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MAIN PAGE > Journal "Historical informatics" > Contents of Issue ¹ 04/2023
Contents of Issue ¹ 04/2023
Geographic information systems and 3D reconstruction
Sokolova E.V., Petrov M.A. - Creation of an interactive map of the disappeared settlements of the Omsk region through the use of GIS technologies pp. 1-9



Abstract: The article is devoted to the study of the possibilities of using geographical information systems to study the process of forming a rural settlement network of the territory. The object of the study is the formation of a map of rural settlements of the Omsk region. The subjects of study are the disappeared villages of the Omsk region. The purpose of the study is to show the possibilities of geographical information systems for visualizing the map of disappeared villages. In the course of the work, the authors collected and digitized significant cartographic material reflecting the territory of the Omsk region within modern borders. This made it possible to study and analyze the historical traces of the disappeared villages on maps and plans. The authors consider in detail such issues as the development of an electronic map of rural settlements and an interactive map of disappeared villages, which allows to accumulate information collected from various sources, including non-traditional ones for historical science. On the basis of digitized materials using GIS technologies, a vector electronic map of the Omsk region was formed, on which the historical picture of the formation of the rural settlement network of the territory is reflected in layers. In the course of the study, the authors established the possibilities of systematization and registration of these cartographic materials into a single interactive map of the region with embedded attributive (semantic) data in the form of historical references and photographic materials. The novelty of the research lies in its interdisciplinarity: the use of modern information systems when working with traditional historical sources (cartographic materials) opens up new opportunities for researchers. The experience of developing an interactive map of disappeared villages using geographic information systems is necessary to summarize information and form a general picture of the development of the territory in certain periods of time. The practical significance of the research lies in the fact that the created interactive map allows you to preserve the history of the disappeared villages in a single systematized space, demonstrates new possibilities of historical research. The results of the work will be useful not only to the scientific community, but also to practical teachers who will be able to use the map in their professional activities and involve schoolchildren in work to refine and supplement the map data.
Databases and search systems
Kattsina T.A., Shestakov V.N., Pomazan V.A. - Descriptive statistics and visualization of historical data on charitable institutions in Eastern Siberia in the 19th century. pp. 10-29



Abstract: The article presents the potential of information technologies and descriptive statistics in solving research problems aimed at revealing the possibility of assessing the effectiveness of accumulated historical experience in such an important area as social work. The purpose of the work is to create tools for a descriptive analysis of historical data on charity institutions in Eastern Siberia XIX century. The methods of research are: data previously collected from diverse archival sources; descriptive statistics in the form of contingency tables and diagrams. The article presents visualized generalized data that allows one to evaluate and interpret the volume, structure and dynamics of charitable assistance in XIX century Eastern Siberia. The subject of the research is institutions of public charity in Eastern Siberia in the 19th century. The novelty and value of the research lies in the original structure of the database, the purpose of which is to systematize and summarize the main characteristics (organizational, financial, socio-demographic) of charitable institutions in their dynamic development and based on a wide range of written sources: office documentation; reference and statistical materials; annals. The specifics of the source base and the goals of the study determined the use of an interdisciplinary approach, which was built primarily on the basis of a synthesis of historical, sociological and information knowledge. Using methods, descriptive statistics and visualization of historical data, the capabilities of the database for systematization, analysis, synthesis and grouping of information are characterized. The study contributes to the elimination of territorial and problematic imbalances in the study of the network of charitable institutions in the Russian Empire, ensures effective systematization of primary information into a database, which is an information product of multi-purpose use, the structure of which is not related to the structure of source documents, and its value as an integral source lies in the subordination content of a specific research problem.
New methods and techniques of processing historical sources
Semenov A.S., Kabaev D.A., Chernyaeva L.L., Chernov S.Z., Goncharova N.N. - Archaeological DNA data of the XII century from ancient Klyazma settlements. Part 2 pp. 30-36



