Urban Studies - rubric Architecture and Environment
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Architecture and Environment
Pavlova I.D. - Spatial multi-criteria assessment of road network as a method of determining the level of comfort of the bicycle ride pp. 1-11

DOI:
10.7256/2310-8673.2018.2.25302

Abstract: This article examines the method of spatial multi-criteria assessment of road network for determining the qualitative index of the level of comfort of bicycle ride in urban environment within the framework of development of city-planning information system of designing the urban cycling transport infrastructure. The object of research is the urban environment from the perspective of bike riders’ needs. The subject is the principles of establishment of cycling transport infrastructure, the importance of each principle for the users. The author suggest the use of geoinformation systems for the comprehensive assessment of the existing situation and further formulation of city-planning propositions. The segments of road network should be assessed in accordance with the following criteria: safety, alignment, provision of amenities, functional saturation, connectedness, correlation with traffic infrastructure, and correlation with natural carcass. For determination of the level of importance of each criterion, the author uses the results of author’s sociological survey among the active bike riders. The author introduces the concept of the bike ride’s comfort level coefficient based on assessment of the segments of road network on the determined criteria and rating of each criteria. The high-grade correlation between the results and the data about the activeness of bicycle traffic is revealed. Based on the results of the research, the author arranges the chart of the bicycle ride’s level of comfort that is proposed within the framework of city-planning information system of the designing of urban cycling transport infrastructure.
Kozyrenko N.E. - Architecture of the Stalin Empire in China pp. 1-17

DOI:
10.7256/2310-8673.2020.4.30248

Abstract: The subject of this research is the formation of large city planning ensembles in socialist cities during Great Leap Forward of the People’s Republic of China. The object of this research is architecture in the style of Stalin Empire 1950s – 1960s. The author examines the influence of Soviet architecture upon the emergence of Chinese styles, such as “Style 1959” and Communist Art Deco). Special attention is dedicated to stylistic peculiarities of the new architectural objects and Chinese interpretation of the Stalin Empire. In this context, both Chinese and Soviet architects contributed to determination of the architectural trend “Su-style”. The main conclusion lies in the statement that architecture of the Stalin Empire with the elements of classicism became the national style in socialist China. Chinese architects synthesized the new normative aesthetics and discovered new stylistic and imagery resources in architecture. The transition towards holistic Chinese “socialist culture” has not been completed and currently continues.  The author’s special contribution is the research of socialist architecture of Harbin as a continuity of Russian traditions of the early XX century. The novelty of this work is defined by the first ever analysis of stylistic peculiarities of Harbin’s architecture that were built by the projects of Soviet architects.
Astafyeva O.N., Kuznetsova I. - Health-saving technologies for citizens in the focus of urban planning policy pp. 1-20

DOI:
10.7256/2310-8673.2021.3.35740

Abstract: In the last few years, the approach “Urban Health” is gaining popularity in the world practice of municipal and state administration. Its peculiarity consists in the fact that in structuring any policies and making any decisions, priority is given to health and wellbeing of the population, and the key indicator of effectiveness is life expectancy. There is a range of works dedicated to ratio between physical and mental health of citizens and organization of the urban environment. However, the yet only Russian-language research on the practice of using Urban Health approach in different countries, the Russian experience is presented by Moscow alone and without emphasis on architecture and urban planning. The author systematizes the existing health-saving technologies that can serve as the foundation for environmental development programs; successful urban development programs of other countries are compared with such in Moscow and Russia, which allows revealing the merits and flaws of the latter. The conclusion is made that despite a set of measures presented in multiple programs and documents, which are aimed at improvement of health and well-being of the citizens, life expectancy and mitigation of risk of various diseases, do not appear as the goals of these programs. Therefore, urban planning policy can objectively be much more health-saving; the rhetoric and optics of the Urban Health approach, being articulated by the government,  can be more comprehensible for the population than the environmental agenda, and thus, promote the necessary urban changes.
Galkin A. - The Depth of the Zone of Thermal Influence of Highways pp. 1-9

DOI:
10.7256/2310-8673.2022.4.38879

EDN: HCXRIZ

Abstract: The thermal regime of road surface and basements is an important factor determining their reliable and safe operation in the cryolithozone. The aim of the research was to quantify the possibility of replacing the layered environment of the road's soil base with an equivalent homogeneous soil with an average coefficient of thermal conductivity when calculating the depth of the road's thermal influence zone. Two methods of averaging the thermophysical properties of a layered medium are considered: weighted average and arithmetic average. Dependences are obtained for determining the degree of deviation of the properties and thicknesses of the layers of the soil base, in which both methods are acceptable for engineering calculations. As an example, the two-layer medium of the road base is considered. For the analysis, the classical formula of the depth of thermal influence was used, obtained from the solution by the integral method of the one-dimensional equation of unsteady thermal conductivity. Simple engineering formulas are given for the relative error in determining the values of the depth of thermal influence when using an equivalent layer of pavement in calculations. A concrete example of calculating the depth of the zone of thermal influence in the two-layer soil of the road base is considered. The equation of the functional relationship between the parameters characterizing the degree of deviation of the thickness and thermophysical properties of individual layers from each other is obtained, which provides an error in the calculations of the depth of the zone of thermal influence less than the permissible value. The results of numerical calculations are presented in the form of 2D and 2D graphs, which allow us to visually assess the influence of the range of changes in the values of the thermal conductivity coefficients of individual soil layers on the legality of using various methods of constructing an equivalent single-layer road foundation structure.
Glatolenkova E. - The Heritage of the Ussuri Railway in Dalnerechensk pp. 1-13

