Security Issues - rubric Person and citizen within security systems
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Person and citizen within security systems
Sekste Y.A., Markevich A.S. - Problems of establishment and development of the Institution of personal data protection in the Russian Federation: historical-legal aspect pp. 28-35


Abstract: The subject of this research is the problems emerging in the process of establishment and development of the Institution of personal data protection in the Russian Federation. Special attention is turned to the comparison of Soviet and Western models of protection of private life and personal data. The authors used interdisciplinary approach, as comprehensive and coherent understanding of socio-legal institution of personal data protection in the Russian Federation is only possible in inseparable connection with examination of peculiarities of the key historical stages in legal regulation of private life of the citizen. After dissolution of the Soviet political and legal system, the primary task of Russian law consisted in development and legal formalization of the institution of protection of human and civil rights and freedoms, first and foremost by means of restricting invasion of privacy by the state and enjoyment of personal freedom. It is concluded that the peculiarities of development of the new Russian political and legal model significantly impacted the formation of the institution of personal data protection in the Russian Federation. The authors believe that the Russian legislator and competent government branches are not always capable to manage the entire information flow of personal data; therefore, one of the priority tasks in modern Russian society is the permanent analysis and constant monitoring of the development of information technologies.
Soldatov S.K., Zinkin V.N., Dragan S.P. - Human biosafety under the conditions of intense low-frequency noise and the ways of its ensuring pp. 39-47


Abstract: The paper studies acoustic conditions and work environment at the workplaces of aviation specialists and heavy duty trucks drivers in order to reveal the peculiarities of joint effect of noise and infrasound with the purpose of developing the effective means, ways, and methods of protection against them. The simultaneous conditions of noise and infrasound at the specialists’ workplaces are considered in the article as a joint effect of the two harmful workplace factors worsening the working conditions and promoting the increase of chronic and work-related diseases. The research methodology combines the methods of hygienic studies, occupational medicine, evidentiary medicine, medical statistics, and medical acoustics. The authors conclude that under the conditions of a joint effect of noise and infrasound with the maximum spectrum in the sound range, the most frequent disease is the perceptive hearing loss (a work-related disease), and with the maximum spectrum in infrasound range – the nonspecific extracochlear pathology in the form of arterial hypertension (a work conditioned disease). The presence of frequencies of infra- and sound ranges in the spectrum of affecting noise, combined with their high level, should be taken into account when choosing the means and ways of personnel protection.
Tikhanychev O.V. - Regarding the Applied Use of Risk Models pp. 42-51


Abstract: The object of the research is the process of inter-state confrontation based on the soft power methods. The subject of the research is the methods of modelling personal risks of socio-political process participants and forecasting consequences of the use of social technologies that destabilize society as well as relevant counter measures. This is a review article that is devoted to the analysis of destructive technologies used in the process of inter-state confrontation within the soft power methods. Tikhanychev analyzes the main factors and risks considered by each individual during decision making process including those within social processes. For quantitative substantiation of these methods, the author offers to use geometric interpretaiton of probability cost estimation risk model that is practically used in technology and economics as well as by each individual in his or her decision making process subconsciously. The author analyzes behavioral patterns of models as well as possibility to influence individual's behavior through modification of these patterns. The researcher concludes that such influence is possible and describes some variants thereof. At the end of the article the researcher sets a target to develop a risk assessment model that would evaluate methods of soft power technology counteraction. 
Tikhanychev O.V. - Usage of models based on quantitative risk theory for support of decision-making on counteraction of destructive social technologies pp. 44-58


Abstract: The object of this research is the process of intergovernmental opposition based on the methods and techniques of “soft power”. The subject of this research is the modeling of personal risks of the participants of sociopolitical processes that ensure counteraction to social destabilization technologies. The article is dedicated to counteraction of destructive technologies implemented in intergovernmental opposition within the framework of “soft power”. For quantitative substantiation of the content of counteraction methods, it is proposed to apply geometrical interpretation of probability-value risk model used in technology and economics, as well as in decision-making on the subconscious level by each individual. The conducted formalization of subject area allowed describing the risk model of making decisions by a specific individual regarding the participation in protect actions. Using the methods of analysis and synthesis, the author examines the behavioral components of the model, as well as its possible effect on the behavior of potential participants of protests through modification of these components. The conclusions are made on possibility of realization of some variations of such effect. Thus, the article targets the development of model of addressing the risks to evaluate the methods of countering “soft power” techniques.
Pryadko I.P. - Relevant issues in application of environmental code in the area of maintenance and construction of urban buildings and structures pp. 48-57


