Philosophical Thought
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MAIN PAGE > Journal "Philosophical Thought" > Contents of Issue № 03/2021
Contents of Issue № 03/2021
Ontology: being and nihility
Demenev D.N. - Unity of the process of creating a fine art painting: ideal and material pp. 1-41


Abstract: The subject of this research is the interaction of the ideal and the material, which ensures unity of the process of creating a fine art painting. The object of this research is the dynamics of this process, which gradually materializes the ideal through poetic transformation of the objective reality. In the course of creating a fine art painting, the author underlines the importance of ontological-phenomenological and socio-gnoseological aspects of human existence, which in many ways determine the technical and technological means of solution of the artistic and creative tasks. Special attention is given to contemplation of the objective world, purposive action of the artistic will, establishment of the artistic image as interrelated stages of objectification of the ideal. The novelty of this article consists in interpretation of the phenomenon of the ideal, reflected in painting via integrated will. The latter is the synthesis of artistic will and subjective will of the painter. The author describes a “shuttle principle” in objectification of the ideal in the works of art within the framework of the history of development of painting, as well as within a single process: 1) from the aesthetic form to the embodiment of universality of the content; 2) from the universal content to aesthetic embodiment. The following conclusions were made: 1) the objectively ideal in a painting is an aesthetically perceived (visually, mentally, and spiritually) boundary of beauty and beautiful depicted via perfect, absolute unity of the artistic form and content, artistically and graphically, adequate to its concept in its material outcome, in reality. It is of rare occurrence in the works of art, something to be sought for; 2) an artistic form should be correlated in the artwork with universality of its content, which results in the fusion of the ideal and the real, and forms their indifference; 3) the universal meanings, ideologically underlying the content of a fine art painting, deepen and broaden the possibilities of artistic matter for objectification of the ideal in aesthetic form.
Social philosophy
Rusakov S.S. - I. Kant's Copernican revolution in the context of the concept of subjectivation pp. 42-50


Abstract: This article is dedicated to correlation between the concept of subjectivation of M. Foucault and the concept of subject of I. Kant. Due to the fact that the project of studying the forms of subjectivity has not been accomplished, the artistic legacy of the French scholar has left numerous questions still to be answered. One of such questions is the transformation of the subject that took place in Modern Age, and the reasons for the elimination of spiritual practices of subjectivation. The work is of historical-philosophical nature, and employs analytical, critical and comparative methods of research applicable to the texts of Michel Foucault and Immanuel Kant, as well as to a number of foreign (G. Deleuze, A. Renaut, T. Adorno) and domestic (M. Mamardashvili, F. Girenok, S. Khoruzhiy) analytical works. The novelty of this research consists in the analysis of the philosophical concept of M. Foucault in the specific context of transcendental philosophy of I. Kant. The author distinguishes between what the French researcher called the metaphysical subject of Descartes and the transcendental subject of Kant. The following conclusions were formulated: the acknowledgement of irrevocable loss of the elements of subjectivation in the Kantian concept of subject, which were reflected in the doctrine of Cartesius; claim of the autonomy of the Kantian subject, founded on the rejection of metaphysics and exclusion of heteronomy as a characteristic of subjectivity; confirmation of the key role of practical reason as the factor of further development of the concept of subject towards enhancing the autonomy and gnoseocentrism.
Kannykin S.V. - Running in light of the ideas of Olympism of Pierre de Coubertin pp. 51-65


Abstract: The subject of this research is the sociocultural conditionality of running. The relevance of this work consists in non-inclusion into the philosophical context, which implies reference to the universal and the basic fundamental, running as the most universal cultural form of locomotion of an athlete, as well as the absence of definition of its humanistic importance in both, individual and collective existence. The author sets the three tasks: reveal the foundations of the concept of Olympism of Pierre de Coubertin; determine the content of the values of Olympism interpreted as the key ideas oriented towards implementation in life of a person and society through the Olympic sports; advance the hypothesis of running as the basic physical practice for sports, which essentially implies the transcendent dimension that correlates with the ideological components of Olympism. The novelty of this article lies in the analysis of running through the prism of ideological foundations of Olympism. Being inherent to the universal for sports running practices, these foundations make running, viewed as a component of social environment, a means of preservation and distribution the Coubertin’s ideology of formation of an athlete as a harmonious, spiritually and physically developed personality through the educational sports. Considering the fact that the socially conditioned running motor action contributes to the formation of the structures of human consciousness, the mental world of the subject, formed with involvement of the Olympic oriented running practices, is largely characterized by the values promoted by Pierre de Coubertin.
Matveev A.A. - Migration security within the system of global security: mechanisms, principles, actors pp. 66-80