Abstract: The paper describes the results of determining the haplogroups of two ancient burials of the 12th century from the middle reaches of the Klyazma. The data obtained make it possible to determine the Y-haplogroup and mitohaplogroup using the markers identified in the study. The article describes the using of bioinformatics methods and the result obtained. The result with a high probability determines the Y-haplogroup I1-Z58 of burial No. 26 and the mitochondrial haplogroup H1-146C (highly probable, H1m1) of burial No. 25. This work summarizes the initial stage of research undertaken in 2019-2020, and continued in other works by the team of authors. Some of the results have been published; mitoDNA from burial No. 25 is published for the first time and completes the series of DNA data from the described group of burials from ancient Klyazma settlements, published by the authors earlier. Modern technologies make it possible to extract DNA and test it using various methods, including determination of the Y-chromosome haplogroup and mitochondrial DNA. The article presents the results of the study conducted in 2019-2020 years. The first evidence of the presence of mitochondrial haplogroup H1-146C (burial No. 25) and Y-haplogroup I1-Z58 (burial No. 26) among the Klyazma population of North-Eastern Russia in the 12th century not only confirms the presence of Y-haplogroup H1 in medieval Russian lands (inhabited descendants of the Eastern Slavs), but also indicates that some genetic unity with the western parts of the Slavic area might exist that time.
Razinkov S.L. - The experience of creating a database "The photographic images of students of educational institutions of the State labor reserves of the Sverdlovsk region (1940s-50s)" pp. 37-51



Abstract: The purpose of the database is to reconstruct the "ceremonial" and "non-official" portraits of students of state labor reserves (using the example of visual images of students of educational institutions of the Sverdlovsk region in the 1940s and 50s). The analysis of the information contained in the database will in the future allow answering a number of research questions and identify important characteristics of the visual image and social portrait of students: types of activities, including various aspects of work and educational activities, "bodily activity" of students; acts of human interaction and non-verbal communication (gestures, facial expressions, body poses, etc.); objects of material culture used; everyday stereotypes of behavior reconstructed through a series of photographs; "atypical experience", description of deviant groups of students, irregular clothes, atypical behavior. When creating the database, the concepts of visual images in L.N. Mazur's historical research, D. Zeitlin's digitalization of visual anthropology, G. Kreidlin's nonverbal semiotics, and K. Girtz's "dense description" were taken into account. The results of the study are: 1) development and description of the database structure that allows taking into account the features of visual sources aimed at reconstructing the "ceremonial" and "non-official" portraits of students of educational institutions of the Sverdlovsk region in the 1940s and 50s through a detailed description of the poses, gestures, visual behavior, spatial interaction, clothes and shoes of the persons depicted in the photo; 2) primary analysis of 145 photographs from the official albums of 4 educational institutions devoted to the description of the results of their participation in the All-Union Socialist Competition in 1943-1945; 3) more accurate identification and systematization of external behavioral practices of students based on the database; 4) demonstration of the possibilities of detailed description of images by means of the database to identify individual sides of the "non-official portrait" of students. The results of the study can be used in the study of everyday life and socio-cultural portrait of students in the Soviet period.
Editor-in-Chief's column
Borodkin L. - "Efficiency in science is first of all fundamentality": a quantitative history through the prism of the personal archive of Academician I.D. Kovalchenko pp. 52-67



