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MAIN PAGE > Journal "Litera" > Contents of Issue 06/2021
Contents of Issue 06/2021
Baldanova E.A., Dondokova N.B. - Language education: communicative tolerance as a component of communicative competence pp. 1-8


Abstract: The subject of the study is language education as teaching a foreign language; the object of the study are the concepts of "competence" and "competence". The authors consider the views of foreign and domestic scientists and researchers on the content of the categories "competence" and "competence" and give their comparative analysis. Special attention is paid to the components of key competencies, namely communicative competence. Such aspects as "communicative competence" and "communicative tolerance" are analyzed. Communicative competence includes not only knowledge of languages, but also knowledge of various social roles in the team and the ability to communicate. The role of the discipline "Foreign languages" in the formation of communicative competence and communicative tolerance of students is emphasized.   The main conclusion of the study is that communicative tolerance is a component of communicative competence. It is necessary to purposefully educate students' communicative competence, as students' communicative readiness for tolerant communication with interaction partners. When teaching students a foreign language, a communicative competence is formed, aimed at mastering the ability of students to tolerant communication. The scientific novelty of the research lies in the fact that communicative competence includes not only knowledge of languages, but also possession of various social roles in the team and the ability to communicate tolerantly. The proposed analysis will be of interest to specialists in the field of scientific research of the nature of the categories "competence" and "competence".
Literary criticism
Podkovyrin Y.V. - Visual aspects of unlocking the meaning in a literary work (based on Alexander Grins novella Legless pp. 9-15


Abstract: The object of this research is the semantic structure of a literary work. The subject of this research is the nature of interrelation between visual and semantic aspects of the work. The “visual” implies not a characteristic of the text of the novella, but rather one of the “properties of artistic imagery” (S. P. Lavlinsky, N. M. Gurovich). On the one hand, the article interprets the semantics of visual images in A. S. Grin’s novella "Legless"; while on the other hand, reveals and describes the visual aspects of the very meaning of the novella. The author examines the dependence of understanding of the meaning of text on a certain “setting” of readers’ view. The scientific novelty consists in identification of the semantic aspects of visual images along with the visual aspects of unlocking the meaning based on Alexander Grin’s novella “Legless”. The impossibility of actualizing the meaning in the literary work without its visualization is explained the peculiar – incarnated – nature of the artistic meaning. The fact that in the literary work the meaning is translated into the actual existence of the heroes (is being  incarnated) determines the integrity of the process of understanding from scrutinization into objective forms of this existence. Missing one or another feature of the artistic world by the reader would mean shifting away from adequate understanding. If for the hero of the novella “Legless”, the understanding of Self and his true position in the world is generally associated with the rejection of vision, then for the reader of “Legless” (or other literary text) vision (that corresponds to what is depicted in the text) is the key to understanding.
Zagrebelnaya A.S. - Discursive strategies and tactics of a romantic communicative personality in the situations of romantic communication pp. 16-24


Abstract: The goal of this research consists in identification of the strategies and tactics of a romantic communicative personality in situations of romantic communication in the Russian and English linguocultures. The article reveals the content of the conceptual apparatus of research, namely the terms “romantic discourse”, “discursive strategy”, and “discursive tactics” that are directly related to the questions of verbalization of inner intentions of the parties to communication process. It is demonstrated that romantic communication in the Russian and English linguocultures is characterized by the use of certain strategies and tactics of romantic communicative personality, which are implemented on the language level in the situations of romantic communication. Their application is predetermined by particular motives that can be traced in the speech. The scientific novelty of this research consists in determination of the crucial intentional difference in realization of the motivated discursive strategies and tactics of a romantic communicative personality in the context of romantic communication in the Russian and English linguocultures, which lies in the divergence of the ethnic- cultural background. The conducted research reveals the most frequently used discursive strategies and tactics of a romantic communicative personality in the Russian and English linguocultures, which are grouped into a table in accordance with the indicated linguocultures in order to better understand the discursive strategies and tactics characteristic to each linguoculture.
Lin L. - Functionality of the adverb contrarily in adnominal position pp. 25-32


