Historical informatics - rubric Databases and search systems
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MAIN PAGE > Journal "Historical informatics" > Rubric "Databases and search systems"
Databases and search systems
Bryukhanova E.A. - 1897 Census Interarchive Database: the Structure and Formation Features pp. 1-10


Abstract: The article characterizes the goals and the structure of a database which aims at accumulating data of the First  General 1897 Population Census of the Russian Empire preserved by Russian and foreign archives. The database has two basic data input and data retention modules “Archive” and “Finding Aid”. The first module realizes the idea about the hierarchical level structure preservation characteristic of archival storage system (archive – fund – series – file – document). The second module reflects the search history that is data on archival reference books, information about electronic copies of archival reference books and documents as well as their access conditions. The interarchive database is a result of archive, document and source analysis both of archival fund documents and their finding aid. The author considers the idea to create such a system based on the First General Population Census of the Russian Empire new for Russian historical studies. A user is provided with an opportunity to carry out a search (online as well) by archives, funds, files, document types as well as administrative units with account of both to historical and present day names. 
Saltseva A.D. - Analysis of the Database Formed on the Basis of Materials Collected by the Political Prisoners Aid Society Moscow Political Red Cross (1918-1922): Dynamics of Arrests and Their Causes pp. 5-23


Abstract: The article analyses prosopographic database of political prisoners in the years of the Red Terror (1918–1922). The author addresses the problems of relational database creation on the basis of the Political Prisoners Aid Society “Moscow Political Red Cross” (MPRC). The source base of the database is census papers of political prisoners collected by the MPRC legal department stored in the Russian Federation State Archive, Fund -8419. Most of them are introduced into scientific turnover for the first time. Statistical analysis of the database as well as source study analysis of census papers has been carried out. The results of analysis of arrest dynamics and the reasons for arrests are discussed as well. It is demonstrated that arrest dynamics was logical as it reflected social and political process in the years understudy (military communism regime, suppression of peasants’ revolt and attempt to centralize and arrange punitive bodies’ activity).The analysis of arrest reasons showed that most of 1918–1922 political prisoners were charged with counterrevolution, participation in the White Movement, espionage and anti-Soviet agitation.
Dmitrieva A. - Photo Documents in Research: Development of Photo Documents Database Architecture on the Basis of Researchers Query pp. 9-18


Abstract: The article studies the use of photo documents in various research practices as well as issues of involving more of these resources into research by optimizing the resource base planning. Photo documents are sources which can be used in many different research fields. They are sure to be in demand as far as multidisciplinary “visual” studies evolve.   The current methodology of representing information about photo collections in state archives does not allow one to improve the quality of research material selection.  The article aims at developing a photo documents database architecture satisfying different researchers. The research methodology includes the content analysis of published scientific materials that addressed the main research lines and goals determining researchers’ use of photo documents. The research novelty is the approach described.  As a result, photo document attributes were designed. They include not only the year of creation, the author, the place and the thematic description, but information about the document originality, its belonging to a collection, related documents, the customer of a photo document, the function and the context of photo document creation, the type and the nature of a photo. Each group of thematic attributes can be further decomposed to form the tree database structure.  The article demonstrates the decomposition of the attribute “photo nature - environment - urban environment” through several grounds proposed in current urban environment studies.  
Dmitrieva N.V. - Digital Technologies and Information Resources to Study Wars and Military Conflicts in the Russian South: Experience and Prospects pp. 11-21


Abstract: The article considers the use of digital technologies to study wars and military conflicts in the south of Russia in the 18th – 21st centuries. It analyzes the prerequisites for changing the theoretical and methodological foundations of scientific research addressing the problems indicated. Particular attention is paid to the description of the conceptual approach and the structure of the source database on the history of military clashes in the south of the country. The article provides a list of archives and funds that formed the basis of the database and also contains the description of the possibilities and prospects for its further use for research purposes to select, systematize and group sources. The analysis of information resources, in particular the existing data on memorial culture objects mapping,  made it possible to emphasize the topical necessity to map monuments dedicated to military conflicts in southern Russia. The mapping has been carried out on the basis of the database of Rostov-on-Don and Rostov region’s monuments. Its constituent elements were the information about the restoration work, the source of funding for the monument installation, its physical condition and demand. The introduction of expert interviews as a separate type of sources into the database made it possible to identify the prospects of their content analysis by means of MAXQDA software package.
Leontyeva N. - Soviet Citizens Prisoners of the USSR's NKVD/MVD Special Camps in Germany: Database Analysis pp. 12-30


