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Agricultural complex
Teplyashin I.V., Bogatova E.V. - Legal innovations in the agro-industrial sector of Russia: directions of implementation
pp. 1-6

DOI:
10.7256/2453-8809.2019.3.32478

Abstract: The article considers the legal grounds of innovations in the agricultural sector of modern  Russia; the authors formulate a definition of agricultural policy which establishes static characteristics of this kind of policy, and the dynamic content of the state’s activity in the agricultural field. The authors suggest establishing the key parameters of a legal innovation as a definite system of legal means and legislative solutions meant to strengthen legal regulation in the socio-economic, political, administrative and other fields of state-legal development. The authors also emphasize the content of a legal innovation of the agricultural sector of Russia which is determined by scientific and technological, geographical and biological peculiarities of spatial development and the changes of agricultural turnover, and is based on the decisions of representative authorities mainly. The authors use the formal-legal, abstract-logical, historical-legal, and comparative-legal research methods. On the basis of the peculiarities of legal regulation in the agricultural field and the peculiarities of implementation of food safety policy in modern Russia, the authors classify legal innovations in the agro-industrial sector. The article substantiates the development of the agricultural sector with account for technical innovations, system technical transformations and consideration for the interests of Russian agricultural producers. The proposals aimed at the implementation of legal innovations in the agro-industrial sector are based on the strategy of autonomous and sustainable development of Russia’s agro-industrial complex and agricultural market.  
Syromyatnikov Y.N. - Design parameters of the rotor of a tilling and separating machine pp. 7-27

DOI:
10.7256/2453-8809.2019.2.31975

Abstract: The subject of the research is the operation process of the rotor of a tilling and separating machine which changes the structure and solidity of the cultivated soil layer according to the agricultural requirements. The author considers the design of the blade of the rotor of a tilling and separating machine. The research object is the blade of the rotor whose form allows it to rotate with a minimum expenditure of energy. The topicality of the research is determined by the fact that the theoretically justified design of the blade of the rotor of a tilling and separating machine will help improve the methods of secondary tillage aimed at the improvement of its agrotechnical characteristics with a minimum expenditure of energy. To define the value of a relative speed of a soil element movement along the blade, the author derives an equation using the method described in P.M. Vasilenko’s theory of soil particles movement along rough surfaces, but the author considers soil particles movement along the blade. The article is based on theoretical research using mechanical and mathematical modeling of working tools interaction with soil. The initial data was collected via the analysis of literary sources. The author substantiates the design of the blade of the rotor of a tilling and separating machine which guarantees its rotation with a minimum expenditure of energy owing to the lesser dispersion of soil particles and the prevention of their building-up on the separating grill. The research results can be used by constructors and specialists developing tillage tools.
Morkovkin D.E. - Analysis of foreign experience of government support for the agricultural sector and the potential of using it in Russia in the context of import substitution
pp. 9-19

DOI:
10.7256/2453-8809.2018.3.22433

Abstract: The author analyzes the global experience of government support for the agricultural sector and assesses the potential of using it in the Russian Federation in the current economic situation and the need for the import substitution strategy. The research subject is the public policy in the agricultural sector of the developed countries. The research object is the international practice of implementation of programmes and the measures of government support for the agricultural sector. Special attention is given to the most effective instruments and mechanisms of government support for the agricultural sector in different countries. The author uses the range of scientific research methods: theoretical cognition, the statistical method, the method of monographic research, comparative analysis and the graphical method. The author analyzes the agricultural sector development programmes of developed countries, defines the results of agrarian policy achieved by the majority of economically developed countries while implementing the programmes of government support for the agricultural sector. The author reveals the unidirectional flow of the content of the mechanism of the agrarian policy implementation in the countries under consideration and defines the key directions in the government support for agricultural producers: subsidies for producers, budgetary financing of common services, transfers to consumers. The author emphasizes the necessity to improve the system of government support for the Russian agricultural sector producers for the purpose of ensuring national interests, food security, raising competitive performance and adaptation of government support for Russia’s agricultural sector to international requirements and standards. The author systematizes external threats and outlines the ways of overcoming the resource restrictions of the agricultural sector development. Based on the results of the research, the author formulates the aims of the agricultural sector strategic management in the context of import substitution.
Antonova D., Kontorin A.I. - Analysis of the fundamental principles of international law impacting oil and fat products trade pp. 10-23

DOI:
10.7256/2453-8809.2020.2.33399

Abstract: There are principles and restrictions of the international trade influencing not only the export potential of the country, but also its internal market and food security. The object of research is foreign economic activity connected with the export of raw materials and processed products of the oil and fat industry. The research subject is the fundamental trade principles of the WTO which can have an impact on the volumes of export of the oil and fat industry established by the Federal project “Agricultural products export”. The authors consider trade regimes and principles common for all member-states, and the relatively recent changes in export financing. In the Russian Federation, the complex agricultural products export support system is functioning. This system is included in the National project “International cooperation and export”, and the project “Agricultural products export” is part of it. Within the federal project, various instruments of exporting agriculture producers support are used, both of financial and non-financial nature, which are implemented via various institutes for development. The key factor of the topical character of this research is the restriction of agricultural products export financing and the provision of Russia’s food security. The authors analyze tariff regulation of oil and fat products trade and formulate the variants of development of this sector.  
Syromyatnikov Y.N. - Justification of the shape of a plowshare with steering disks of a cultivating separating ripper pp. 18-29