DOI:
10.7256/2310-8673.2023.3.43423

EDN: SDSKJH

Abstract: The work continues the author's research on the railway architecture of the south of the Far East and is part of a project to study the architectural image of the homeland. The subject of the research, the results of which are described in the article, are architectural and urban features of the railway architecture of the town of Dalnerechensk in Primorsky Krai. Historical reference is given about development of the town from the moment of foundation of the first settlement in the middle of the 19th century till the transformation connected with building of railroad station Iman of Ussuri railway from Vladivostok to Khabarovsk in the end of the 19th century. The author pays special attention to studying of central part of the town and current condition of railway building. The materials of the expedition and archival research carried out in 2017-2023 are presented. During the analysis of urban development of the central district of Dalnerechensk the objects included in the register of architectural monuments, located along the Trans-Siberian Railway are examined. The scientific novelty of the research is defined by generalization and mapping of the preserved heritage sites of the Ussuri railway XIX-XX centuries in Dalnerechensk, carried out for the first time. The result of the research is a scheme of buildings and structures location. The generalized information about the architectural monuments available in the city can be used in education, restoration practices and activities related to the popularization of industrial heritage.
Glatolenkova E., Il'in K.S. - Architectural environment of the Khabarovsk Children's Railway pp. 1-15

DOI:
10.7256/2310-8673.2023.4.43586

EDN: UZRMOY

Abstract: The subject of the article is the peculiarities of the formation of the architectural environment of children's railroads in the Far East. The object of the study is a children's railroad in Khabarovsk, belonging to the Far Eastern railroads. On the material of historical documents, photographs and private archives its historical development, changes in the landscaping of the territory and filling of the environment, the current state of the surrounding buildings and the prospects for further development of the road are considered. The authors pay special attention to the study of recent innovations in landscaping and the current state of the park adjacent to the road, as well as analyze the road reconstruction projects under consideration by the city administration. The study of the experience of construction and operation of children's railroads in different Russian cities and popular foreign parks allowed to identify trends in their further development and transformation in modern conditions. The authors' contribution to the topic under consideration is the systematization of scattered information about the Khabarovsk branch of the children's railroad and the compilation of a scheme of its planned development, carried out for the first time. In the course of the work it is established that for more than half a century of history the surrounding landscape has changed significantly, its further successful functioning requires a cardinal revision of the route of the track. The application of the obtained results is possible in the process of designing a new direction of the road in the park territory of the nursery named after A. M. Lukashov.
Ivanova A.P. - The formation of the architectural landscape of Szeged, Hungary. 1872-1930. pp. 1-16

DOI:
10.7256/2310-8673.2024.1.69787

EDN: FPFETH

Abstract: The article, written during the implementation of the international Russian-Hungarian project, is of an overview nature. The author's goal is to expand the understanding of Russian colleagues about the Hungarian architecture of the late XIX first third of the XX centuries. Szeged was chosen as an example of a large-scale reconstruction: the city, almost completely destroyed by the flood of 1879, was rebuilt in a short period and became the "southern capital" of Hungary. Based on field research in 2022, three layers of the architectural and spatial landscape of Szeged are considered: "imperial" (borderless classicism and historicism), "national" (Magyar secession) and interwar (Art Deco). The article is illustrated with photographs of the Hungarian participant of the project G. Csonadi. The object of the study is the city of Szeged, located 169 km south of Budapest, near today's Hungarian-Romanian and Hungarian-Serbian borders, at the confluence of the Tisza and Maros rivers. It is the second most important city in Hungary, the most important point on the "mental map" of the country, the capital of the Hungarian plain and a symbol of the revival of the national spirit. The subject of the study is the process of constructing an architectural "image of the Motherland". In our work, we use an interdisciplinary approach, combining elements of history, architecture, cultural studies and social geography. This allows us to explore and analyze architectural heritage more deeply, its impact on the formation of the cultural landscape and social processes. Using the example of the southern Hungarian city of Szeged, the process of constructing the "image of the Motherland" developed in a time perspective is considered. We have identified several layers in the architectural landscape of Szeged: regular-imperial (Biedermeier, neo-Baroque, borderless classicism), national-romantic (from historicism in the spirit of the French Renaissance to the Magyar secession), interwar (Art Deco based on neo-Romanticism). We see that the "spirit of the times" and the "image of the Motherland" are not static and are embodied in various forms. The image of "little Vienna", resurrected according to the patterns of the Enlightenment era on the far periphery of the Empire, is being transformed under the onslaught of the nationally oriented bourgeoisie. Bizarre and eccentric architectural experiments sponsored by private original customers are replaced by monumental pathos ensembles that help citizens jointly survive the deepest collective psychotrauma. The Synagogue, the Cathedral, the University and the "sunny houses" embody different facets of the Hungarian identity.
Fedorovskaya N.A., Kravchenko I.A., Chernova A.V. - Aestheticization of the park environment around utilitarian objects of university campuses (by the example of the design concept of reconstruction of the park parking area of the FEFU campus) pp. 10-19

DOI:
10.7256/2310-8673.2022.4.37485

EDN: PJXJGS

Abstract: Today, university campuses are not only part of the university, but also part of the public space. The importance of these territories as an ecological, recreational and socio-cultural urban object is constantly increasing, which requires special attention to the appearance of both educational and administrative buildings and adjacent garden and park areas. The subject of the study was the possibility of aestheticizing park areas located around utilitarian objects of university campuses (parking lots, boiler rooms, technical warehouses, etc. objects). Traditionally, not enough attention is paid to these spaces. Using the example of the design concept of the reconstruction of the park parking area of the FEFU campus, the article presents a number of project proposals that contribute to the aestheticization of the space around these utilitarian university facilities. As a result of the study, it was found that due to the peculiarities of the relief, microclimate, as well as the existing layout, traditional gardening techniques are not effective and alternative solutions are required. 1. As the main artistic technique, it is proposed to use the principle of "alleyness" to give the integrity of the previously designed disparate sectors of the garden and park area around the parking lot. 2. The main decorative element selected art objects in the form of unique arches on the high points of the sectors, which are connected by paths surrounded by greenery. 3. The stone is used as a decorative element. Stone lawns are an important part of the design of the territories adjacent to the parking lot, solving the problem of freezing, burning out lawn covering. As a result, the formed park area with attractive artistic elements will bring the necessary aestheticization around the parking lot and create a visual dominant. The proposed solutions can be adapted to other objects of the university environment that are experiencing similar problems.
Kozyrenko S.M., Babenko S.N. - Analysis of formation of the environment of the Orthodox rehabilitation centers pp. 11-33