Abstract: This article examines the instances of application of legal methods with regards to creation of biosphere-compatible space in the cities. The goals of this work are of descriptive and analytical nature. The author provides a review of the state of environment and geosphere shells, primarily of the lowest atmosphere layer within the cities. Analysis is conducted on the results of activity of environmental organizations, particularly the institutions rendering environmental consulting services. In the analyzed arbitration court materials, the author estimates the legal consequences of contract termination through the court for the parties – Moscow State University of Civil Engineering as a customer and private environmental consulting organization as contractor. The result of litigation between legal entities are extrapolated onto the general practice of environmental consulting developing in our country. The dispute on fulfilling the terms of contract pertinent to calculation of limits of permissible emotions in the sphere of environmental support of project documentation serves as the material for this analysis. The scientific of the proposed approach consists in viewing environmental consulting within the general system of environmental measures implemented in Russia. The conclusion is made on the need for improvement of requirements to the work of environmental consulting organizations. The author also stresses the need for cooperation between environmental organizations and representatives of civil society.
Senichenkov P.D. - Developing Opinions on Cross-Border Security by Print Media and Cinematography in 1923 - 1990 pp. 57-71


Abstract: The object of the research is the society's opinions on cross-border security. The subject of the research is the qualitative and quantitative analysis of social opinions on cross-border security during the period since 1923 till 1990 as well as particularities of their formation by the means of print media and culture. Within the framework of the research, society's opinions on cross-border security mean sensual images of cross-border realities developed through mass communication and culture. To evaluate these opinions, the author of the research has analyzed the number and quality of mass media publications as well as movies about cross-border officers. To analyze the society's opinion, the author of the article has applied historical statistical method, mathematical statistics methods and evaluation of the qualitative and quantitative influence of mass media on social groups and society in general. For the first time in the academic literature the author describes opinions and views of the society on cross-border security during a long period in history. Based on the semantic analysis of over 100 thousand publications in the Pravda Newspaper, the author describes tendencies of how cross-border security and cross-border activity were shown by the press. The results of the research demonstrate a significant dependence between society's opinions on cross-border security and security and protection of state borders. The results can be used to develop scientifically proved measures in the sphere of cross-border policy and cross-border preventive measures. 
Kukushkin Y.A., Soldatov S.K., Somov M.V., Skuratovskii N.I., Zinkin V.N., Kharitonov V.V. - Method of Ergonomic Expertise of Collective Protection Against Aircraft Noise pp. 60-73


Abstract: The subject of the study is the safe and reliable operation of the engineering and technical composition of airfields. The object of the study is the means of collective protection against aircraft noise. The authors consider examine such aspects of the topic as ensuring the proper protective and operational characteristics of collective protection equipment for the purpose of their effective operation by the engineering and technical composition of airfields. Particular attention is paid to such features of the topic as the methodological provision of ergonomic expertise as a tool for comprehensive assessment of the protective and operational characteristics of collective protection equipment. During the research methods of the theory of reliability, collection and processing of expert information, ergonomics, occupational medicine, hygiene, labor physiology, engineering psychology were used. The main conclusion of the study is that the developed methodology provides an objective ergonomic examination of collective protection against aircraft noise and can be used in selecting and testing collective protection equipment, as well as in justifying proposals for their improvement. The novelty of the study is determined by the ability to assess the effectiveness of collective protection facilities by combining objective and subjective assessments of the information characteristics of acoustic efficiency, operational and ergonomic properties.
Balashov S.M. - The state of hypnosis as the state of helplessness pp. 64-87


