Genesis: Historical research - rubric Historical memory
Genesis: Historical research
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MAIN PAGE > Journal "Genesis: Historical research" > Rubric "Historical memory"
Historical memory
Lyutov E.E. - Course and peculiarities of the military engagement in foothills of Krymsk, Abinsk, and Novorossiysk districts of Krasnodar Krai during the period of August 18, 1942 September 20, 1943 pp. 15-24


Abstract: The object of this research is the battle of the Caucasus that as one of the largest in scale and military-political significance battles of the Great Patriotic War. The subject of this research is the character and course of the military engagement in foothills of Krymsk, Abinsk, and Novorossiysk districts of Krasnodar Krai over the period of 1942-1943. The chronological framework of the article capture the period from August 18, 1942 until September 20, 1943, as well as include the defensive (August 18 – December 31 of 1942) and offensive (January 1 – September 20 of 1943) periods of the military engagement of Soviet troops. The scientific novelty consists in the detailed examination of the insignificantly studied direction in the context of the battle of the Caucasus as a whole, and Novorossiysk defensive operation in particular. The article presents the key episodes of military actions of the defensive and offensive periods, as well as gives description to the regions and coordinates where it took place. The author determines the main positive and negative moments of the impact of human factor and natural conditions upon the success of the military operations of Soviet troops in the claimed time frame. The materials of this work are relevant for implementation in the educational process of the universities of Krasnodar Krai for general and specialized lectures on the Russian History, Kuban studies, and other adjacent disciplines.
Timshina E.L. - Looking back at the past: image of the Soviet Union in the politics of memory the parties (by the example of materials of elections to the State Duma of the Russian Federation of the VI and VII convocations) pp. 37-52


Abstract: Almost three decades have passed since the dissolution of the Soviet Union; however, there is still no unity towards its history – various political actors interpret it differently. Analysis is conducted on the politics of memory of the parties that participated in the last two election campaigns in reference to the Soviet period. The goal of article is to determine the parties with own politics of memory; assess the attitude of the political parties on the Soviet history as a whole and isolated key events; as well as describe experience of using the politics of memory in electoral cycle. The opposition parties – the CPRF, LDPR, Yabloko, PARNAS, and the Communists of Russia – most actively referred to the politics of memory. The center of political attention became the history of the Soviet period, to which different approaches were applied. The liberal parties criticized the USSR and advocated decommunization, while the left-wing parties notices only positive aspects in the Soviet history. The LDPR offered to separate the attitude towards the Soviet regime, and the attitude towards the state. Although the political parties have not fully fulfilled their potential as the actors of the politics of memory, the development of the own strategies of interpretation of history is traced clearly. The politics of memory may evolve into a separate vector of major party politics.
Bozhok N.S. - Images of the past in the festivals of cultural-historical reconstruction pp. 44-61


Abstract: The object of this research is images of the past, actualized in the festival practices of cultural-historical reconstruction. The subject of this research is the mechanisms of formation and strategies of representation of images of the past in the festivals of cultural-historical reconstruction. It is noted that the author views festival as the representative of the more general phenomenon –  cultural-historical reconstruction, an integral interpretation of which allows embracing the variety of nonacademic practices aimed at studying and most accurate reconstruction of the material and spiritual culture of the past, preservation, actualization, representation and conveyance of cultural-historical values. In the context of commemorative practices of reconstruction, arrangement and representation of images of the past is conducted “intentionally, collectively and adapted for stage”. Relevance of the selected topic is defined by the fact that the reenactment movement becomes an increasingly meaningful actor in commemorative space of modern Russia, which significantly affects the formation of consensual images of the past. From theoretical and methodological perspective, the conducted analysis is based on the conceptual approaches presented in the Russian historical-culturological research on imagery. Internet resources, such as websites and forums of reenactors, social networks, and online media, served as the empirical foundation for this research. In the course of preparation and execution of cultural-historical reconstructions, the author employed quantitative and qualitative methods, including of thorough overt observation. As a result of the conducted analysis, the author determines specificity of the mechanisms for creating authentic images of the past and strategies for revealing collective representations on the past in the festivals of cultural-historical reconstruction, which have a positive impact upon ordinary consciousness.
Tinyakova E.A. - How the sorrow and joy reflect the historical moods in Russian traditional folk culture pp. 69-83