DOI:
10.7256/2310-8673.2020.1.32111

Abstract: The subject of this research is presented by the peculiarities of formation of special environment contributing to active rehabilitation of the addicts and their return to society. The study is dedicated to the impact of spatial and object environment of the Orthodox retreats upon those who desire to get free from addictions, and how it becomes an environment for active psychotherapy. The amount of Orthodox rehabilitation centers grows each year, so is the number of addicts who voluntarily choose the retreats for rehabilitation in the ascetic living conditions. The scientific novelty consists in viewing the Orthodox rehabilitation centers as a conceptual environment, encouraging the addicts to recovery. Religious experience of drastic changes in person’s life as a result of his functional isolation as an addict, and living in a conceptually arranged environment, creates motivation to recovery. The research offers a review of specialized rehabilitation centers that reproduce the characteristics of Orthodox settlements of secluded type. The nature of design solution, formed as a sacredly important visual text of an Orthodox monastery/settlement, is considered as determining the worldview values and capable of shifting the idea of repentance and further revival in faith, which reveals the semantic constructs of the design [1]. The main conclusions lies in the fact that the impact of architectural environment upon the emotional state and behavior of a person allows considering the practice of Orthodox seclusion productive for overcoming the crisis states of the people defined as a result of chronic alcohol consumption and stimulants.
Bulatova E.K. - Architectural and tourist potential of Kyshtym pp. 12-25

DOI:
10.7256/2310-8673.2022.1.36717

Abstract: The current state of the small South Ural city of Kyshtym is considered from the point of view of its tourist attractiveness. The tourist potential of the city, its spectacular and infrastructural facilities are one of the main factors in the further course of the study. The purpose of the study is to analyze the state of the organization of regional tourism in the Chelyabinsk region in the small town of Kyshtym. The object of the study is the small town of Kyshtym in the Chelyabinsk region. The subject of the study is the analysis of elements of architectural and tourist potential, as a possible transformation of the city into a tourist center of regional significance. The current state of Kyshtym is analyzed from the point of view of its tourist and architectural attractiveness. For this purpose, the method "architectural and tourist potential in urban settlement conditions" is used [2], and its approbation on the example of the small town of the Southern Urals Kyshtym.The scientific novelty is indicated by the fact that with the help of the "tourist and architectural potential analysis" [2] the small town of Kyshtym appears before us not as an industrial and industrial settlement, but as a possible center of regional tourism with significant tourist and architectural potential and elements of tourist activity. Results: a graphoanalytical analysis of the assessment of objects and elements of tourist interest, as well as infrastructure facilities for tourist services in the South Ural city is presented. The sequential stages of analysis in this method are highlighted, starting from the identification of spectacular and infrastructural objects and up to graphic schemes for creating a tourist complex with tourist activity zones. Conclusions: the resulting factor of the analysis presented in the study is the rational use and restoration of monuments and objects of tourist activity in Kyshtym, the estimated calculation of the optimal size of tourist flows in the Southern Urals, the further use in the tourism industry of the created graphic schemes of the territorial development of the tourist center in Kyshtym.
Semushina I.S., Bazilevich M.E., Bazilevich E.M. - Features of the wooden buildings of Chita in the pre-revolutionary period pp. 14-24

DOI:
10.7256/2310-8673.2023.3.43556

EDN: SOHWZF

Abstract: The article reflects the intermediate results of a study conducted within the framework of the scientific project "Architects and engineers of the eastern outskirts of Russia (second half of the 19th - early 20th century)". Within the framework of this publication, the authors raise the question of the need to study and comprehend the unique layer of regional architecture - the preserved wooden buildings of the capital of the Trans-Baikal Territory, the city of Chita. Based on data from field surveys, the study of scientific literature and Internet resources, as well as data obtained in the course of work in the State Archives of the Trans-Baikal Territory, a systematic picture of the historical evolution of the wooden building of the city from the moment it was founded to the events of the October Revolution and the Civil War is presented for the first time. Particular attention is paid to the problems of developing the planning structure of the city and the ratio of wooden and stone buildings at different stages of its development. The features of the space-planning organization of buildings and structures of various typologies, the transformation of methods of decorative design of street facades and their dependence on the location of objects in the structure of the urban fabric are considered. Data are given on the creative and professional activities of a number of architects, engineers and other masters of architectural and construction art who worked in Chita in the period under review and who had a significant impact on the formation and development of the city's wooden buildings, as well as the spread of various architectural styles.
Puzhkina A.A., Kim A. - Sanatorium and wellness environment of the city of Khabarovsk. Main development trends pp. 16-28

DOI:
10.7256/2310-8673.2023.2.40061

EDN: RXOSZJ

Abstract: The author examines the history of the development of the architecture of medical institutions and the principles of its placement in the planning structure of the city of Khabarovsk. The analysis of expansion and development of medical institutions of the city of Khabarovsk from the end of the XIX century to the present day is carried out. Numerous examples of buildings of medical institutions are given, showing the main stages of development of this type of structures in the locality under consideration. The author analyzes the change in stylistic and compositional preferences in the organization of medical and sanatorium institutions. The perspective ways of further transformation of the sanatorium system in the aspect of architectural and urban planning design, taking into account regional peculiarities, are analyzed. In the course of the work, the following trends in the design of sanatorium and rehabilitation centers in the city were identified: 1) large block organization of the building, the formation of complexes; 2) emphasis on the intensity of treatment, the use of day hospitals; 3) individualization of design solutions, rejection of stereotypical hospital forms; 4) the formation of a humane space with therapeutic potential; 5) ecological approach and harmony with the environment. A systematic and comprehensive analysis of the subject of the study also revealed the main requirements for the formation of such institutions, such as the development of functional zoning and planning organization, taking into account the features of functionally new departments of treatment rooms with complex equipment and numerous communications.
Razvodova I. - The main features of the spatial structure of cities with a free landscape layout (The city of Yelets, Lipetsk region). pp. 16-31