Abstract: The article characterizes Soviet prisoners of NKVD/MVD special camps located in East Germany in 1945-1950. On the basis of a relational database created the author analyzes gender, age and nationality of Soviet citizens (special camp prisoners) as well as their distribution according to articles of conviction, sentences and places in the camps on the USSR's territory. The sources are documents of the fund of the special camp department stored in the State Archive of the Russian Federation. First of all, these are the so called echelon lists of convicted prisoners. The main methods of the study are database methods and technologies. They are used to structure the archival information about Soviet special camps prisoners and characterize them. Until now the studies about the history of special camps have somewhat ignored Soviet prisoners who made up a big part of the total number of prisoners since the extensive German historiography mainly have addressed Stalinist repressions against the Germans living in the Soviet zone of Germany occupation. The article concludes that with regard to Soviet prisoners special camps were a place of temporary detention and preservation of labor balance demanded by Gulag economy.
Bryukhanova E.A., Nezhentseva N.V., Chekryzhova O.I., Ivanov D.N. - A Database Built on the First 1897 Russian Empire Population Census Data: Structure and Analysis pp. 20-33


Abstract: The article presents the potential use of primary materials of the First General Census of the Russian Empire taken in 1897 for historical studies. Emphasis is laid on the composition and the structure of 1897 census materials, the database architecture as well as the technique to study nominative sources and compare aggregated and personal data. In the first part of the article the authors provide an overview of publications that contain information on the safety of 1897 census papers in Siberia. The second part of the article describes the creation and the structure of the database covering the primary materials of the First General Census of the Russian Empire taken in 1897. The third part of the article presents the main approaches to the analysis of the census data. When developing the database, the authors sought to cover the information of all census paper forms at most and preserve internal ties between them (counting sheets – “oblozhki” - census papers). Particular attention is paid to the development of an intuitive interface for all forms of data entry corresponding to census paper forms. The database mainly covers the census information for 8 cities of Tobolskaya Guberniya. The research novelty is the application of a new technique to identify personal data and analyze the census material structure which can be traced in the architecture of the 1897 census database.
Baranova E., Maslov V., Lopatin M. - Database Echelon Lists of Kaliningradskaya Oblast Immigrants (1946-1947): Architecture, Sources, Data Introduction and the First Results pp. 22-36


Abstract: This article considers some aspects related to a database covering migrants from the Russian Federation and the Belorussian Republic to Kaliningradskaya Oblast. The topicality of the study is the poor knowledge bulk related to statistics of such a large-scale migration process initiated by the Soviet Union in the middle of the 20th century which played an important role in the new region formation. It is the first time when an information resource is created that contains data from a large complex of nominative records made along the way with the mass resettlement of new residents of the region by means of train echelons. Besides the description of the source, the most typical types of its documents (echelon lists, acts on arrival and consolidated lists) are considered in detail. The authors discuss the principles to build the database and substantiate the choice in favor of the source-oriented approach. The describe the conceptual structure of the database with reference to some specific features of its logical model and the organization of the graphical user interface. The article describes how a large group of students added limited access data to the database. A preliminary analysis of the database information shows that in 1946 about 2/5 of the arriving people were unable to work (primarily due to their age). The same share, however among the heads of families, was characteristic of single people without a spouse. The absolute majority of household heads were men.
Razinkov S., Zakharovskii L.V. - Information Value of the Database Vocational Education in Sverdlovskaya Oblast (1920s-1950s) pp. 51-70


Abstract: The article describes the conceptual model and the structure of the database on the history of vocational education in Sverdlovskaya Oblast in the 1920s-1950s. The database systematizes and generalizes the main indicators of the development dynamics of vocational education in the region on the basis of a wide range of mass sources. These indicators are organizational, industrial, economical, socio-demographic and behavioral ones. Particular attention is paid to describe the database in terms of its ability to systematize, analyze and group information on the history of work training in the region that is the number of students, the employment of graduates, the dynamics of the educational institutions network, etc. The research novelty is the original structure of the database as an information product for multipurpose use which, first of all, provides for the effective systematization of primary information from various types of mass sources and the creation of a model of historical data on the vocational training system in Sverdlovskaya Oblast. The authors attempt to generalize their practice to digitize, systematize, analyze and synthesize archival vocational education data and formulate the principles to create and use the local historical database within the digital humanities context: complexity, task-orientation, integration, etc.
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