Abstract: The object of this research is the historical moods that can be captured and sensed in various forms of the Russian traditional culture, mostly in storytelling and folk songs. Sorrow and joy are the two opposite historical moods, multipliable in their variations. The context of the Russian traditional culture is aimed at mass historical consciousness in presentation and capturing of the events and personalities. The research rises a question: how the mentality of the Russian traditional population was affected by the lengthy serfdom; how does the folk culture reflect the living conditions of the people during serfdom; is serfdom is the only primary cause of the polarity of historical mentality of the collective consciousness. The methodology of this research refers to the use of the archive source of Kursk governorate, because it contains bright illustrations regarding the existence of the serfdom. This article is a part of the author’s thesis – “The Specificity of Historical Method in Perception of Personalities and Events within the Russian Traditional Folk Culture”. The historical content of the Russian traditional culture is notable by the fact that it is based on the people’s collective consciousness, which was applied during the different historical periods, in other words, sorrow and joy travel through centuries with the flow of history.
Shchuplenkov N.O. - Military traditions in the continuity of education of the younger generation in the Russian emigration pp. 77-103


Abstract: The article deals with the organization of patriotic activity in the cadet corps of the Russian abroad of 1920–1930, the role of Russian officers in the transfer of military traditions to the younger generation. The historical continuity of the Russian military education in the new historical conditions. Consolidation of the Russian diaspora in the preservation and formation of patriotic feelings. The desire of teachers and cadets not only maintain but also to enrich and expand, to give relevance and preserve for future generations the traditions and customs that existed in pre-revolutionary Russia.Retrospective method allows you to restore the historical space, against which there was a process of formation of military education in exile.The study showed that in emigration, especially when young people desperately needed in the development of patriotism and pride in the great past of the Fatherland, a military tradition, loyalty to the homeland and military duty could give them a foundation on which to build the whole person, ready to save and augment scarce resource with a Russian emigration.
Timshina E.L. - Assessment of the causes of the February Revolution in the modern party narrative pp. 94-108


Abstract: The February Revolution is one of the key events in the Russian history. Namely this event put the end to the century-long history of the Russian autocracy, and prompted an attempt of a new state structure. A century later, the attitude towards these events determines the ideological basis of multiple Russian parties existing in modern time. Within the framework of establishment of their historical policy, they proposed the original approaches towards the causes of the February Revolution. The author analyzes the perspective of modern parties on the causes of the fall of the monarchy and the advent of revolutionary disturbances. The main sources employ the official documents of the most popular parties (participants of the 2016 federal elections), speeches and publications of their leaders. The conclusion is made on the absence of uniform approach of the parties towards the causes of the revolutionary events of 1917. The author distinguishes the two groups: those who see the causes of the revolution in aggravation of socioeconomic problems; and those who perceive the revolution as coincidence that disrupted the course of history due to certain mistakes made by the government. Unlike the majority of professional historians, multiple political authors assume that the revolution was a result of conspiracy, comparing it to the “orange revolutions” of recent years. The parties also drew parallels between modernity and pre-revolutionary times. The author indicates the need for overcoming (or preventing) the gap between the government and society. as well as reducing the social stratification.
Bozhok N.S. - Commemorations of cultural-historical reconstruction in the context of network society pp. 100-117


Abstract: The relevance of this article is substantiated by the need for scientific comprehension of the versatile experience of commemorative activity of the communities united within the framework of the All-Russian Public Movement “Clubs of Historical Reconstruction of Russia”. The object of this research is the collective commemorations that accumulate various forms of culture-making memorial initiatives of the indicated movement. The subject is the transformation processes of commemorative practices of the reenactment movement in the context of network society. The goal is to determine the key vectors of transformation of commemorations of the cultural-historical reconstruction, which reflects fundamental changes in the modern memorial space in the context of network society. The author advances the opinion that major changes in the commemorative practices of reenactors are substantiated by the transition towards the project-network form of interaction with a wide circle of social actors, the cooperation with which is based on the mutually beneficial exchange of deficit resources. The novelty of this work lies in explication and empirical testing of the concept of “memorial management” ( terminology of Aleida Assmann) for articulation of the specificity of the current stage of transformation of commemorations of cultural-historical reconstructions in the context of project-network society. The new material on the public memorial initiatives in the network projects of reenactors is introduces into the scientific discourse, which allows concluding that the transformation of commemorations of cultural-historical reconstruction is a complex multi-vector process that reveals a range of multidirectional trends characteristic to the Russian memorial space. The fundamental changes in commemorative practices of reconstruction manifest in the expansion of their scientific, educational, and inclusive components.
Tribunskikh N.I., Chuprasova D. - Female images in the movies of the 2010s about the World War I pp. 109-120