DOI:
10.7256/2310-8673.2023.4.43451

EDN: DRTYSV

Abstract: The object of the study is the building system of the city of Yelets, developed by medieval architects and preserved to this day. The subject of this study is the main features of the spatial composition of the city of Yelets. The work is devoted to identifying the patterns underlying the unique development, which will not only preserve the advantages of the appearance of the city, but also competently develop the space in the future, taking into account current trends. The work is based on the study of Russian cities by G. V. Alferova, conducted in the second half of the XX century. Alferova revealed the presence of a compositional design in the construction of ancient cities. In this article, Alferova's ideas are developing. As a result of a systematic analysis of sources on the history of the Yelets Region, as well as a full-scale survey of the central and right-bank parts of the city, the main features of the spatial structure of the city are determined: complex multidimensional compositions of dominants, harmoniously subordinated to the natural features of the landscape; thoughtful organization of the so-called "prozors", creating a transparent open system of the city; the ability of the city to "accommodate" and arrange there are objects of different styles nearby, provided that the general rhythmic pattern is observed. Some weak points of the city were identified, formed due to the disregard by developers of the basic principles of city development. This study can help the development of not only Yelets, but also many cities with a similar type of layout.
Kazantsev P.A., Marus Y.V., Smelovskaya A.M. - Peculiarities of formation of the sustainable urban environment in the conditions of renovation of Vladivostoks water system pp. 18-32

DOI:
10.7256/2310-8673.2019.1.29014

Abstract: This article examines the peculiarities of formation of the sustainable urban environment in the conditions of rugged terrain and monsoon climate common for the city of Vladivostok, based on restoration of its natural hydrological cycle. The authors provide a brief overview of the current state of research on the topic of restoration and preservation of the natural hydrological cycle in urban environment; analyze the impact of the landscape-climatic factors upon the formation of hydrological cycle in the territory of Vladivostok; assesse the initial state and anthropogenic transformation of the natural carcass and water-collecting fabric of the landscape in the course of urban development of the south of the Muravyov-Amursky Peninsula. The research method contains the systematization of theoretical knowledge and design practices in the field of formation of the sustainable urban environment in the conditions of water system renovation the analysis of interaction of the urban planning pattern with the landscape and water system of the territory in accordance with the cartographic data of various years; on-side survey of and experimental design for the Obyasnenie River in Vladivostok. As a result, for the initial natural landscape of Vladivostok, are determine the three types of section of water-collecting fabric based on the seasonal variation of their contribution into the water content of the river system. The authors develop the index map of the water and landscape subsystems of the natural carcass of Vladivostok. Their correlation with the transport carcass and industrial zones allowed identifying the problematic territories and renovation reserves of the water system. In conclusion, the authors formulate the key directions in restoration of the natural hydrological cycle in urban territory as the foundation for formation of the sustainable urban environment within the region.
Kozyrenko S.M. - Environment that heals pp. 18-38

DOI:
10.7256/2310-8673.2020.4.33996

Abstract: The subject of this research is formation of the environment of rehabilitation centers for drug addicts and alcoholics, which can contribute to their recovery. The object of this research is the architectural environment, which is defined as a semantic field, themed for determining behavior of an individual or a particular group of people group of people. Such environment convinces people to lead drug-free and alcohol-free life. The author examines such aspects as the modern social problems related to mass isolation and loneliness. For many people, the urban environment becomes aggressive and uncomfortable. The desire of an individual to delve into the virtual space is understandable. The pandemic really aggravated this problem. The online mode of life (work, leisure, entertainment, communication, education) is conditioned by stressful situations, negative emotions, prolonged depression, and leads to misuse of psychotropic substances, drugs and alcohol. Special attention is given to the need for solution of social problems with the help of architecture and design – formation of in the urbanized environment of special space that would produce a positive impact, restore vital energy and capabilities of a person. The pandemic indicated rapid increase in the number of people who found escape from stress in alcohol and drugs. The main conclusion consists in create of such environment in the rehabilitation centers that would motivate the patients to fully recover. The author’s special contribution consists in on-site examination of the environment of rehabilitation centers and identification of problematic situations. This served as the foundation for determining the characteristics of environmental solutions. The novelty lies in determination of the semantic architectural environment of rehabilitation centers based on the drawings pf alcohol and drug addicts (environment-revival, environment-code, environment-motivation). There is currently no analogues to such environment.
Baklyskii P.V., Baklyskaia L.E. - Landmarked buildings in the urban environment and Khabarovsks experience of their preservation pp. 18-33

DOI:
10.7256/2310-8673.2021.1.34993

Abstract: The subject of this research is the problem of preservation of historical heritage aggravated to rapid urbanization, which is characteristic to many developing cities. Special attention is given to the existing trends of total destruction of historical and cultural monuments in the conditions of dense urban fabric. The relevance is defined by the dynamically increasing process of degradation, and at times, full destruction of environmental objects that are listed as state protected. The theoretical framework of this research is comprised of the system-environmental approach, which views the urban environment surrounding the landmarked object as a system that is in direct interaction with it. The novelty consists in practical application of theoretical provisions of the system-environmental approach to the specific conditions of Khabarovsk. Having explored over two dozen of landmarked buildings of the city, the authors reveal the contradiction between legislation intended for legal regulation of the protection and use of architectural heritage and the actual city practice of exploitation of historical buildings by the new owners of the landmarks. The study was conducted in cooperation and on behalf of Khabarovsk Regional Center for the Protection of Historical and Cultural Monuments. The results are used in practical activity of the center and in development of its strategic goals.
Bazilevich M.E. - Civil Engineers the architects of Yakutsk (mid XIX early XX centuries) pp. 21-33