Abstract: The object of this research is the adverb “contrarily” adjacent to the noun. The goal of this article is to indicate the peculiarities of functionality of the adverb in this position. It is established that the adverb “contrarily” is characterized by adjunction to nouns of substantive semantics and proper names, as well as nouns of abstract semantics. The use of this adverb as a characteristic of an object or phenomenon requires explanation, which is usually given in the preceding or subsequent context. The adverb “contrarily” or a substantive-adverbial combination as a whole is often enclosed in quotation marks. This underlines the irregular method selected by the speaker for describing an object or phenomenon using an adjacent adverb. This article is the first to analyze the peculiarities of functionality of the adverb “contrarily” in adnominal position. The article employs the Russian National Corpus for collecting the material; the analysis of language material is based on the method of continuous sampling. The adnominal use of the adverb “contrarily” in associated with the absence of a special lexeme for denoting the described object of speech. The acquired results contribute to the theoretical description of adverbs as part of speech, and can be used in teaching morphology, syntax and semantics in the course of modern Russian language, as well as in teaching Russian as a foreign language.
Literary criticism
Li Z. - A brief overview of the reception of The Tale of Igor's Campaign pp. 33-46


Abstract: The subject of this research is the process of reception of “The Tale of Igor's Campaign” in mainland China. The analysis of China’s historical conditions and comparison of the statistics at different periods indicate changes in the process of reception of Russian literature as a whole, and the Old Russian literary landmark in particular in the course of historical development of Celestial Empire. The novelty of this research is defines by insufficient coverage of the process of reception of “The Tale of Igor's Campaign” in China as a special cultural phenomenon, inseparable from the overall process of cultural and literary development of the country. Reception of the Russian literature is viewed in the socio-historical system, in which it organically interacts with the national culture and literature. The article employs descriptive, conceptual, and comparative-historical methods for solving the scientific task; determines the key stages in the general process of reception of “The Tale of Igor's Campaign” in China; and reveals the peculiarities of each stage with description of the major achievements. The author concludes that for almost two centuries, the Old Russian literary landmark has undergone a propaedeutic reception in China, which gradually intensified after the May Fourth Movement. It experienced stagnation after the first complete translation of the “Tale” into Chinese language, and a breakthrough in the image of this work in modern Chinese science, which currently interprets “The Tale of Igor's Campaign” as a literary-historical text.
Anikyan T. - Prosodic means of creating expressiveness in the rhetoric of United States televised presidential debates (on the example of Hillary Clinton's speech in 2016) pp. 47-54


Abstract:  This article reviews the expressive potential of prosodic means in Hillary Clinton's speech at the 2016 United States presidential debates. Special attention is given to the discursive characteristics of the text, such prosodic parameters as pitch variation, pausing, pace and intensity, as well as use of word accent. The author employs the method of auditory analysis of politician’s speech, and dwells on its certain fragments, which illustrate the effectiveness of suprasegmental modifications of speech for achieving an optimal rhetorical effect. The relevance of this research is substantiated by the need for comprehensive assessment of political discourse as a variation of communication with high manipulative potential. The scientific novelty consists in viewing the expressive capabilities of prosodic means in political discourse in light of extralinguistic factors that characterize the communicative situation, as well as in analysis of their functionality within a specific type of political discourse – the agonal genre, which brings its adversarial nature to the fore. The acquired results demonstrate the expressive potential of modifications of the key prosodic parameters in oral speech, and can be implemented in teaching the principles of analysis of political discourse texts from the perspective of expressive syntax, prosody, stylistic, and rhetoric to students majoring in philology. 
Question at hand
Fedotova N. - Virtual exhibition as a means of implementing cultural function of the library pp. 55-63


Abstract: This article examines the transformation of cultural function of the libraries of pedagogical universities, considering challenges and changes in the digital educational environment. Leaning on the modern scientific research on creation and content arrangement of web resources, the author analyzes the libraries of 38 pedagogical universities nationwide, as well as interrelation between cultural function and thematic headings. The object of this research is the description of peculiarities of implementing cultural function of the library in the common information space of an educational institution. The subject of this research is the virtual book exhibitions as an instrument of promoting publishing projects and a synthesis of traditional and innovative ways of conveying information to the readers. The main conclusions are as follows: in implementation of cultural function, the university library pursues the goal development of spiritual and moral personality traits. The libraries make a considerable contribution to the becoming and socialization of an individual by preserving and augmenting cultural wealth of literary sources. The implementation of cultural function should take into account the abundance and availability of information in modern world. The stylistics of messages and sources does not always correspond to generally accepted norms and morals. The libraries also aim to draw interest to cultural environment and develop the in skills of working with literary sources among the readers, as well as form a deliberate cultural assessment of the surrounding reality.
Zinina Y.M. - Analysis of Word of the Year phenomenon in the English and Russian languages (based on the data from English-language explanatory dictionaries, Yandex Internet portal, Pushkin State Russian Language Institute, Expert Council of the Center for Creative Development of the Russian Language) pp. 64-75


