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MAIN PAGE > Journal "Arctic and Antarctica" > Contents of Issue є 01/2024
This issue is currently being formed. All articles presented on this page have already been included in this issue, are considered published, and will remain unchanged in the final version of the issue along with other metadata of the articles.
”чредитель: ƒаниленко ¬асилий »ванович, w.danilenko@nbpublish.com
√лавный редактор: ¬асильчук ёрий  ириллович, доктор геолого-минералогических наук, vasilch_geo@mail.ru
Contents of Issue є 01/2024
Climate
Frolov D.M., Seliverstov Y.G., Koshurnikov A.V., Gagarin V.E., Nikolaeva E.S. - Using Machine Learning to Classify Stratigraphic Layers of Snow According to the Snow Micro Pen Device pp. 1-11

DOI:
10.7256/2453-8922.2024.1.69404

EDN: GDSACR

Abstract: The observation of snow cover by the staff of the Geographical Faculty of Moscow State University of the meteorological observatory has long been researched. This article describes the snow accumulation features and the snow cover's stratigraphy. The third cyclone arrived in Moscow on the night of December 14. There had been a large number of snowdrifts since the beginning of the snow accumulation, and the 49 cm mark was recorded at the MSU weather station. The difficulties of classifying layers in the snow column have been investigated by many glaciologists, something that is also considered in this paper. Machine learning methods were used to classify stratigraphic layers in the snow column according to measurements from the snow micro pen device. The ice crystal shapes within the snow column, resulting from metamorphism (rounded, faceted, thawed), exhibit variations in both density and parameters derived from the snow micro pen device data processing. Specifically, MPF(N) represents the average resistance force, SD(N) denotes its standard deviation, and cv signifies its covariance. This diversity allows for the categorization of processed device data and the incorporation of new measurement data without relying on direct manual drilling results. The obtained device data underwent thorough processing. Through comparison with data from direct snow stratigraphy surveys, the stratigraphic layers of the snow column were classified. Subsequently, utilizing the classified data of the device's stratigraphic layers, K-nearest neighbors clustering enabled the classification of new data obtained from the device without the need for additional manual surveys in the future.
Engineering Geology of Cold Plains and Mountain Regions
Zabelina A.V. - Investigation of methane formation processes during waste disposal in the northern territories pp. 12-19

DOI:
10.7256/2453-8922.2024.1.69462

EDN: DMFOAF

Abstract: Methane is one of the most significant greenhouse gases. Unlike carbon dioxide, methane is a shortЧlived greenhouse gas with a lifetime of about 10 years, however, due to significantly higher greenhouse activity (according to scientists, it is at least 25 times greater than that of carbon dioxide), its effect on total global warming is very significant. Global warming processes have the greatest impact on the biosphere and ecosystem of the Arctic territories. The melting of permafrost can lead to changes in soil composition and geological processes. Therefore, the formation of methane in the Arctic and subarctic territories is quite an urgent issue. The purpose of this work is to study the amount of methane released in landfills of municipal solid waste. The article discusses the results of a study of methane formation processes at landfills close to the post-operational period. The data in the work were obtained by applying the technology of drilling an array of municipal waste. The article considered the polygons of the Subarctic and Arctic zones. The paper presents averaged data on the results of methane extraction at various landfills. It was found that the volume fraction of methane in the composition of landfill gas from the waste array disposed of over the past two years can reach 61%. However, in the approved methodology for calculating emissions from landfills of municipal solid waste (MSW), accounting for emissions over the past two years is advisory in nature, which creates prerequisites for adjusting the methodology based on the results of instrumental measurements. The results obtained make it possible to more accurately assess the carbon units obtained by introducing the best available technologies at MSW landfills, which is especially important in the framework of the implementation of the state policy of the Russian Federation in the Arctic for the period up to 2035.
Climates of the Arctic and Antarctica
Zemlianskova A.A., Nesterova N.V., Makarieva O.M. - The ice regime of the northeastern Russia pp. 20-33

DOI:
10.7256/2453-8922.2024.1.69791

EDN: DZOYRH

Abstract: Transport links and provision of hard-to-reach settlements and mining enterprises play an important role in the economic development of the Arctic regions. In winter, winter roads are used as transport arteries; their mode of operation depends on the characteristics of the ice. Winter roads are used in Russia, Canada, USA, Finland, and China. Due to climate warming, the timing of the formation of ice cover on rivers is shifting to later times, and in the spring the ice is destroyed earlier. This could affect the delivery of vital supplies to remote regions. According to recent forecasts, it is assumed that heavy vehicles will not be able to use winter roads by the end of the 21st century. The purpose of the study is to analyze changes in the characteristics of ice cover on the rivers of the Northeast of Russia. To do this, a series of data was collected for the period 1940Ц2018 on the thickness of the ice cover at 80 hydrological stations located in the basins of the Yana, Indigirka, Kolyma rivers, rivers of the Chukotka Peninsula and the Sea of Okhotsk basin. The catchment areas range from 18.3 to 635,000 km2, and the duration of the continuous series ranges from 2 to 67 years. Three statistical nonparametric tests (Mann-Kendall, Pettitt and Theil-Sen) were used for evaluation. The following characteristics were considered: the maximum ice thickness and the date of its formation, the dates when the ice thickness reached 60 and 90 cm. During the period under review, the maximum ice thickness decreased by an average of 40 cm, while the date of reaching the maximum values remained almost unchanged. The period for the formation of river ice with a thickness of 60 and 90 cm, necessary for the passage of cars and trucks, respectively, has shifted by almost a month. The start date of freeze-up occurs on average 3Ц4 days later, and the end date of freeze-up occurs 5Ц8 days earlier. On average, the duration of freeze-up decreased by 5Ц15 days. The results obtained must be taken into account when drawing up the work schedule for winter roads. This is especially important for regions where communication between populated areas and mining enterprises is possible only through river arteries.
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