Abstract: The year 2023 marks the 100th anniversary of the birth of academician I.D. Kovalchenko, an outstanding Soviet and Russian historian. This article is devoted to important aspects of his academic and organizational activities in the field of application of mathematical methods and computers in historical research. This is a look through the prism of the academician's personal archive. The article describes the discussion on the problems of modeling historical processes and phenomena, in which academician I.D. Kovalchenko participated, and also reveals his position on the analysis of alternatives to the historical process. As the main example of an alternative historical situation analyzed by I.D. Kovalchenko, the "Great Turning Point" is considered, the end of the 1920s. Bukharin's alternative is considered as actually existing. The materials of Academician Kovalchenko's personal archive clearly demonstrate his conviction that the application of mathematical methods in historical research is not a "purely technical" task, he formulates a number of methodological issues that arise in this kind of interdisciplinary research. The materials of the academician's personal archive reveal an important feature of his research – attention to the correctness of the using mathematical and statistical methods. While working on his doctoral dissertation, he tested its methodology at a seminar of the specialized Department of the Faculty of Mathematics of Moscow State University. The work on the monograph (jointly with L.V.Milov) on the formation of the All-Russian agricultural market gave rise to correspondence with N.S. Chetverikov, a famous Soviet and Russian statistician of the Chuprov school, who developed, in particular, mathematical methods for analyzing dynamic series. In this correspondence, controversial issues of statistical methodology were clarified. Quantitative history, the founder of which in Russia is academician I.D. Kovalchenko, is again an urgent trend today. In the 21st century, there has been an actual increase in interest in Data Science, the traditional core of which is statistical methods.
Quantitative history
Garskova I.M. - Dynamics of monetary part of wages and differentiation of workers' and employees' wages in the first half of the 1920s pp. 68-95



Abstract: One of the most important issues in the study of inequality in the twenties of the twentieth century of the Soviet government is the dynamics of differentiation of wages of workers and employees as one of the most important indicators. The subject of the study is the dynamics of the monetary and natural part of wages in the first half of the 1920s based on the materials of a set of statistical sources. The specificity of this period is that during the years of the civil war and war communism, monetary wages did not play a significant role. The problem of wage differentiation at the beginning of the recovery period practically does not relate to the monetary part of the salary, since the subsistence minimum was provided by in-kind payments, namely, rations, which played rather the role of a "social benefit", equalizing and independent of the quantity and quality of labor. The paper analyzes the differentiation of workers' salaries in the first half of the 1920s, and estimates its monetary part using a set of statistical methods. The dynamics of average salary values in general and for individual industries, the ratio of maximum to minimum wages for individual periods are analyzed, and more complex methods of measuring inequality are used. The main results are the characterization of the role of monetary wages in the process of transition from almost complete naturalization and the dominance of equalization to the restoration of the role of wages as a means of motivating work, increasing its productivity and, consequently, the standard of living of workers. A turbulent period of a fairly rapid and disordered transition process to a reduction and cancellation of in-kind payments and a return to normal principles of remuneration has been revealed. A comparison of the dynamics of natural and real wages in regional and sectoral aspects, for capitals and peripheries; for industrial workers and employees, as well as for co-workers; shows the possibilities of statistical processing and data analysis, including, in addition to descriptive statistics methods, approaches such as calculating decile coefficients and the Gini index.
Borodkin L. - Differentiation of wages in the Ural industry: on the way to the “Great Turning Point” pp. 96-103



Abstract: Regulating wages in the state industry was an important socio-economic task during the NEP years. The general direction of this regulation can be characterized by an leveling trend, which was initiated and supported by trade unions. At the same time, enterprises sought to achieve a certain differentiation of employee's wages in order to maintain the required level of labor incentives. The implementation of this policy in the Urals had some peculiarities. Thus, the wages of Ural workers were on average noticeably lower than in the industrialized areas of the center of the country. The article provides examples of protests by various layers of workers in the Urals regarding the course towards “leveling”. The characteristics of the tariff reform of 1928 are given. The article sets the task of assessing changes in the level of differentiation of wages for industrial workers in the Urals during the years of the “late NEP”. The measurement of differentiation and wage inequality is carried out in the article using the decile coefficient and the Gini index. The article shows that carried out in the 1920s the policy of equalizing workers' wages was not only proclaimed in governing documents, but was also implemented, in this case, in the Ural industry. Measurements carried out using various methods confirm a decrease in the degree of differentiation of wages for workers in the Urals at the final stage of the NEP. At the same time, the gap in wages between blue-collar workers and industrial employees was significant and showed a tendency to further increase. However, after a couple of years, the policy of leveling wages was decisively condemned. The authorities claimed exiting tariff scales represented the “cultivation of petty-bourgeois egalitarianism” and hampered the stimulation of raising the qualifications of workers.
Artificial Intelligence and Data Science
Orekhov B.V. - Text and knowledge in the aspect of large language models pp. 104-113