DOI:
10.7256/2310-8673.2021.3.36507

Abstract: This article presents the materials of the research conducted by the author within the framework of the scientific project “Architects and Engineers of the Eastern Suburbs of Russia” (late XIX – early XX century)". The paper touches upon the spheres and results of activity of the graduates of Saint Petersburg Institute of Civil Engineering, who worked in Yakutsk in the pre-October period. Brief biographical records are provided on the following civil engineers: A. N. Aristov, N. V. Baumgarten, G. F. Katsienko, A. I. Kudryavtsev, K. A. Leshevich, G. V. Rozen, I. F. Tamulevich, and V. A. Shkalin. The significance of the preserved objects of artistic heritage of the graduates of Saint Petersburg Institute of Civil Engineering in the site development of the historical core of Yakutsk is described. Based on the field surveys and archival findings, the author presents the holistic picture of creative and professional activity of the graduates of Saint Petersburg Institute of Civil Engineering who worked in Yakutsk in the late XIX – early XX centuries. It is established that the administrative, urban planning and creative activity of civil engineers associated with routine work in the local government  bodies, coordination and planning of the projects of facilities of various purposes, had a considerable impact upon the development of regional architecture, and as well as new construction technologies of the large public buildings in the conditions of permafrost.
Figol D.D., Bazilevich M.E. - Nikitin's apartment buildings in Chita pp. 24-35

DOI:
10.7256/2310-8673.2022.3.38653

EDN: UBWRWJ

Abstract: The article reflects the results of the research conducted within the framework of the scientific project "Architects and engineers of the eastern suburbs of Russia (the second half of the XIX beginning of the XX century)". The publication examines the creative activity of the famous Trans-Baikal architect, a graduate of the St. Petersburg Imperial Academy of Arts Gavriil Vlasevich Nikitin, who worked in Chita at the beginning of the XX century. Brief biographical information is provided concerning the educational training of the architect, as well as his professional activities on the "outskirts" of the Russian Empire. On the basis of archival data and materials of field surveys, seven preserved buildings of apartment buildings built in the capital of Transbaikalia according to his projects have been identified. A brief digression into the history of the construction of these facilities is given, their spatial planning and stylistic features are considered. Apartment houses authored by G. V. Nikitin are of unconditional interest for historical and architectural science not only as examples of regional architecture of the pre-revolutionary period, but also as an example of the work of this master on a private order. Carrying out projects for representatives of the Chita merchant class, the architect managed to create a number of expressive structures that met the socio-economic and aesthetic needs of his time, as well as set the tone for the subsequent development of the central district of the city. The study showed that the architect mainly worked in the forms of eclecticism, skillfully combining motifs and elements of different architectural styles, thereby managing to form his own, well-recognized author's handwriting.
Bazilevich E.M. - Author's stucco decor in Khabarovsk pp. 27-37

DOI:
10.7256/2310-8673.2022.2.37938

Abstract: The subject of this article is the stucco decoration on the facade of the administrative building of the Art Foundation in Khabarovsk. The description and compositional analysis of the relief decorations of the facade of the building are presented. Sketches, drawings, photographs from the archive of the artist Genendlis M.A. are published, which allowed to establish the authorship of the studied decoration of the building and the time of its creation. In Khabarovsk, a number of pre-revolutionary buildings and many buildings built in the 1930s -1950s, the so-called "Stalinist style", are decorated with stucco decor. Mainly these are stucco plant garlands with festoons, traditional rosettes, sometimes with Soviet symbols, made on the basis of albums of standard samples. A sample of the author's stucco decoration on the facade of the administrative building of the Khabarovsk branch of the Art Fund is a unique object of urban architectural heritage, an example of a decorative work designed for a specific architectural object. The reliefs placed on the facade gave the building its originality and became artistic accents in the surrounding urban environment. The name of the author of the reliefs was forgotten during the seven decades that have passed since their creation in the late 1950s, but thanks to the study of archival materials, the author was identified - the decorator and sculptor M. A. Genendlis, who worked for a long time in Khabarovsk in the field of theatrical and decorative art, sculpture and the creation of architectural decor.
Khettou D., Razin A.D. - Principles of architectural organization and development of tourism objects in the coastal areas (Bejaia City, Algeria) pp. 33-43

DOI:
10.7256/2310-8673.2019.4.31563

Abstract: Currently, there is a high global demand for tourism objects. With its landscapes and Mediterranean Sea coastal areas, Algeria is well positioned for the construction of tourism objects, especially within the coastline. These places become as frequented by tourists as Europe. Moreover, two-thirds of Algerian population reside in the area, which generated uncontrolled urbanization. One of such coastal districts is Bejaia. The Bejaya region covers an area of 785 km2 and has a high potential for tourism ensured by the coastline of over 100 km. The region has a shortage of tourism objects and infrastructure, as well as problems of preservation of the surrounding environment. The article considers the question of sustainable development of tourism in Bejaia, as well as the various options for the placement of these objects in mountainous areas and coastline. The architectural organization of tourism may help in solving multiple issues in the development of Algeria.
Glatolenkova E. - Architecture of residential environment in the settlements along the Chinese Eastern Railway pp. 34-48

DOI:
10.7256/2310-8673.2020.1.32316

Abstract: This article examines the peculiarities of formation of residential areas along the Chinese Eastern Railway (CER); analyzes the pattern of settlements; and examines the architectural nuances of residential buildings. The object of this research is the architectural urban development peculiarities of Russian railroad stations on the territory of Northern Manchuria. The subject of this research is the residential environment in the settlements along the Chinese Eastern Railway. The chronological framework covers the first three decades of the XX century: beginning of construction and first years of exploitation of the railway, characterized by active urban development process and creation of full-fledged environment for accommodation of construction workers, railway workers, migrants from Russia, Southern Manchuria and mainland China. The theoretical foundation for this study consists in the systemic-axiological approach, according to which the culture defines the system of materialistic and spiritual values passed from one generation to another, and allows determining the value grounds of cultural interaction and its panhuman significance. The work explores the peculiarities of architecture and urban development in the settlements along CER. Study is carried out on the construction process of the railway and living conditions of first workers, approaches towards design of the stations of the main line and the southern branch, as well as architecture of residential building of the settlements. The author considers the impact of Russian environment upon the existing Chinese cities, and the use of the traditional Chinese approaches in the projects by the Russian engineers and architects.
Wagner E. - Complex potential and assessment of efficiency of the functionality of architectural environment of public pedestrian spaces in the context of the established urban development pp. 35-50