Abstract: The subject of the paper is the range of social relations in the sphere of criminal-legal assessment of hypnosis. The author considers the issues of influence of hypnotism on the state of the victim within the criminal law, and criminal hypnotism as a specific method of crime, paying particular attention to the definition of the condition of helplessness of the victim and the need for changes in the existing legislation for the purpose of full and correct qualification of crimes and formation of the judicial practice. The author uses the following methods: historical, legal, sociological and the method of comparative law. The novelty of this research lies in the definition of a common understanding of the essence of hypnosis which does not require other interpretations in the context of other fields of science. The main conclusions of the research are: 1) Hypnotism should be understood as a procedure, a method of immersing a person in a special psycho-physiological state, distinct from wakefulness and sleep, characterized by a temporary restriction of consciousness and inhibition of certain sections of the brain, which maintains the rapport of a hypnotized and a hypnotist. 2) To solve the mentioned problems it is appropriate to amend the Federal law "On the bases of health protection of citizens of the Russian Federation": to include the proposed understanding of hypnotism in the article 2, to include the prohibition of hypnotism except for the medical or scientific purposes in the chapter 5. 3) It is necessary to amend the resolution of the Plenum of the Supreme Court of Russia "On the court practice in murder cases (art. 105 of the Criminal Code) and "On the judicial practice in cases on crimes against sexual inviolability and sexual freedom of the person", namely to refer in their text on hypnosis as an example of the state of helplessness of the victim.
Volodin O. - Road safety as a scientific category: some issues of philosophy and theory of law pp. 66-73


Abstract: The article considers one of the most topical and complicated social phenomena of the present days – road safety. The purpose of the study is to obtain the comprehensive knowledge and didactic background for the improvement of educational materials on this subject. The author attempts to carry out categorial analysis of this phenomenon from the position of philosophy and theory of law. The research object is the nature and the characteristics of social relations arising in the process of transportation of people and cargoes by vehicles. The research subject is the legally established conditions of the process of transportation. The author applies logical and legal, and structural research methods, psychological and legal analysis, and semantic abstractions development. The author describes the safety phenomenon from socio-philosophical positions. The author concludes about the fundamental nature of the road safety phenomenon, its organic relation to the general concepts of theory of law, and law enforcement character. At the same time, the author ascertains that the best way to reveal the essence of this phenomenon is the application of cross-sectoral approach. 
Fedotova Y.G. - Prospects of implementation of social control in the interests of national security pp. 70-81


Abstract: The article discusses social control as a form of citizens participation in the guaranteeing of the national security. The characteristic of modern military threats and dangers is shown. Based on the analysis of the goals and objectives of social control and the areas of its application, the author reveals the capacities of subjects of public control in the solution of the problems of ensuring stability of the constitutional system, the country's defence capacity and state security, which may contribute to the task of bringing together the state, society and the individual for the protection of the Russian Federation, as set out in the 2014 Military Doctrine of the Russian Federation. The author uses logical, sociological, formal-legal research methods, the methods of comparative analysis and interpretation of legal norms. The author proves that in the contemporary geopolitical circumstances characterized by the use of the protest potential of the population, public control is not the source of threats, but the effective means of countering them. The article presents the arguments in favor of the feasibility of the activities of public inspectors, non-profit organizations, cartel parties and other institutions of civil society, not only in the private but also in the public interest, in particular in the field of information and social adaptation of a person, which would contribute to the protection of the constitutional system, ensuring the country's defence capacity and the security of the Russian state.
Loboda A.E. - Possibility of broadening the list of reasons for released from administrative liability for breaching the legislation on registration of citizens of the Russian Federation pp. 79-85


Abstract: The research subject is the range of legal acts regulating social relations in the sphere of household or residence registration of Russian citizens, and scientific works in this field. The research object is social relations in the sphere of household or residence registration of Russian citizens. The author considers the reasons for release from administrative liability for breaching the legislation on registration of citizens of the Russian Federation. The research methodology includes the set of traditional methods of cognition, such as the dialectical and the system methods. The author formulates the proposals about the improvement of legislation in the sphere of registration of citizens. The author proposes amendments to the legislation, which can simplify the procedure of movement of Russian citizens in the territory of Russia. The author studies the problems of release from administrative liability for living in the region of the Russian Federation without residence registration in this region. 
Tahirov Z.I., Toropov B.A. - Personal ID: principles of international registration of population and personal identification in modeling transnational terrorist and extremist networks pp. 86-103