Abstract:   The article discusses “Word of the Year” phenomenon in the English and Russian languages. The analysis is based on the data of modern sociolinguistic phenomenon – “Word of the Year” campaign. The author employs descriptive and comparative data processing methods for the period 2016–2020 from the portals of British English-language explanatory dictionaries Cambridge Dictionary, Oxford Dictionary, Collins Dictionary as well as Yandex Internet portal Pushkin State Russian Language Institute, Expert Council of the Center for Creative Development of the Russian Language headed by Mikhail Epstein. The article aims to find out whether a particular word, word of the year, as a linguistic unit, can reflect the essence of the annual life cycle of a country, and as a lexical unit – determine the linguistic aspect, actual impact on the language. Based on the analysis of acquired data, the author presents a table with classification of words of the year into conceptual milestones that indicate the important areas of social life – economic-political, sociopolitical, socio-psychological, environmental, healthcare, post-pandemic, entertainment and recreation, where the semantic field of words of the year must reflect the events in the corresponding sphere. The conclusion is made that “Word of the Year” as a linguistic unit convey the conceptual identity of annual cycle of the particular society or language, by creating new set expressions and mainstream words with semantic increment; while as a lexical unit – shapes semantic dominants, determines linguistic aspect by replenishing lexical resource, and has impact on the language. Words of the year not only reflect the crucial political, economic, sociocultural events and phenomena that take place in social life during a particular time interval, but also set new, significant elements of linguocultural worldview mobile in a constantly changing semantic system of the language.  
Rev K.A., Volkhonskii B.M. - Russian case system against the background of the Sinhalese language tradition: linguodidactic aspect pp. 76-85


Abstract: The subject of this research is the relevant questions of teaching Russian language in Sri Lanka. The analysis of curriculum for teaching Russian language developed by the Maharagama National Institute of Education (Colombo) together with the leading teachers of the University of Kelaniya demonstrates that learning Russian language in Sri Lanka carries not only educational, but also universal cultural significance, which corresponds to the national objectives in the area of education and is an integral part of their solution. The biggest difficulty faced by Sinhalese students in studying Russian language is the Russian case system, which differs substantially from the grammatical system of their native language. The article examines the peculiarities of Sinhalese case system. Leaning on the extensive linguistic material, the author analyzes and classifies the key peculiarities of the Sinhalese inflection of noun. The conclusion is drawn that one of the most effective methods of teaching Russian language to Sinhalese students lies in application of comparative approach. The analysis of meanings and functions of cases, understanding the differences between the Russian and Sinhalese grammatical systems allows identifying the most effective approaches towards teaching Russian as a foreign language. The comparative approach contributes to successful learning of prepositional-case system of the Russian language, and prevents consistent grammatical errors in the speech of foreign students.
Literary criticism
Markova A.S. - Transculturalism and transcultural symbol of the blue flower pp. 86-97


Abstract: This article examines the problem of determining transculturalism as an independent supracultural phenomenon, the cognition of which requires the aesthetic subject adopt an attitude of outsideness and holistic consciousness. Transculturalism is described a specific cultural model that can represent transcultural symbols. Based on the image of the blue flower, the author examines transcultural symbol as a phenomenon with mythical basis, which is being formed through ceaseless process of cultural transfer. For determining transculturalism as an independent phenomenon, the author analyzes modern definitions presented in the scientific discourse and compares them with the definition of transculturalism given by M. N. Epstein. The formation of transcultural symbol is described via genetic method and from the perspective of the process of cultural transfer (M. Espagne). This article proves M. N. Epstein's theory on perception of transculturalism as a specific cultural model, a supracultural phenomenon. The author explores the peculiarities of development of transcultural symbol,  and provides the examples of variation of this symbol are given (using the image of the blue flower in the English-language literary discourse). This work contributes to the understanding of transculturalism as a supracultural, universal, national, and holistic phenomenon. In modern world, such definition of transculturism is essential for conducting cross-cultural dialogue and maintaining respectful attitude towards national code. Using the example of the blue flower, the author reviews the variations of transcultural symbol in the English-language literature; analyzes the contest of paradigms, peculiarities of the palimpsest of this image, overcoming the stereotypes of perception and transitioning through cultural space; finds the reflection of the idea of universality underlying the poetology of Novalis.
Kulikova D.L. - The vampires of A. V. Ivanov in light of the gothic tradition of Russian Literature pp. 98-107