Abstract: The focus of this text is on the influence of large linguistic models on the self-determination of the humanities. Large language models are able to generate plausible texts. It seems that they thus become on a par with other tools that, throughout the development of technology have freed people from routine. At the same time, for the humanities, the individualization of the generated texts is very great, and knowledge itself is closely related to its textual embodiment. If we agree that knowledge is a text, and embodied in another text, another knowledge appears before us, then humanities will have to answer the question of how a text generated by a person differs in value from the same text generated by a machine. The text of the work raises methodological and epistemological problems of the correlation of texts of natural and artificial origin if they are made in the genre of a scientific work. The difference between such artifacts is clearly visible only for some scientific disciplines, and raises questions about the rest. These issues should be resolved with the help of deep reflection, which was not so urgently needed in the last centuries of the development of the humanities, but which is now required from a humanitarian scientist. The humanitarian will have to explicitly oppose himself to large language models and prove the importance of his work compared to what a neural network can generate.
Historical process modeling
Shpirko S. - Application of variation modeling to reconstruct the size of the medieval rural population (using the example of the Pskov land in the middle of the 16th century) pp. 114-133



Abstract: As part of an interdisciplinary approach, historians are increasingly using the ideas and methods of the mathematical sciences in their research. This, for example, arises in reconstruction problems from the field of historical geography, when the initial data is insufficient for traditional analysis. The subject of this study is to model the system of spatial distribution of the medieval population and demonstrate its results using a specific example. To take into account the condition of territory heterogeneity during modeling, the author develops a variational approach proposed by S.M. Huseyn-Zade. Using the methods of the calculus of variations and Pareto optimality within the framework of this approach makes it possible to identify and numerically describe the relationships between the optimal parameters of the system. To solve this problem of reconstruction, a model of a two-level hierarchy of placement of centers was previously proposed. Its approbation on the material of the scribal description of the Shelonskaya Pyatina of the Novgorod land at the end of the 15th century showed a high degree of correlation between real and theoretical data. The first surviving scribal description of the Pskov lands dates back to the second half of the 80s XVI century. It records a huge mass of abandoned lands as a result of the Livonian War. To assess the scale of this crisis, we first need data on the size of the rural population in the previous period of time. Unfortunately, the scribal description of the mid-16th century, which is closest to it in time, has not survived. However, the above-mentioned first surviving scribal description contains retrospective information about an earlier time, which makes it possible to apply the modeling results to solve the desired reconstruction problem, which is novel.
Geographic information systems and 3D reconstruction
Bogdanov V.O., Lagutkina E.V. - Territorial and administrative division of the left bank of the Volga River (side of Prince Fedor Borisovich) of the Rzheva Volodimerova district in the first quarter of the XVII century.: application of GIS technologies. pp. 134-149



Abstract: The object of the study is the volosts and camps of the left bank of the Volga River (half of Prince Fyodor Borisovich) of the Rzhev Volodimerov district in the first quarter of the XVII century. The main source in this work is the scribal and boundary book of Rzheva Volodimerova "Prince Fedorov's sides of Borisovich" letters and measures of Leonty Skobeltsyn and the clerk Makar Chukarin 1624-1625. In total, the source provides information on 2,691 toponyms. The subject of the study included the localization and characteristics of the geography of the volosts, the allocation of "assigned" ones from other counties among them, the identification of the causes and chronology of their entry into the Rzhev Volodimerov county, the study of the dynamics of the development of the territory of the county from the end of the XV century to the 1620s. The work was carried out using geoinformation technologies based on the methodology of localization of toponyms of scribal description with using sources of the XVIII-XIX centuries. The use of geoinformation technologies in the work on the continuous localization of toponyms of the scribal description of the county allowed us to get a more detailed idea of the location of the administrative boundaries of volosts and camps. Such a feature of the territorial organization of the county as the interlaced location of the lands of a number of volosts and camps has been revealed. The vagueness of some internal boundaries of the county is a reflection of the instability of its territorial organization, due to the dynamics of population and land ownership during the XVI-XVII centuries. Among the causes of this phenomenon are border conflicts, oprichnina, and ruin during the period of Troubles. The work with the assembly material allowed us to establish the key role of the oprichnina in increasing the size of the territory of the county in the second half of the XVI century. Thus, the results obtained became the basis not only for clarifying the boundaries of the county of the XVII century, but also for their formation in historical dynamics during the late XV – XVI centuries.
Dvoretskaya A.P., Pikov N.O., Slabukha A.V., Mekhovskii V.A. - The sacred space of the Yenisei North in virtual projects pp. 150-166



