historical context
Tushkanov D.I. - What was being read in Tsaritsyno at the end of the XIX century? pp. 130-136


Abstract:   The subject of this research is the sociocultural image of the district city of Saratov province in the late XIX century. The article also explores the question of what newspapers and magazines were subscribed to and read by the inhabitants of the town of Tsaritsyno at the end of the XIX century. The object of this study is the provincial periodicals of the late XIX century. Special attention is given to the establishment and development of the first Tsaritsyno newspaper "Volga-Don paper", which reflected various issues and problems of the local life of the late nineteenth century, including consideration of the question of subscription of the citizens to the periodicals. The research methodology stems from a sociocultural approach, which means study of the culture as a wide range of social phenomena, which represent the tools and results of social development. A special place also belongs to the periodicals, which on the one hand represent a sociocultural phenomenon, while on the other – means of reflection of various sociocultural processes of reality. The author concludes that the city had a great need for periodicals and, in particular, the establishment of local press. Based on the materials of the first Tsaritsyno newspaper the author presents previously unpublished information about what periodicals the Tsaritsyno residents subscribed to in the last quarter of the XIX century.  
Synieokyi O.V. - Retrospective view upon the history of development of national rock within the Soviet gramophone recording from the position of social communications pp. 137-167


Abstract: This article presents a chronology of the main events and trends in the history of Soviet rock in the context of the development of the system of music communication in USSR, in other words one more version of formation and establishment of the Russian rock music – the author reconsidered a number of position, complemented many of them with the newly revealed facts, and determines the new correlations.  The subject of this work is the peculiarities of formation of the national rock music within the framework of evolution of the gramophone recording system in USSR. Due to this fact the phenomenon of our inquiry is presented in a form of dual socio-communicational construct that functions in the cultural space (sound recording + rock music). The author suggests and argues a thesis, according to which the dual nature of the rock music recording is expressed in the fact that the aforementioned musical phenomenon also represents an institution of social communication. The author is first to comprehensively explore the category of “rock music recording in USSR” as an intrinsic part of the system of social communication. On the example of rock clubs, the author expands the idea about music organizations in the conditions of socialism. The main conclusion consists in the following: as a result of a joint action of socio-historical, political, information, and economic-technological factors, by the middle of the 1970’s several regional-national schools of rock music recording were formed in USSR as a “mosaic system” of sociocultural communication, which was founded on the complicated multilevel correlations.
Interdisciplinary research
Akishin M.O. - The legal language of the Russian state in the late XV Ц XVII centuries pp. 168-187


Abstract: Critical factor in the development of the Russian state in the late XV Ц XVII centuries was the transformation of writ language obschevelikorussky in the state language. On the one hand, it is possible to create one of the fundamental bases of national unity. On the other, mandative language became the language of the legislation, court and official records management. Methodological basis of research is the dialectical method of cognition, scientific and private-scientific methods. The article is interdisciplinary, using methods and techniques of legal theory, source studies and historical linguistics. This article argues that the strengthening of the Supreme power and improve the mechanism of state in XVI Ц XVII centuries laid the foundations for the process of formation of law in the modern sense of the word, the improvement of Executive and administrative activities and proceedings. As before, the Russian right XVI Ц XVII centuries developed under the influence of the Byzantine (Greco-Roman) law, as evidenced by the tracings with the conceptual-categorical apparatus of Roman law and the use of arqueolegico language in the Russian legislation. But from the mid-seventeenth century becomes noticeable influence of European law, which is reflected in the borrowing of European legal vocabulary. In other words, you can talk about the beginning of the process of Europeanization of state and law of Russia, which received its highest development in the legislation of the Russian Empire XVIII Ц XIX centuries.
Yanchurkin O.V. - Historical aspects of development of the provisions of legalization (laundering) of proceeds of crime and their impact on the law enforcement practice. Part 2. pp. 188-197


Abstract: The subject of this research is the Russian legal acts that comprise the fundament of the fight against legalization (laundering) of illegal gains, as well as the practice of their implementation. The object of the research is the public relations that emerge in the process of counteraction to the crimes in this category. The second part of the article provides detailed examination of the genesis of the positions on legalization (laundering) of “dirty” money and their influence upon law enforcement practice. A special attention is given to the issues of prosecution (investigation and trial), as well as proposals on the ways and means of their solution. The author was able to determine the causes of negative trends in the investigative practice of legalization of “dirty” money and substantiate their interconnection with the legal norms aimed at fighting laundering of these funds. Analysis of the legal norms and prosecution practice in the historical aspect of their development allowed the author to determine the special status of the decisions of the Plenum of the Supreme Court of the Russian Federation and their influence upon qualification of acts in the area of laundering of criminal gains.
Social history
Bezgin V.B. - Suicide among peasant youth (the end of the XIX Ц the beginning of the XX century) pp. 198-204