DOI:
10.7256/2453-8809.2017.2.23150

Abstract: The research object is the process of functioning of the excavating parts of a cultivating separating ripper, which transforms the structure and the density of a soil layer in accordance with the requirements of agronomical science for the cultivated crop. This result is achieved using the coordinated interaction of passive and active excavating parts. The machine also combs out the weed. The author considers the plowshare with steering disks, which spends less energy when moving through soil and directs soil to the separator. Theoretical researches are based on mechanical and mathematical modeling of interaction of the moving parts with soil. Experimental researches are based on the sectoral methods using strain-gage instruments and the methods of multifactor experiments planning. In the result, the process of soil cultivation using disk cultivating parts has been improved, the theory of justification of the parameters of active-passive cultivating parts for the separation and pulverization of soil and been developed; the mathematic model of interaction of cultivating parts with soil with account of energy intensity rates of technological processes has been composed. The use of methods of direct variational calculation for the justification of shapes of cultivating parts of a cultivating separating ripper helps reduce energy consumption by 10-30%. 
Zhuravleva L.A. - Agroindustrial complex: problems and instigating trends pp. 22-28

DOI:
10.7256/2453-8809.2021.1.36191

Abstract: The article analyzes the current problems, functional strategies and instigating trends of the agroindustrial complex. The author describes the possible ways of solving problems and considers the prospects for the development of small-scale enterprises based on the existing government support programs for rural areas. Among the most acute problems for the successful development of farms, the author identifies the following groups of problems: 1. Economic problems: rising prices for fuels and lubricants; the volatility of the ruble exchange rate; the constant increase in tariffs for gas, electricity, fertilizers, machinery for agricultural production; the disproportion of prices of products and resources spent on their production; the lack of long-term supportive programs of preferential lending and leasing services; low level of innovation and investment activity; low level of solvency of the population; unsatisfactory state of telephone and Internet communications, roads and transport links; monopolization of sales markets by large agricultural holdings; insufficient development of marketing and logistics issues; weak image advertising of farm products and the lack of integrated marketing communications, which reduce the profitability and profitability of agricultural production. 2. Technological problems: technical and technological lagging behind the developed countries; low technological efficiency of agricultural production of peasant farms; a high degree of deterioration of the equipment and machinery. 3. Ecological problems: industrial and agricultural enterprises impacting on the environment; the inrease in land fertility; the use of pesticides leading to soil and water pollution; the lack of effective control over the quality and safety of food. 4. Social problems of rural areas: the lack of educational institutions with educational services of high quality and developed infrastructure; the lack of jobs for the adult population and youth's low interest in farming as a way of life; domestic problems. 
Sklyarenko S., Boltaevskii A.A., Pryadko I.P., Sharov V.I. - History and present of the problematics of food security pp. 27-39

DOI:
10.7256/2453-8809.2016.1.20267

Abstract: The subject of this research is the economic relations in the agroindustrial sector, the restriction in the development of which introduces the factor of food security formulated at the state level. The object of this study is the agribusiness. The authors thoroughly examine such aspects of the topic as the history and present status of the theory and practice with regards to the problematics of food security. Particular attention is paid to the analysis of the new document "Strategy of improving quality of food products until 2030", signed in July 2016 by the Prime Minister Dmitry Medvedev. The main conclusions of this work are the following: first and foremost, the strategic goals of the Russian agriculture should be based upon the provision of food security, reduction in the product cost, increase of the volume of the ecofriendly products, as well as the regional development and improving of the living standards in them. The scientific novelty of the research along with the author’s special contribution consists in the cumulative study of the question from the provision of retrospective and current conjuncture with regards to the problem of food security.
Syromyatnikov Y.N. - Ways to Reduce the Specific Pressure of Wheeled Thrusters on the Soil pp. 95-103

DOI:
10.7256/2453-8809.2017.4.26797

Abstract: The subject of the study is the ways to increase the efficiency of transport vehicle and traction vehicle with dual wheels in different modes of operation (transport, working, traction). The object of the study is the system of twin wheels with the ability to adjust the area of contact with the soil for operation in different operating modes. The state of the soil in the process of its re-consolidation by the running part of mobile agricultural machinery clearly indicates a close correlation between the change in the mechanical, technological, biological, chemical, morphological properties and economic indicators of the soil state, and, consequently, the level of environmental safety of used mobile agricultural machinery, including the composition of soil cultivating units. The research methodology is based on analysis and synthesis, generalization of practical experience, graphic representation of the information received. The urgency of the study is determined by the need to ensure environmental safety, soil conservation, increase the fertility of agricultural land in the modern world. The scientific novelty is that the use of dual wheel systems with the ability to adjust the contact area with the soil for operation in different operating modes will make it possible to abandon the use of expensive caterpillar thrusters.
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