DOI:
10.7256/2310-8673.2017.1.22465

Abstract: This article examines the aspects of assessment of efficiency of the functionality of architectural environment of public pedestrian spaces. Special attention is given to the analysis of characteristics of the pedestrian activity, which reflect the level of social efficiency of functionality of the public pedestrian spaces. In the result of the conducted research, the author determines that each fragment of the pedestrian network represents a dynamic space, the state and functions of which constantly change depending on such factors, as weather conditions, time of the day, mood of the residents, and other that create the circumstances for realization of certain types of activity – processes that reflects the important properties of the architectural environment of urban public spaces. The article examines the classification of process carried out within the architectural environment of the public pedestrian spaces. The author analyzes the existing methods, which allow classifying and assessing the types of pedestrian activity, as well as formulates the methodology of identification of the level of social efficiency of the architectural environment of public pedestrian spaces within the formed urban development. The scientific novelty of the article consists in substantiation and systematization of the processes that take place in the public pedestrian spaces along with their development and classification. The methods and principles laid in the methodology of assessment of the social efficiency of functionality of the public pedestrian spaces allow on the stages of pre-project analyses, internal audit and external expertize of the projects and implemented decisions, determining the format and vectors of reconstruction of the public pedestrian spaces in the conditions of the established urban environment. 
Glatolenkova E., Ivanova A.P. - Architectural heritage of Eastern Russian railways pp. 35-54

DOI:
10.7256/2310-8673.2021.4.36372

Abstract: This article covers the topic of museumification of railway architecture along the eastern sections of the former Great Siberian Railway located in the Russian Far East and Northeast China. Currently this is the lines of the Far Eastern Railway (part of Trans-Siberian Railway) and the Chinese lines of Binzhou and Binhai. Analysis is conducted on the museum objects that are diverse in their origin, but belonged to the large-scale railway construction of the late XIX – early XX centuries and played a significant role in the development of scarcely populated regions: 1) placed in former locomotive depots that are no longer used as intended; 2) new models based upon former passenger terminal buildings. The article reviews the experience of museumification of railway architecture not only in the Russian cities, but also the works of Chinese colleagues, employees of the center for conservation of Russian heritage in Harbin, on projects of which were reconstructed dozens of railway objects –along the former Chinese Eastern Railway. The authors believe it is important in light of the study of the problems of conservation of similar objects in the territory of Russia (Khabarovsk – Vladivostok, Ussuriysk – Grodekovo, etc.). A brief overview is given to utilization of the objects of railway architecture in the Russian Far East  (Khabarovsk, Vyazemsky) and People’s Republic of China (Harbin, Manchuria, Handaohezi, Buhedu, and Anyang). The article also describes the projects aimed preservation of the regional heritage of the turn of centuries, carried out by the students of Pacific National University in Khabarovsk.
Malykh S.V. - The role of outdoor advertising in establishment of a city image pp. 40-47

DOI:
10.7256/2310-8673.2017.4.24680

Abstract: The subject of this article is the image of Irkutsk in perception of its residents through the images and forms of outdoor advertising placed in various districts of the city. The author examines the forms and types of the impact of advertising upon the social and territorial identity and perceptual unity of the urban environment. Special attention is given to the social and commercial advertising, evaluation of aggressiveness and harmonization of social space through the advertising images. The author also underlines the difference in perceiving advertising messages by males and females. The study applies the method of expert survey that consisted of 46 expert interviews of the representatives of government and business involved on advertising and advertising structures, as well as polling of 1,200 residents of Irkutsk. The scientific novelty lies in carrying out the analysis of outdoor advertising of the urban space of Irkutsk, determining the nationwide trends, and demonstrating the territorial peculiarities.
Zvonareva P.P., Filipskaya I.V., Yangulova I.V. - Rational approach towards renovation of public spaces in Krasnoyarsk pp. 42-55

DOI:
10.7256/2310-8673.2021.3.36219

Abstract: This article examines public spaces in the urban environment of Krasnoyarsk and outlines current trends in design. The object of this research is the territories with hydraulic structures – fountains, which have lost their attractiveness and relevance, currently undergo dismantling and remodeling. The author analyzes the needs of Krasnoyarsk residents, latest trends in design and organization of public spaces in Krasnoyarsk. The article describes remodeling of the two most popular fountains of the city as most popular for promenades: the fountain “Adam and Eve”, which now is the sculpture “Valentine and Valentina”; and the fountain “The Seize of Europe”. The research is based on the method of analysis and synthesis of public opinion determined in the course of questionnaires, expert assessments and scientific inquiries regarding the dynamics of urban development. The analysis of beautification of streets of Krasnoyarsk allows assessing the current state of the outdoor furniture in recreation areas. Examples are provided of both a successful approach towards layout of public urban spaces, as well as the projects which potential has not been fulfilled. The author proposes new layout solutions that take into account complex needs of the consumer. The theme of beautification of territory around the fountain remains relevance, and urban planning departments are interested in selecting high-quality outdoor furniture with consideration of color and texture of the materials, laws of rational composition, and maintainability.
Kozyrenko S.M. - Features of the organization of the environment of commercial rehabilitation centers pp. 44-60

DOI:
10.7256/2310-8673.2020.3.33701

Abstract: The subject of the study is the peculiarities of the organization of the environment of specific centers, the main activity of which is the direction of the recovery of patients. The object of the study is domestic and foreign commercial rehabilitation centers for drug addicts and alcoholics. The increase in their number indicates the growth of a dangerous disease. The author examines in detail such aspects of the problem as the organization of rehabilitation centers abroad and in Russia and notes the main directions in the formation of an environment for the rehabilitation of patients with alcoholism and drug addiction. Special attention is paid in the article to the peculiarities of the environmental organization of rehabilitation centers. In this context, their architectural and planning solution and spatial design are of great importance.The main conclusions of the study are to identify the features of the environment of rehabilitation centers, which are determined through their organization (comfortable, safe, friendly, shock environment). The author's special contribution to the research of the topic is to determine the typological characteristics of existing rehabilitation centers (VIP-houses, hotel, family types, cottage, work, motivational) and their functional and planning formation. The novelty lies in the fact that the author conducted a comprehensive study, as a result of which the main characteristics of the environmental organization of rehabilitation centers, as well as their typological features, were determined. This allows us to identify promising areas in their creation and development.
Baklyskaia L.E., Chukmareva E.A., Fisheva N.O. - Atrium on the university campus pp. 44-59