Abstract: The subject of this research is the yet poorly studied topic of representation of the female images in military media sources, namely movies and TV series of the 2010s. The choice of sources is substantiated by the new approaches towards delivery of information, new characters and patterns that correspond to the modern media trends; as well as by a wide range of projects timed to the centenary of the World War I. The key tasks of this article lie in determination of the role of women and characteristics of female images in a number of movies and TV shows of the 2010s about the World War I. The author carries out a comparative analysis of reflection of the Western and Russian cinematography associated with the representations on the gender hierarchy that is seen through interaction between men and women in the material under review. The article reveals the main patterns that are most commonly used for describing the role of women in war. The conclusion is made that a certain variety of female images that have recently appeared in cinematography indicates the interest of historians and researchers dealing with memory, gender, media and visual culture. The comparative analysis of sources demonstrated that the representation of female images in movies of the 2010s about the World War I reflects a certain difference in the officially broadcasted sociocultural and ideological perception of women and their role characteristic to modern Russian and Western society. The Russian movies are oriented towards expressing the official state concept of traditional values and women's affiliation to family and the country; while Western movies create the images typical for their cultural reality, which do not neglect the role of wives and mothers, however allow the heroines to transcend family interests.
Petrova O.S. - About my defiled, beloved Russia I yearn in a foreign land: revolution and civil war in reminiscences of the countess P. S. Uvarova pp. 113-120


Abstract: This article examines the reflection of events of the period of civil war and intervention in the memoirs of the countess P. S. Uvarova “The Past. Long Gone Happy Days”. These reminiscences are the testimonies of a witness on people and events of the late XIX – early XX century that allow understanding the life of academic community from inside, the routine of professional historians and amateur regional ethnographers. On the other hand, the narrative about the last years in the native country allow viewing the everyday life of Uvarovs family in the conditions when the routine has been destroyed. Reference to the personal sources revealing the new pages and milestones of the phenomenon in question allows seeing it through the eyes of a person from the past, find out what was happening and what felt the author. The peculiarity of P. S. Uvarova’s memoirs consists in focusing not on the everyday minutiae that is common to women, but on the reasoning which purpose is to preserve and translate the representations on the core values of life that were relentlessly destroyed by the revolution to the future generations.
Sosnitskii D.A. - Educational literature as a source for developing collective memory on Russian history of the late XVIII century pp. 133-140


Abstract: The subject of this research is educational literature as a source for reconstruction of collective historical representations on Russian history in of the late XVIII century. The author analyzes the state of educational system in the Russian Empire of the second half of the XVIII century, and characterizes the measures taken by the government on formation of multibranch network of elementary and secondary educational institutions. Special attention is given to the process of creation of school textbook on Russian history with personal contribution of Catherine the Great. The conclusion is made that the second half of the XVIII century became the time of formation of first educational texts for broad audience dedicated to the history of Russia. During this period, the government order had a determining influence, and the opinion of the ruler had direct impact on the content of textbooks. Within the framework of school program, preference was given to nonconfrontational version of the past, which did not touch upon the “sore points” of national memory. The pantheon of heroes of the national memory has not yet been formed in the educational literature of the late XVIII century, and thus, the objects for research (heroes and events) slightly differ from the textbooks of the XIX – early XX centuries. Despite this fact, the school textbooks of the late XVIII century, significantly impacted the school curriculum on history and development of collective representations on the past in Russia of the XIX-early XX centuries.
Lysenkov S. - No one is forgotten, nothing is forgotten: to the question about the record of Red Armys battle losses and rendering military salute to the fallen during the Great Patriotic War pp. 144-157