Abstract: The historical and cultural heritage of the Yenisei North has been formed over several centuries. The article provides recommendations on the use of new methods related to the graphic, digital reconstruction of unique sacred objects of Russian old-timers of the Yenisei North. The novelty of the research lies in the fact that the article for the first time analyzes the results of research and design work with cultural heritage, its presentation by means of 3D modeling and the creation of virtual tours of the Siberian Federal University, since 2009. The author's developments on modeling the lost objects of Yeniseisk and the Lower Angara region, prepared on the basis of photographic documents and scientific and technical information, are analyzed. The information potential of panoramic photography of more than 20 objects of religious heritage of the Yenisei North, the territory of the primary settlement of Russians in Eastern Siberia is revealed.  Using the example of the information system of the Siberian Federal University "SACRA", developed by the authors, a classification description of objects and methods for providing distributed access to data on sacred objects to representatives of the professional community and a wide audience are proposed. It is concluded that such a digital platform allows to reveal the cultural potential of the Yenisei North, expands the possibilities of branding the territory, promotes the popularization of the historical and cultural heritage of the most remote territories, and increases historical knowledge about individual objects. New digital technologies make it possible to create aesthetically outstanding visualizations while preserving the historical authenticity of the reconstructed objects. In addition, it remains possible to introduce interactive technologies and publish virtual reconstruction on the Internet. The created virtual "product" has the possibility of long-term improvement, it is designed for development, expansion and possible correction.As new sources, historical information, artifacts are revealed, as well as new technological opportunities appear, the already created digital complex of the sacred space of the Yenisei North will receive both updated content and an updated creative form of presentation.
Chronicles of scientific life
Volodin A.U. - “Digital Humanities-2023” in Graz live: ideas, methods and pumpkin seed oil pp. 167-175



Abstract: The article presents the observations of a live participant of the “Digital Humanities -2023”, held in Graz, Austria in the summer of 2023. The “Digital Humanities” Congress is held annually by the Alliance of Digital Humanities Organizations (ADHO). Digital Humanities (DH) are at the intersection of computing or digital technologies and the disciplines of the humanities. It involves the development and use of digital resources and methods in the humanities, as well as the analysis of their application. DH scholarship means collaborative, transdisciplinary, and computationally engaged research, teaching, and publishing. The annual ADHO Conference on Digital Humanities is the central and largest event of the international Digital Humanities community and brings together scholars from around the world, providing them with a unique opportunity to exchange ideas and research results, and to promote future collaboration. Particular attention is paid to historical issues presented at the congress, both in workshops and at section meetings and poster presentations. Statistical observations are presented, and a frequency analysis of the occurrence of keywords is carried out. The main conclusion of the study is the observed trend towards an increase in historical reports, posters and workshops. A noticeable increase in interest in historical sources, historical databases and geographic information systems, and virtual reconstruction of the past using a wide range of digital humanities research tools is noticeable (in comparison with the programs and publications of past Digital Humanities congresses). The 2023 conference theme, “Collaboration as an Opportunity,” is about the transdisciplinary and transnational collaboration, showing how increased cross-national collaboration—across continents and geopolitical locations—can transform regional knowledge hubs into international networks of excellence in research for the benefit of the global digital humanities community. Historians have firmly taken their place in contemporary digital humanities research.
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