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MAIN PAGE > Journal "Philosophical Thought" > Contents of Issue № 03/2015
Contents of Issue № 03/2015
Ontology: being and nihility
Faritov V.T. - Discourse and transgression. Prospects of ontological research pp. 1-9

DOI:
10.7256/2409-8728.2015.3.14919

Abstract: The subject of the present article is to study the phenomenon of discourse in terms of conceptual developments of modern non-classical ontology. The author examines the main trends, problems and prospects of the philosophical concept of discourse studies. On the one hand, affect the basic problems of ontology, such as being and consciousness, thought and reality. Offers solutions to these problems within the framework of philosophical discourse theory. On the other hand, considers the prospects of integration into the philosophical discourse theory of conceptual development of non-classical philosophy. In this vein, special attention is paid to the phenomenon of transgression as a way to neutralize the borders existentially-semantic certainty discourse. Used methodical arsenal developed non-classical philosophical and socio-humanitarian thought. Partially used and methodological orientations hermeneutical poststructuralist approaches. The main conclusion of the study is the thesis about the formation of a modern ontology new research paradigm - a philosophical theory of discourse. The discourse is presented as an ontological phenomenon, which removes the basic opposition of classical metaphysics, such as being and consciousness, language and reality. A significant finding is the conclusion of transgression as a special way of being and of sense, can overcome the power of discourse prospects.
History of ideas and teachings
Medova A.A., Naumov O.D. - From the History of the Concept of Differences: Scholastic Stage pp. 10-19

DOI:
10.7256/2409-8728.2015.3.14838

Abstract: The object of the study in this article supports one of the key concepts of modern philosophy - the idea of differences that is traditionally opposed to the idea of identity. This opposition is expressed in the opposition of the two major traditions of European philosophy: postmetaphysical modern philosophy and classical metaphysical philosophy. The subject of the research in this article is one of the historical stages of development of the idea of differences, the period of medieval scholastic philosophy. In particular, the authors analyze the ideas of John Duns Scotus and Richard of Middletown. The ideas of differences represented in the works of scholastic philosophers are being viewed from the perspective of the modal theory. The authors also refer to the ideas introduced by representatives of modern philosophies such as genology and Russian neo all-encompassing entity. The main results of the study include categorical analysis of the concept of differences in the discourse of medieval scholastic philosophy involving a detailed classification of differences. Thus, the novelty of the research is caused by the fact that based on the analysis of scholastic texts, the authors have proposed and substantiated the idea that the idea of differences refers to the actual existence of many differences. In other words, the difference in nature varies. Thus, the traditional history of the European philosophical dispute between difference and identity, the One and the Much, can be viewed from a new angle - the position of the modal theory interpreting these principles as mutually complementary ontological and epistemological principles. 
Philosophy of science
Belyaev V.A. - "The Third Scientific Picture of the World" and Transystem Orientation of Modernism pp. 20-76

DOI:
10.7256/2409-8728.2015.3.14866

Abstract: This paper is an attempt to consider one of the areas of post-modern philosophy of technology called 'technetics' by its author B. I. Kudrin. The so-called "third scientific picture of the world" is formed within the framework of this direction. Technetics and the third scientific picture of the world are considered by the author in the context of the overall logic of modernism (modern European culture) on the basis of the project-system approach: first, that modern thinking as the world project (or projects); secondly, we must think of these projects as answers to a certain system of life challenges; third, we must see in these projects primarily anthropological content. Following the logic design system approach, the author considers the general idea of "nature" that emerged in early modernism as a projection of an "open universe" on the reality on the other side of the person. This view is expressed in a classical scientific worldview called "the first scientific picture" by Kudrin. Between Kudrin's "third picture" which is a way of going beyond the "system" of the organization of humanity and of the universe and "the first picture" there is "the second picture" in which this system organization and thematised. This paper shows how the formation of the logic of modernism reflected, among other things, in the aforesaid three "scientific pictures of the world". The author also shows the immediate context of the formation of the "third picture".
Philosophy of religion
Zhirtueva N. - Diversity of Mystic Love in World Religious Traditions pp. 77-111