Abstract: This article is dedicated to migration security, which is viewed within the paradigm of sustainable development and as part of the global security system. The author attempts to reveal the mechanisms and principles that define the effect of migration security upon the political and social stability of the countries in the period of migration crisis. The role actors in achieving sustainable development through the discourse of global security is determined. For solving the set tasks, the article employs comparative and systematic approaches. The key factors of the global security system are identified. An assessment is given to migration processes and their impact upon the goals of sustainable development. The author carries out the analysis of the current European migration policy. The relevance and novelty of this article are substantiated by the the philosophical discourse of migration security and synergy, encompassing the global social security system; whereas this question has been previously studied with focus on the legal, demographic, ethnic, or economic aspects. Analysis is also conducted on the the stage-by-stage mechanisms of migration security implemented by the political regimes of majority of the developed democratic countries. Description is given to the three-tier system of interaction of agents in implementation of migration security. The author examines the content and attitude towards migrants in the EU border countries, and the impact of structural violence in society within the “own/alien” discourse. An alternate solution for solving the dilemma of social tension and retaining  the “thread of governance” in the question of mobility of the citizens is offered. The analysis is given to the Global Compact for Migration, its capabilities, and shortcomings. The author also provides a philosophical understanding of migration security.
Lapatin V.A. - Phenomenological reduction of E. Husserl through the prism of Buddhist meditation pp. 81-93


Abstract: The subject of this research is the method of phenomenological reduction developed by E. Husserl. The article examines the difficulties faced by this method, as well as observes the reception of Husserl’s ideas by the adherents of phenomenology in the XX century. It is substantiated that the phenomenological reduction is unrealizable by theoretical means due to impossibility to comply in the with the initial requirements of directness and non-prerequisiteness in the verbal expression. At the same time, the author proves that the phenomenological reduction could be implemented as a practice. Buddhist meditation is taken as an example. The goal is set to examine the phenomenological reduction through the prism of meditative practice. The research methodology is based on the comparative study of phenomenological and Buddhist philosophy with regards to the subject matter. The scientific novelty lies in examination of the problem of implementation of phenomenological reduction in the context of a completely different, non-Western tradition. The analysis demonstrates that Buddhism and phenomenology, proceeding from similar ideological prerequisites and studying the same subject, come to the markedly different conclusions. The examination of meditative practice indicated the differences between the phenomenology and Buddhism in their interpretation of the problem of consciousness. The fundamental difference pertains to the problem of “Self”: Buddhism does not recognize the apodictic evidence of the empirical and transcendental ego. This opinion is grounded on observation of the variable nature of the mind in the process of meditation. Other differences considered in this article consists in the discrepancy between the phenomenology and Buddhism regarding the interpretation of such concepts as “intentionality” and “ideation”.
Philosophy of law
Suslov A.V. - Human rights and freedoms as an object of philosophical reflection: from classical origins to nonclassical perspectives pp. 94-104


Abstract: The object of this research is human rights and freedoms as a unique social and cultural phenomenon, and the highest value of the society. The subject of this research is the classification and genesis of human rights, and changes therein in light of the recent scientific achievements and global transformations taking place in socioeconomic, political, and cultural life. The article examines different approaches of modern science towards classification of human rights, analyzes the origins and evolution of the institution of human rights and freedoms based on the generational approach, as well as their development prospects in the current context. The author underlines that the set of human rights of the first three generations, embodies in the international documents and constitutional practice of majority of the democratic countries, cannot be considered exhaustive, and there is potential for their extension due to the emergence of new types of rights, as well as advancement of the mechanisms for their enforcement. The author familiarizes the audience with the ideas that underlie the forming fourth and fifth generation, including the little-known opinion of a remarkable legal expert Sergei Iventiev, The conclusion is made that the current stage of evolution of the institution of rights and freedoms largely depends on protection of the spiritual and moral values of the individual and society.
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