DOI:
10.7256/2310-8673.2023.3.43888

EDN: VGZYKH

Abstract: The article discusses atrium spaces in the university environment. The subject of the study is the architectural and design organization of informal learning spaces (open atriums). The relevance of the research is determined by the importance of the practical implementation of the ideas and principles of using atrium spaces in the design of the learning environment, including when developing a detailed plan for the creation of an intercollegiate campus on the basis of the Pacific National University (PNU) in the city of Khabarovsk. Campus concepts involve a large number of open educational spaces and transformable classrooms. Particular attention is paid to the study of students' preferences in determining the key characteristics of spaces for informal learning that determine their use.The novelty of the research may be the identification of design features of informal learning spaces (open atriums) and consideration of techniques for shaping environmental objects of this type from general design principles to the development of subject content. The case study was conducted at the Department of Architectural Environment Design of Pacific National University. Mixed research methods were used, including observation, visual analysis, questionnaires and interviews, as well as testing of theoretical conclusions in diploma and course projects of students of PNU. The main results of the work are the basis for further research and can be used to develop future strategies for designing informal learning spaces.
Glatolenkova E. - Architectural Planning Features of Class II Stations of the Ussuri Railway: Vladivostok and Khabarovsk pp. 45-60

DOI:
10.7256/2310-8673.2022.3.38646

EDN: URGXMF

Abstract: The subject of the study is the architectural and urban planning features of Class II stations on the section of the TransSiberian Railway - the Ussuriyskaya Railway (the historical name of the line), the most remote from Moscow and St. Petersburg. The article discusses the final stations of the route Vladivostok and Khabarovsk during the years of construction and in the first years of operation (the time frame can be conditionally considered from 1891 the laying of the road, until the early 1910s - the preparation of projects for the reconstruction and expansion of stations). The author pays special attention to the study of village layouts, the mutual location of the main objects passenger buildings, squares, streets; the current state of railway development is analyzed. The paper presents the materials obtained during the field surveys and research studies of the author in 2021-2022. It is emphasized that railway stations and their simple, at first glance, architectural design are part of the grandiose ensemble of the Great Siberian Way, original monuments of the era, and as such are of considerable research interest. Architectural and town-planning features of the first railway stations of Vladivostok and Khabarovsk are analyzed for the first time. The necessity of further comprehensive study of the railway development of cities and towns in the south of the Far East, including for the development of measures for its preservation and popularization of industrial architectural heritage, was noted.
Fedchenko I.G., Chui Y.V., Kamalova K.V. - Trends in formation of residential areas at the beginning of the XXI century pp. 49-67

DOI:
10.7256/2310-8673.2020.1.29356

Abstract: This article is dedicated to the research on current trends in formation of residential areas of the early XXI century. The dynamic of development of modern cities forms new perceptions on advancement of living spaces. The increase of mobility, multifunctionality, problems of social stratification, segregation, as well as growing dynamic of functional integration of production activity into residential environment and formation of socio-iconological worldview of society lead to visual transformation of residential areas. The global experience of city planning is being infiltrated by the newest 3D-planning solutions of residential development projects, forming new structural components of public spaces, and change social-functional characteristics of residential architecture, which is of particular interest for the modern theory of urban development. The article generalizes the development patterns of urbanized territories of large cities that impact the emergence of new forms of living spaces, new types of public spaces, and residential architecture. Characteristic is given to the modern principles of formation of residential areas. The research is carried out with financial support from the Russian Foundation for Basic Research in the context of scientific project No.18-312-00177.
Pochtovaia A.V. - The Design Solutions of Innovation Centers pp. 50-61

DOI:
10.7256/2310-8673.2023.4.69062

EDN: LTAUXZ

Abstract: The article examines the innovation center as an architectural object that creates conditions for research, cooperation between various economic entities and the production of knowledge-intensive products. The article subject is the design of innovation centers. The relevance of their consideration is due to the special attention of the state, the architectural community, and commercial enterprises. High quality of design solutions and symbolism of the architectural image are the basis for the innovation centers design, a competitive advantage in attracting and retaining highly skilled specialists. The study uses a graphic-analytical method and multifactor analysis of studying and systematizing the material (analysis of master plans, architectural drawings, engineering solutions). The contribution of the article consist in the identification and systematization of innovation centers architectural design solutions. The models of innovation centers design were made on urban, planning, and spatial characteristics of innovation centers. A computer program for data processing was used. The influence on the innovation centers design proceeds from organization structure, different types of ownership (university, government and commercial) and the location (city center, city district, suburbia, intercity territory). The total sample of the study consisted of 144 objects. It provides accurate result and the possibility of using the findings by professional architectural community.
Kuryleva L.A. - Lighting of public spaces of the historical center of Saratov pp. 52-57

DOI:
10.7256/2310-8673.2017.2.23243

Abstract: This article analyzes the state of artificial lighting of the major squares, embankments, pedestrian precincts and avenues in the historical part of Saratov as the most popular public cultural spaces among its visitors and residents. The author provides the main results of the conducted social survey of the city population regarding the quality of night lighting environment of the claimed territories, as well as presents a descriptive analysis of the visual inspection of the spaces of historical center of Saratov under the conditions of artificial lighting. During the course of this research, took place the field measurements of the levels of horizontal, cylindrical, and semi-cylindrical lighting of the territories, as well as comparison of the acquired data with the standards. The author determines the negative and positive aspects of the existing artificial lighting environment, gives assessment to their convenience and attractiveness for the population. The article also suggests recommendations on increasing the quality of artificial lighting of the aforementioned territories, as well as guidance on further research.
Panchuk A.V., Samsonova E.M., Kim A.A. - Art and creative spaces in the context of architectural and art education pp. 55-66