DOI:
10.7256/2409-8728.2015.3.14813

Abstract: This article studies love as a method of mystic psychopractice. Thematic justification of mystic experience is caused by recessionary events in contemporary culture. Love is discussed as one of essential conditions of a human psychic life transformation as a passage from overcoming egocentric consciousness to enlightened. There are definite differences in understanding of love essence in different mystic traditions of the East and the West. Special aspects of formation of varied traditions depend on the solution of the two questions: 1. Essence of absolute reality. 2. Correlation of the material origin and spirituality in mystic practice.Methodology of the study: comparative philosophical and religious analysis. The main method of the study: comparative analysis. General scientific methods: analysis, synthesis, generalization, individualization.The following conclusions are drawn as a result of the undertaken study. Love contributes to transformation of adept's consciousness and is a meditative contemplation of the Absolute in immanent mystic. There are the following variants of understanding the essence of love. 1. Love to true “Self” of a person, i.e. the immanent Absolute. 2. Absolute dedication and devotion to the Absolute. 3. Sympathy, loving kindness and contribution in enlightenment. 4. Sexual psychopractice that helps a man and a woman to reach enlightenment together. In transcendent immanent traditions love contributes to transformation of imperfect personality after the image and likeness of perfect God. Connectition is supposed to be between the carnal and the divine, male and female, but each of them saves their essence without dissolving in each other. Love gradually transforms into pray. Erotic love is one of the ways to form an integral person.
Phenomenology
Dubovitskii V.V. - Husserl's and Sartre's Phenomenology of Imagination in Terms of Ontology and Aesthetics pp. 112-150

DOI:
10.7256/2409-8728.2015.3.14696

Abstract: On the basis of a detailed analysis of a number of key provisions of the phenomenology of imagination of Edmund Husserl and Jean-Paul Sartre this article identifies ways to apply these concepts to phenomenological ontology and aesthetics. In particular, on the basis of these concepts and by the example of the theme of the geometric structure as an aesthetic phenomenon (the case study of the minimalist sculpture) one possible direction of phenomenological investigation of the essence of the aesthetic imagination is planned. In connection with the theme of imagination the article focuses on the Husserl's ideation concept. Husserl believed that it was the imagination which opened up many horizons of essential knowledge. This Husserl's concept is illustrated by the author by the example of the essential terms of the discretion of the phenomenon. In his research Dubovitsky uses the methods of phenomenological description, eidetic intuition and a number of other aspects of the phenomenological method. In Sartre's imagination theory the relationship between an image and the world is viewed as that the image is not having any place in the world and therefoe is reduced to the situation of being - in - the world, and this situation is the place "from" which imagination develops. Based on this key point of Sartre's theory Dubovitsky makes an assumption about the possibility to emphasize a phenomenological imagination study from the phenomenology of "pure" consciousness of Husserl as well as phenomenological ontology in the version of Sartre to the phenomenological ontology of Dasein (represented in the analyst of human existence by M. Heidegger) and to think an image and imagination in the phenomenological ontology in terms of space, vastness, place and the world. This reemphasis (its premise, as mentioned above, is contained in Sartre's theory of the imagination) must overcome rigid opposition and confrontation of the world and consciousness within the confines of the phenomenological study of the imagination which is the determining factor in Sartre's concept.
Philosophical anthropology
Spektor D.M. - Ontogenesis. Lev Vygotsky's Doctrine in Terms of Ontology pp. 151-220

DOI:
10.7256/2409-8728.2015.3.14757

Abstract: Lev Vygotsky's ideas that made revolution in psychology set reference points and focus on the most essential understanding of ontogenesis. In the present article ontologic aspects of his position are considered, first of all, the beginnings, in particular, the "the magic stage" and its biological and cultural definitions. This magic given to communication with real circumstances of development opens the hidden roots of culture, allows to distinguish cultural development and socialization and to outline the mechanism of their interaction. The magic of the childhood is presented by the H+ function (the added intention); this is a certain regular (and partly regulated) arising force realizing intentions. The magic of infancy appears in the form of an ego > (the Other - the Intermediary) > a subject (the Other). Due to the conducted research further ontologic study of ideas of development in connection with the beginning of ontogenesis should be made; "the way through the other" has to be pulled integrally together with "the way through the Sign - Tool"; in transition from the Other as the Intermediary to the Other as the intermediary ideal, in transitions from the Other as a personification (a community of people) to the Other as a representation of subject communities (essence, being, sense), consists in research of logic of the "magic increments" put in the motivation basis, according to the author, new opportunities of understanding of ontogenesis.
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