Abstract: The subject of this research is the legal grounds of organization of the record of irreparable losses of Red Army’s military personnel during the Great Patriotic War. The article reveals the peculiarities of recording the killed and missed in action, dead from injuries and diseases, as well as servicemen executed by shooting under the sentence of military tribunals and taken as prisoners by the adversary. The goal of the work consists in objective analysis of the normative legal acts regulating the organization of personal record and burial of the deceased military personnel, as well as their implementation under the war circumstances. The article is first to reveal the earlier uncovered questions within the Russian juridical literature. An attempt is made to analyze the normative legal acts of the Great Patriotic War time until the present stage that are inaccessible for the broad range of scholars. The authentic archive documents are introduced into the scientific discourse. Examination of the new sources allowed the author framing a representation on a number of little-studied issues of the military reality associated with the organization of record of the irreparable losses of the acting army and rendering military salute to the fallen during the Great Patriotic War.
Tishkina K.A., Valkova K.V., Tishkina T.V. - Perpetuation of the memory of an outstanding countryman as a social practice: the name of M.A. Vrubel in the urban space of Omsk in 1923 pp. 180-190



Abstract: The subject of the study is the social practice of the Omsk intelligentsia in the 1910s-1923 in order to perpetuate the memory of the artist M.A. Vrubel (1856-1910). The problem of preserving the historical memory of famous personalities of the past in the public consciousness is very relevant in modern historical science, since it largely determines the image and historical and cultural potential of the region. At the beginning of the XX century, the desire of the intelligentsia of large cities for the right to transform them into cultural and artistic centers of the region was recorded on the territory of Siberia. In this situation, the continuity of provincial and metropolitan culture, primarily carried out through famous countrymen, played an important role. In the 1910s, the appeal to the personality of M.A. Vrubel was of great importance in determining the identity of the Omsk artistic intelligentsia, ensuring the high status of Omsk as a cultural center of Siberia, as well as the heir and admirer of the creative traditions of the famous countryman. The subject field of the study correlates with the "history of memory", in which the treatment and attitude to the name of M.A. Vrubel in Omsk directly depended on historical time, the emergence of new needs, practices and meanings.Methodologically, the study is based on a socio-cultural approach that allows us to consider the role of M.A. Vrubel's personality in improving the image of Omsk in general, as well as the cultural level of its residents, in particular. Despite the fact that the personality of the master is important in determining the historical and cultural potential of Omsk, the information related to the initial stage of perpetuating his memory in the city is fragmentary. Based on archival documents, periodical materials and research on the topic, the authors characterized the process of founding the Omsk Art and Industrial College, as well as naming it after M.A. Vrubel in 1923, which laid the foundation for further involvement of the famous artist's name in the historical and cultural heritage of the region. It is concluded that despite the fact that M.A. Vrubel left Omsk in early childhood, subsequently the significant contribution of the master to the development of Russian art made his personality significant for the formation of the historical and cultural landscape of his native city.
Tsygankov A. - Historical memory about Tsaritsyn in the Soviet and post-Soviet processes of commemoration pp. 500-507


Abstract: This article presents the analysis of the processes of commemoration of the historical memory about the city of Tsaritsyn, which were carried out on the territory of Volgograd during the Soviet and post-Soviet eras. Based on the results of examination of various monuments – the results of the commemoration processes – dedicated to the history of Tsaritsyn – it is stated that there is a genetic correlation between the processes of commemoration and the perceptions on the nature of the history. During the Soviet time, which was dominated by the perception on the linearity of historical timeline and its progress, the history of Tsaritsyn integrated into the Soviet history after the October Revolution. As the result of this research, the author reveals that the working memory of the residents contains mostly the memories on the Battle of Stalingrad, which determines the historical value. During the post-Soviet time, existed the practice of conversion of the memory about the Red Tsaritsyn from accumulative into working memory mode, which greatly depended on the opportunity that was presented by the historical metanarrative. Due to rejection of the metanarrative, the memory on the pre-revolutionary Tsaritsyn could not be referred to as memory-trauma about the sacral battle, which led to the “breach” of the historical memory.
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