Abstract: The object of this research is the novel “Food Block” by A. V. Ivanov and the realization of aesthetics of the horror genre therein. The goal is to establish correlation between the gothic tradition of Russian literature and modern horror literature based on the works of the indicated authors. The article examines the influence of the gothic romantic tradition upon composition and imaginary system of A. K. Tolstoy’s novella. The material of A. V. Ivanov’s novel indicates resorting to the literary tradition on the level of composition and individual images; while overall, the historical experience accumulated by the genre over the decades and significant impact of cinematography manifested on the level of cinematographic techniques. The conclusion is made that in the novel by A. V. Ivanov, the mystical attributes of vampirism, which coincide with the pioneer symbolism, have political implications, which contradicts the horror traditions in gothics. Novellas “The Vampire” and" The Family of the Vourdalak” are the result of accumulation of gothic motifs, such as family curse, mystical house, dream, and portrait that came alive. Comparison of the techniques of creating horror literature allows tracing the paths of literary evolution, and formulating conclusions on modernization of the genre at the present stage. The novelty of this research is define by insufficient research of the topic of typological and genetic links between gothic and modern horror, namely in the works of A. V. Ivanov.
Li G. - Emigrants fate in the image of the protagonist in the novel Katya the Chinese by D. A. Prigov pp. 108-115


Abstract: This article is dedicated to the analysis of peculiarities of representation of emigrant’s fate in the novel “Katya the Chinese” by the contemporary Russian writer Dmitri Prigov. The subject of this research is the system of characters in the novel, namely the images of the protagonist Katya and her nanny. This is an interdisciplinary research with emphasis on the cultural-historical and hermeneutical methods. The plotline of the novel revolves around the life of the girl Katya, the daughter of the representative of white émigré in China. The role of an intermediary in Katya’s adaptation to the civilizational space of China was played by her nanny, since she was a typical representative of the “people” and an exemplary bearer of Chinese traditional culture. The author aims to comprehensively examine the plotline of the novel through the prism of the processes of cultural assimilation, which defines the novelty of this research. The conclusion lies in outlining the stages of the protagonist’s assimilation to the cultural space of China: language, social, behavioral, and spiritual. The article indicates the effectiveness of studying the novel in the context of the history of white émigré. The heroine's departure from China makes her to reconsider personal identity, which in many ways has become “Chinese”. The story of the girl Katya allows the author to describe the emigrant’s fate, who is forced to spend his life upon the road and constantly adapt to foreign cultural spaces.
Chilingaryan K.P. - Fusional and agglutinative features in declension system in the Russian and Armenian languages (a diachronic aspect) pp. 116-123


Abstract: The subject of this research is the typological characteristics of declension system in the Russian and Armenian languages and their diachronic changes. The author compares the modern Armenian and Grabar (classical Armenian) language, as well as Old East Slavic and modern Russian language. The goal of this article is to determine typological peculiarities of grammatical case systems of the Russian and Armenian languages in their current state, taking into account the vectors of evolutionary development of these systems in the history of the two languages. Research methodology leans on the traditional concepts of morphological typology and systemic analysis of language types proposed by G. P. Melnikov. It is established that unlike the Russian language, the Armenian declension system contains certain agglutinative and analytical features. Emphasis is placed on the detailed analysis of these phenomena and explanation of their consistent nature. The acquired results are valuable for typological description of the Russian and Armenian languages, as well as for teaching these languages to non-native speakers. The presented materials broaden scientific representations on multifacetedness of development of fusional declension on the example of two quite different languages within the same language family.
Ding Q. - In accordance with the laws of the genre: the peculiarities of using uppercase letters in Internet memes and postcards pp. 124-143


Abstract: Internet memes and postcards as the popular carriers of Internet communications, implement new, simplified in literary and aesthetic level forms of communication. The process of creating such genres entails departure from orthographic rules, among which is the use of uppercase letters. The subject of the research is the determination of peculiarities of practical use of uppercase letters in Internet memes and postcards. The goal is to follow the observance of orthographic rules in these genres regarding the use of uppercase letters, as well as to identify the stylistic peculiarities of these two genres and characteristic use of uppercase letters. The relevance and scientific novelty of this article consists in examination of content creation for Internet memes and postcards, rather than memes themselves. Extralinguistic roots of the problem of liberal use or inobservance of uppercase letters are detected on the linguistic basis. The research leans on the content from open sources. The conclusion is made that both linguistic genres represent the examples of mass communications addressed primarily to the users with lower aesthetic demand; different linguistic gradation lead to certain departure from orthographic rules in both genres; this may not be progressive from the perspective of language development, but rather be oriented towards primitivization of content.
Vei K. - Denominal relative clause by the example of: construction and co-occurrence pp. 144-155