Abstract: The research object is the states’ activities aimed at registration of the population; the research subject is the practical mechanisms of granting unique digital personal identifiers. The paper describes the theory of universal two-factor genom-dactyloscopic identification. Within this method, each person is granted a unique digital identifier. This model serves as a basis for a practical method of international registration of population based on a calculated ID. The authors consider international legal principles of personal names, and give attention to the national, regional and religious peculiarities of naming, define the problem of unification of personal names in the context of globalization and the open borders policy. The authors use the comparative-legal, problem and activity methods, analysis, abstraction, modeling, and algorithmization of processes. The problem of personal identification, in the authors’ opinion, should be solved by introducing digital personal names into the international practice – his/her individual digital and calculated identifiers. The authors develop and reason a new model of digital personal identification, formulate the authors’ hypothesis (a verbal model) and an information technology (algorithm) of granting personal identifiers, and describe some practical areas of personal IDs application. 
Markevich A.S. - Theoretical and legal analysis of foreign legislation on personal data protection in labour relationship pp. 89-98


Abstract: The research subject is the set of provisions of labour, administrative and information law and the doctrinal provisions of the corresponding legal sciences forming the institution of protection of personal data in labour relationship. The research object is the set of social relations in the sphere of protection of personal data within labour relationship. The purpose of the research is a complex and system study of the existing foreign statutory base regulating the issues of protection of the employee’s personal data, and the development of scientifically grounded proposals for the Russian legislator on the improvement of organizational and legal means of protection of personal data. The research methodology is based on the dialectical, synergetic, system and historical methods, analysis, synthesis, the comparative-legal, formal-logical, formal-legal, statistical methods, the method of analogy and modeling. The scientific novelty lies in the intersectoral character of the problem in question and its insufficient status, the attempt to scientifically interpret the essence of organizational and legal protection of personal data in labour relationship which lies behind the traditional understanding of this problem from the position of labour law. The author concludes that one of the priority tasks for the development and optimization of the corresponding Russian legislation is the analysis of the national approaches to the problem of legal regulation of personal data protection. 
Krasnyanskaya T.M., Tylets V.G. - Security myths as an element of political consciousness pp. 100-111


Abstract: The research subject is security myths considered as an element of political consciousness of an individual or a society. Security myths are understood as a subject-specified type of mythological material, which, due to its pre-reflective reasonability, guarantees uncritical assumption of values, strategies and tactics in the sphere of security. The purpose of the study is to substantiate security myths as an essential element of political consciousness, constantly reproducing conventional truths in the sphere of security, but easily adapted to the modern conditions of its provision. The authors use theoretical analysis of the problem, including the logical procedures of analysis and synthesis, specification and generalization. The authors extrapolate general provisions, which reveal the nature of the phenomena of security and myth, on the problem field created in the process of security myths studying. The authors substantiate the necessity to consider security myths as an element of political consciousness, and formulate the introduction and the essential characteristic of the set of functions (information, orientation, identification, compensation, manipulation, and mobilization) realized by the phenomenon. Theoretical constructs and generalizations can serve as a basis for applied research revealing the peculiarities of security myths in political consciousness of various types of subjects. The authors introduce a security myth category into the development of a problem field of political psychology, and substantiate its fundamental positions as an element of political consciousness. The authors conclude about the possibility to introduce a mythological problematic into the research field of political psychology. 
Yashina A.V. - Information Technology and Transformation of the Security System pp. 104-130


