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MAIN PAGE > Journal "Philosophical Thought" > Contents of Issue є 08/2019
Contents of Issue є 08/2019
Philosophy of history
Zhdanov V.L. - The philosophy of history of Arnold J. Toynbee in the context of the global world changes pp. 1-6

DOI:
10.25136/2409-8728.2019.8.30830

Abstract: This article is dedicated to examination of the stages of civilizational development, including the transition from barbarian to ecumenical in accordance with the historical model of A. J. Toynbee, as well as the assessment of the modern globalizational trends. The subject of this research is the philosophy of history of Arnold J. Toynbee and the questions of correspondence of religion and culture in the context of the formation and development of civilizations. Special attention is given to peculiarities and importance of Toynbee’s civilizational conflict in light of the ongoing globalizational processes worldwide. The author explores the dangers that may be caused by Westernization (being the carrier of technocratic principles), as well as globalization overall. Research methodology includes the analysis of specific features of Toynbee’s philosophy of history and determination of the significance of religion and culture in the process of formation of civilization. The main conclusion lies in the statement that the philosophy of history of A. J. Toynbee is a useful theoretical framework that allows assessing tactical and strategic forecasts in the context of globalization. Retention of the inner values along with acceptance of borrowings from foreign cultures for their soft assimilation opens an opportunity for the state to bypass the stage of crisis and raises the chances for preserving the basis of cultural identity.
The new paradigm of science
Bakanova E.A. - Technoscience within the framework of socio-epistemological research pp. 7-16

DOI:
10.25136/2409-8728.2019.8.30938

Abstract: This article analyzes the transformation process taking place within the modern scientific knowledge, in the context of which develops the new paradigm of science – technoscience, the attribute of modern science and relevant project of the science of post-nonclassical type. Manifesting as one of the key peace-building factors of information society, technoscience becomes the fundamental research field for the new socio-philosophical pursuits. However, the study of the inner nature of technoscience, which is discovered through explanation of ontological, epistemological, axiological and praxeological aspects of its activity, currently remains an insufficiently explored question. Social epistemology is selected as the key methodological basis, since its benchmarks allow examining the socio-philosophical nature of the phenomenon of technoscience more boldly. The article demonstrates the development of the new ontological picture of scientific reality with the ongoing reorientation of modern science from cognizing the natural word and reality “as it is” towards the project-constructive activity focused on a human. It is established that epistemological component comes up in the development of the new paradigm of science. It leads to actualization of the constructive benchmarks, establishment of new relationship with fundamental science with regards to the applied research. The author reveals that praxeological component of technoscientific activity substantiated the productive, rational, innovative, socio-oriented organization of scientific process.
Natural philosophy
Zubkov S.A. - Ecophilic mindset and man of the future pp. 17-23

DOI:
10.25136/2409-8728.2019.8.29905

Abstract: The object of this research is ecophilic and ecophobic projects of designing man of the future. The subject of this research is the transformation of man and social engineering in relation to ecophilic relations. The goal of this article lies in examination of interaction between the strategy designing a man and society in the context of philosophical worldview. Global sustainability is considered as a civilizational reference point in the relationship between man and environment. The relevance of this research consists in creating an image of the future mankind due to its impossibility of elimination of the natural. The field of application of the research results is social philosophy, urban studies and theory of sustainable development. The creative use of ecophilic traditions for developing a constructive sociocultural and noospheric dialogue between them serves as a resource for pursuing the new civilizational paths of development. The article postulates the need for approaching the ecophilic ideal human and civilizational development. The interaction and interfusion of scientific, philosophical, religious and environmental views allows expanding and enriching the experience of interaction between man and nature, and thus encourages the formation of spiritual culture of personality and ecology of the spirit. When a man takes on responsibility for the nature, he acquires the environmental culture. Religious culture refines science with ethical values, contributing to its harmonization and improvement of the ecophilic type of a man.
History of ideas and teachings
Kupriianov V. - Philosophical origins of socialism in A. D. GradovskyТs political theory pp. 24-37

DOI:
10.25136/2409-8728.2019.8.30760

Abstract: This article is dedicated to examination of the interpretation of socialism suggested by A. D. Gradovsky – prominent representative of the Russian conservative liberalism. The goal of this research lies in identification of peculiarities of the criticism of socialism in Gradovsly’s writings and specificity of his liberal doctrine on the state and society in the context of the Russian anti-nihilistic literature of the XIX century. A more general research task is to explore the specificity of the Russian classical liberalism in its polemic with the socialist and conservative political doctrines. The author’s main contribution consists in the proof that A. D. Gradovsky understood socialism and classical liberalism, associated with the tradition of metaphysical rationalism, as the two identically destructive political doctrines with the shared philosophical origins. The author demonstrated that according to Gradovsky, the classical liberalism prioritizes the idea of individuality, while socialism underlines the idea of community against individuality. As a counterbalance to these two extremes, Gradovsky puts forth his theory of progressive nation, which suggests an organic synthesis of the principle of unity (community) alongside individuality that combines unity and plurality. The novelty of this research lies in determination of correlation between the concept of A. D. Gradovsky and the philosophy of romanticism, which leans on perception of the historicity of existence and focuses on the significance of national element within the structure of the state.
Philosophy of religion
Yangutov L. - On Sinicization of the philosophical and soteriological aspects of Buddhism pp. 38-43

DOI:
10.25136/2409-8728.2019.8.27768

Abstract: This article examines the problems of the transformation of Buddhism in China in the context of its proliferation across the country. The goal of this work lies in the analysis of interaction and mutual influence of two cultures – Indo-Buddhist and Chinese, resulting in Sinicization of Buddhism that defined a transformational stage of the development pf philosophy and soteriology of Buddhism in the Far East. The author analyzes the differences in the Chinese principles founded on Confucianism, religious and social orientations, as well as Indo-Buddhist suggesting the new to the Chinese mentality idea of salvation. There are also shared moments in the philosophical and worldview positions of the Chinese, namely Taoist, Indo-Buddhist philosophy, which consist not in the similarities of separate episodes of the two philosophies, but their ways of thinking that determine the worldview orientations. The article demonstrates that the similarity of Indo-Buddhist and Chinese mindsets allayed Buddhism integration into the Chinese sociocultural environment; and the new, brought by Buddhism to China, justified the need of its adjustment to the Chinese sociocultural and religious environment. This substantiated Sinicization of Buddhism, which became a logical outcome of interaction and mutual influence of the two richest civilizations.
Theological foundations of being
Matyash T.P., Mekushkin A.A., Matyash D.V., Vodenko K.V. - Images of the human within Christian culture pp. 44-52

DOI:
10.25136/2409-8728.2019.8.30870

Abstract: The subject of this research is image of the human within Christian culture. The author examines such aspects as the ideas of Christian theologians and Russian religious philosopher, according to whom formation of image of the human is greatly affected by religion. This implies the inner and in-depth justification by the Christian culture of images (perceptions, representations) of the human. The authors refer to the topic of religious justification of image of the human on the basis of history of the Russian religious philosophy, as well as the representatives of the modern Orthodox theology. The main research method became the hermeneutic reconstruction, when the reference to the texts of religious philosophers allows reconstructing concept of the human. The scientific novelty consists in the analysis of factors, due to which the established in history Christian confessions substantiate the differentiation of specificity of image of the human, content of his spiritual life, namely related to perception of dichotomy “earthlier-heavenlier”. The authors conduct a comparative analysis the stance on earthly prosperity of the representatives of various Christian confessions; as well as analyze why the specificity of such attitude justifies the emergence of the worldview and cultural gaps between the Christian nations.
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