Abstract: This article describes the construction and specificity of co-occurrence of auxiliary unit “by the example of”.  The relevance of this research is substantiated by the need for comprehensive description of auxiliary words. The object of this research is the prepositional unit “by the example of” which belongs to the group of denominal relative clause. The subject of this research is the semantics of “by the example of”, the constructions it forms, and peculiarities of its co-occurrence. The key goal is to determine the constructive specificity and co-occurrence of the lexeme “by the example of”.  The author’s special contribution lies in systemic description of the syntagmatic structure and construction characteristics of the auxiliary unit “by the example of”. The article illustrates the structure of the trinomial and binomial constructions on the basis of the relative clause “by the example of”. The construction determines the right and left components and the common connecting parts. The analysis of linguistic facts presented in the Russian National Corpus allows conducting formal and semantic classification of the right and left components of the construction. Description is given to the methods of expressing the common part of the construction. The author concludes that “by the example of” forms a trinomial and binomial construction and indicates the relation of partial equivalence.
Gao X. - Specificity of realization of linguoculturological peculiarities of the Chinese language in the Russian linguistic system (on the example of translation of Mo Yan's novel Life and Death are Wearing Me Out pp. 156-163


Abstract: The relevance of this topic is substantiated by increasing cross-cultural, interlingual and interethnic ties between Russia and China, as well as the overall trend of modern Russian philology towards studying the aspects of implementation of certain linguoculturological peculiarities of the Chinese language in the Russian language system. The goal is to reveal the specificity of linguistic means used in conveying linguistic and cultural peculiarities in translation of texts into the Russian language. The article explores the specificity of linguistic means used in Chinese-Russian translation, as well as describes the methods of translating texts into the Russian language to convey linguoculturological peculiarities of the Chinese language. The scientific novelty consists in the fact that this article is first within the framework of linguoculturological approach to conduct comprehensive analysis of the specificity of using linguistic means in Chinese-Russian translation. As a result, it is proven that the proper understanding and perception of texts translated from the Chinese language into the Russian language is based on the accurate translation that ensures equivalence with the original text, conveyance of the semantic meanings and emotional connotations instilled by the author. It is worth noting that in translation into the Russian language, an important role is played by both linguistic and extralinguistic factors.
Beliaeva T.R. - Frequency and distribution of the units of general scientific (academic) lexicon as the markers of disciplinary affiliation of a discourse pp. 164-175


Abstract: This article is dedicated to a corpus-based research of functionality of the units of general scientific (academic) lexicon in various types of disciplinary discourse, the purpose of which lies in verification of a hypothesis on a special function of the academic lexicon to indicate disciplinary affiliation of the scientific text. In the era of increasing mathematization and digitalization of scientific knowledge, corpus linguistics becomes a paramount instrument of empirical research aimed at acquisition of knowledge on the language through quantitative and qualitative analysis of compilations of texts, the scope and subject of which can be set in accordance with the specific objectives of the scholar. Special role in corpus-based research is assigned to the methods of statistical analysis for effective processing of the obtained quantitative data on linguistic realias, thereby considering linguistic research equivalent to the research of exact and natural sciences by degree of verification. The article describes the fragment of comprehensive research on functionality of the general scientific lexicon, which using the statistical method of correlation analysis on the example of more than 100 general scientific words (nouns, verbs, adjectives, and adverbs) established correlation between frequency and distribution of the units of general scientific lexicon and the type of disciplinary discourse. The scientific novelty lies in the holistic approach towards analyzing the characteristic features of distribution of the frequency of general scientific lexical units in 8 types of disciplinary discourse, as well as in in application of the methods of descriptive and mathematical statistics that demonstrate that academic lexicon same as terminological lexicon may serve as marker of disciplinary affiliation of the discourse.
Du S. - The peculiarities of speech portrait of Russian female politicians pp. 176-185


Abstract: The relevance of analyzing the speech aspect of political communication of Russian female lies in the fact that today the current focus of attention is the questions of creating a political image of state and public figures for achieve the needed social effects. A significant role in the process of creating the image is assigned not only to physical appearance of the politician, but also to peculiarities of their communication with the audience. The goal of this article is the analysis of speech portrait of a public linguistic personality on the example of modern Russian female politicians. The research employs contextological analysis and semantic-stylistic analysis, which allows revealing the semantic content of speeches and determining various stylistic functions in linguistic practice. Characteristic is given to the internal and external side of the personality image, specificity of its formation in the minds of the audience, peculiarities of the speech portrait of prominent Russian female politicians. The author pinpoints the important role of language in the sociopolitical and public spheres of communication. The conclusion is made on the degree of presence of masculine and feminine traits in the linguistic portrait of female politicians, the factors that substantiate such combination, as well as the desire of the female politicians to represent themselves as a “person of the people”. The analysis of speech portrait is conducted on the example of public speeches, polemics with opponents, etc, which implies an outline of a political position using speech techniques for effective resolution of the set tasks.
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