Abstract: Information and communication technology (ICT) used in virtually every area of life of the man and the society has become an attribute of today’s life directly affect national security and the mechanisms of providing it, which makes the analysis carried out in this article especially relevant. The author maintains that introducing ICT in every sphere of human life, on the one hand, because of the vulnerability and imperfection of computer software and information technology as well as their availability, creates serous risks and threats, both for ordinary citizens and for whole nations. At the same time, the article points out that the dissemination of democratic values results in greater importance of the matters related to the national and public security and the matters related to personal security, the safekeeping of personal data, democratic control over the government’s activities in this field. In connection with the above, n this article the author focuses her attention on studying the questions of ensuring the security of the state, the society and the person in the new information environment, and chooses the research objective of identifying the comprehensive approaches and analysis of alternative opportunities for procuring the security of the person, society and the state in the new information technology conditions of the civilization’s development. The theoretical and methodological basis for this article is formed by the conceptual provisions of the general theory of security, the theory of democracy and the works of Russian and foreign researchers into the problems of national security. As a result of this research, the author draws the conclusion that in the situation when the information component becomes one of the prevailing ones in the life of the person, society and the state and the information instruments are distributes among numerous different actors, the basis of the security system should be, on the one hand, network-centricity which becomes ad imperative of the forthcoming time and the society’s response to the challenges of the information era, and on the other hand – the formation of a new type of human who uses modern technology knowingly and responsibly.
Bukalerova L.A., Melikov F.A. - On the necessity of specification of special subjects using violence against members of the family pp. 109-119


Abstract: The authors consider penal counteraction to cruel treatment of children and all forms of violence against children. In the authors’ opinion, domestic violence is considered as a grave crime which should be treated as a separate element of aggravating circumstances. At the same time, the authors suppose that a crime committed by one member of the family against another member of the family or other person under particular circumstances can be treated as an extenuation. The authors use a set of general scientific and special methods of cognition. The methodology of the research contains the dialectical method with its requirements of objectivity, comprehensiveness, historicism and clarity of truth. Among general scientific methods the authors use the methods of analysis, synthesis, comparison and measurement. The comparative-legal method is used as a special scientific method. The authors offer the amendments to the existing qualificatory parts of articles and the introduction of new qualificatory features where it is necessary. Such amendments could not only define a special position of the family as an important social-legal institution, but also serve as an effective preventive measures in relation to other members of the family who are the potential subjects of such crimes thus providing the implementation of constitutional guarantees of protection of the family and its members. 
Vasnetsova A.S. - Patriotic education of the citizens of the Russian Federation within the system of fighting extremist and terrorist activities: federal and regional aspects. pp. 142-153


Abstract: Based upon analysis of legal, psychological, political and other special sources of literature and legal practice, the author studies the current situation in the sphere of  patriotic education of the citizens of the Russian Federation and the legal issues of its regulation.  Much attention is paid to the specific personality features of convicts, who have committed terrorist and extremist crimes, the author also provides examples of judicial and investigation practice.  The author pays attention to the connections between patriotic education of the youth and the people of the Russian Federation and the system of national security guarantees within a state, the article points out the ways to legal solutions of the existing problems in this sphere.  The author also provides an overview of the tendencies regarding patriotic education in the foreign states, and the possibilities of using their positive experience in Russia. The article may be of interest to a wide range of readers, who are interested in the issues of criminal personality, resocialization, crime prevention, legal education of citizens, and participation of citizens in guaranteeing national security of the Russian Federation.
Kirichenko O. - Atheistic education as an important factor of religious extremism prevention among youth pp. 159-171


Abstract: The subject of the research is religious roots of modern Russian extremism. The aim of the article is to prove that religion is a nutrient medium for various extremist movements. The author proves that the religious factor is one of the leading factors in ideological substantiation of extremist organizations of different types. In the latest variant of “The list of organizations recognized extremist by Russian courts” (of September 20, 2013) the amount of religious organizations is 27, that is 81,81%, and in the latest “Federal list of extremist materials” of July 26, 2013 14 materials (77,77%) have a direct or indirect relation to the religious sphere of Russian society. The author concludes that restoration of atheistic education will destroy the grounds for religious extremism. The facts, the results and the conclusions of the article can be used in educational and propagandistic work with youth. 
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