Abstract: Based on the archive sources, primarily the police reports, this work examines the problem of juvenile suicide of the late XIX – early XX century. The object of this research is the villages of the governorates of the European part of Russia. The subject of the study is the suicide cases among village children and teenagers. Special attention is given to the determination of the motives of a voluntary departure from life of the peasant youth. During the course of this work the author establishes the ways of committing suicide, as well as determines the gender peculiarities of suicide among peasant youth. The methodology of this research is based on the interdisciplinary approach, which allows considering this problem as a manifestation of social deviation of peasantry of the end of the XIX – the beginning of the XX century. The main conclusion consists in the fact that the growth in the number of suicide among the village youth is justified by the influence of modernization process, namely by the events that accompanied it. Breaking down of the familiar way of life resulted in the feelings of fear and despair; the children became the most vulnerable part of the village in such situation.
Shitova A.A. - Organizational growth of Komsomol as a way of antireligious propaganda and fight for the new society (based on the materials of North Caucasus Krai) pp. 205-233


Abstract: This article examines the formation, development, and change of the Soviet State youth policy in the late 1920’s associated with the antireligious struggle in the North Caucasus Krai. The foundation for this research became the materials of mass media, Russian State Archive of Sociopolitical History, Stavropol Krai State Archive of Contemporary History, published materials of partisan and Komsomol sessions and conferences, as well as the works of the modern scholars in this field. The author reviews Komsomol as a sociocultural phenomenon, determines the factors of its multi-directional influence upon the society, and attempts to generalize the positive and the negative experience. Based on the conducted analysis of the antireligious policy, the author formulates the following conclusion: due to the political events of the 1920’s, taking into consideration the local peculiarities and specific conditions of the North Caucasus Krai, one of the most efficient ways in the fight against religion alongside the political control over youth, became the mass involvement of the youth into formal social groups – voluntary communities, and especially Komsomol.  The involvement into such groups allowed distracting the youth from the traditional activities and religion by decreasing the portion of their free time; and what is most important, it allowed supervising their behavior through public efforts and obligatory communication within the framework of the organization.
Yakimov K.A. - Public moods among youth during the period of mass political repressions of the late 1930Тs pp. 234-251


Abstract: This research is dedicated to the problem of examination of the public moods specificity among the Soviet youth throughout the years of mass political repressions of the late 1930’s. The article thoroughly explores the components of Komsomol propaganda during the years of the “Great Purge”, analyses its influence upon the consciousness of young men and young ladies, as well as reveals the causes of mass participation and support of political repressions by the youth. The relevance of this topic is justified by a number of circumstances: firstly, the necessity for a comprehensive study of the experience of formation of peculiar features of public consciousness among youth during the period of totalitarian regime, including the years of the “Great Purge”; secondly, the importance of understanding of the historical role of Komsomol and Komsomol propaganda in the process of transformation of public moods of the young generation. Scientific novelty is substantiated by the fact that for the first time the study of the influence of political repressions upon the character of public moods among youth in the late 1930’s is conducted based on the materials from the State Archive of Sociopolitical History of Tambov Oblast. The author demonstrates that the atmosphere of overall suspiciousness encouraged the distortion of the actual moral and ethical values, but nevertheless, comes to a conclusion, that the youth was far from being monolithic. The article illustrates the multiple examples of defense of one’s opinion.
History of ethnicities, peoples, nations
Ryabkova O.A. - Siberian ЂRegionalistsї (A. P. Shchapov, G. N. Potanin, N. M. Yadrintsev) On The Situation Of The Peoples Of Siberia In The Russian Empire pp. 252-259


Abstract: This article explores the poinst of view of historians of the second half of the XIX century, representatives of the regional history" concept, pertaining to the status of the people of Siberia during its colonization and their inclusion into the population of the Russian State. The ideas of the Siberian "regionalists" on the status of Siberian residents as a part of the Russian Empire represent a great scientific interest. The foundation for the analysis consists of the works of A.P. Shchapov, G.N. Potanin, M.N. Yadrintsev dedicated to this topic. The article gives attention to the interaction between the Russian and Siberian ethnic groups, processes of assimilation, population decline, provision of civil rights to Siberian population, alongside their education. The author determines the role and significance of the Siberian intelligentsia in solution of the problems of  indigenous population. In this context, the positive and the negative impact of colonization policy of the Russian State upon the development of the population Siberia is being examined.
Issues of war and peace
Lysenkov S. - Organization of medical aid for the Red Army military personnel during the Great Patriotic War pp. 260-282


Abstract:   The object of this research is the organization of medical aid for the active duty military personnel in the conditions of wartime. The subject of this research contains the organizational legal aspects of providing medical aid to the wounded on the battlefield, in the frontline, during medical evacuation and in base hospitals. Special attention is given to the analysis of legal consequences of the expert outcome of injuries, as well as to the determination of the level of disablement of the invalids of the Great Patriotic War and possibility of their return back to duty of defending their Motherland.  The author examines the process of awarding the servicemen of the Red Army with a decoration for being wounded on the battlefield.  Scientific novelty of this work consists in the fact that for the first time in the Russian historical legal literature, the author attempts to conduct an objective analysis of a stage-by-stage organization of medical aid to the wounded active military personnel of the Red Army.  The previously unpublished documents and materials of the central and departmental archives of the Russian Federation are being Introduced into the scientific circulation; their content of allows a comprehensive study of the experience of the Soviet military medicine during the Great Patriotic War.  
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