DOI:
10.7256/2310-8673.2023.2.40756

EDN: CYFOIT

Abstract: The main subject of the article is the definition and typology of creative spaces. The goal is a search for an architectural solution for creative space in the university environment. Tasks: compilation of the terminological base of the study; typologization of public and educational creative spaces; formation of the creative cluster concept of the intercollegiate campus in Khabarovsk. The relevance of the topic is due to the growing demand for new university spaces, including those implemented within the framework of the federal program for the creation of world-class campuses, taking into account new forms and methods of organizing educational processes. Qualitative content analysis was used as a method in this article. In general, the methods of photofixation, sociological survey, modeling were used in the study. At the beginning of the article, the terminological base of the study is established, based on the difference in the etymology and semantics of the term "creativity". The first meaning of the term refers to the initiative of generating unusual ideas and social format. The second meaning refers to the process of producing new items, cultural phenomena and individual format. The analysis of the research of public creative spaces allows us to identify the main criteria of typology: according to the initial data, according to the functions, according to the method and purpose of the organization, according to the way the space is organized. The analysis of specialized workshops at universities with creative directions was based on the criteria of the educational process organization. The novelty of the research consists in an attempt to combine narrow-profile educational spaces of architectural and artistic directions with public creative spaces within the framework of the intercollegiate campus in Khabarovsk. The research hypothesis is the art and creative university spaces co-organization contributes to the fulfillment of the university mission 3.0.
Ivanova A.S. - Approaches to formation of virtual reality in the works of Maurits Cornelis Escher for designing the architectural space pp. 63-76

DOI:
10.7256/2310-8673.2018.4.27710

Abstract: The subject of this research is the origins of the phenomenon of virtual reality in architecture, which advances the thought on the ambiguous impact of the works of the Dutch artist M. K. Escher upon the theoretical aspects of emergence of the new paradigm of the XXI century in architecture. The object of this research is the base effects of illusory perception, generated by the artist in his compositions. Special attention is given to determination and substantiation of the conceptual-theoretical phenomenon of the emergence of virtual reality paradigm in the practical artistic works that reflects the varieties of time and space paradoxes. The article applies the method of analysis of historiographical base of the studies of foreign authors for the formation of theoretical foundation of the modern scientific explanation in manifestations of the virtual reality of architectural environment. The conclusions are based on the conceptual systematization of “visual effects” in the works of M. K. Escher, examples of their interpretations in architecture by his successors, which became the means of a modern architect and designer, and increasingly predetermine the quality of visual perception of the architectural space.
Berestovskaya D., Petrenko A. - Semiotics of architecture in the urban space of cultural landscapes pp. 68-78

DOI:
10.7256/2310-8673.2019.1.28999

Abstract: This article examines the problem of symbolic urban space, as well as reveals the essence of a city as cultural text, while the signs and symbols as the information carriers. In the course of this research, the author analyzes the structure and principles of the establishment of architectural space, which is a complex multilevel system, integrated symbolic formation, which remains in constant pursuit of the own architectural image. The study of architectural space leads to contemplation of spatial phenomena related to regional uniqueness. The comprehensive analysis of this problematic implies the use of the variety of sources for studying the specificity of architecture of particular cities, issues regarding the establishment of urban space, its transformation, changes in sociocultural situation, and other aspects. Semiotics as the methodology for studying architectural space serves as foundation for the analysis. For the first time, from the perspective of semiotic approach, the author analyzes the architecture of Crimean cities in the context of the uniqueness of cultural landscape of the Crimean Peninsula, which carries certain information enclosed within sign system. Y. M. Lotman’s theory of semiosphere  alongside V. L. Kagansky’s concept of landscape hermeneutic, viewed in the context of regional specificities, underlie the analysis of the indicated cultural landscape. The research reflects a new approach towards studying the Crimean urban space as the cultural landscape, based on the sociocultural problematic of modern urban studies. City is interpreted as a social phenomenon, characteristic with system symbols, perception of which changes dynamically due to ongoing processes in the Crimean Peninsula.
Gantsov M., Murina N.V. - Academic traditions of pre-university training in the system of school-studio education for future students of architects and designers (on the example of the experience of ten studio schools in Krasnoyarsk) pp. 68-80

DOI:
10.7256/2310-8673.2021.4.35231

Abstract: The subject of this research is the methodological approaches in the pre-university career guidance training of future students of architecture and design universities, organized in the system of pre-university or school general education – on the example of the activities of selected ten studio schools in the city of Krasnoyarsk. The goal of this work is to identify peculiarities of methodological organization of pre-university training for the development of their abilities to master future architectural and artistic professions. The results of the conducted research are presented by a set of revealed methodological features in the system of pre-university architectural and design training in teaching such key art disciplines as drawing, painting, composition (paper plastic, prototyping), and graphics.The novelty lies in the integrated approach towards the analysis of the structure of artistic training in studio schools, combining various visual disciplines, as well as in the comparative study of specific practices of pre-university training in Krasnoyarsk studios aimed at vocational architectural and artistic training. The acquired conclusions indicate the effectiveness of methods for the development of students' artistic abilities through the use of traditional academic methods of training within the framework of the key visual art disciplines, such as drawing, painting, composition, graphics.
Gorelova Y.R. - City as a concept and a visual artistic image pp. 74-89

DOI:
10.7256/2310-8673.2018.1.24086

Abstract: This article portrays city as a certain mental construct, cluster of ideas, as well as analyses the essential features of a city, which allow identifying the distinctness of such fragment of reality in people's perception. The author analyzes the connection between the terms of "concept" and "image", considering their interaction at the level of essence and structure. Particular attention is paid to the specificity of artistic image as a special type of imagery, along with the images of everyday perception, official images, and others. At the same time, prioritized attention is given to the specificity of artistic imagery of the city captured in the visual arts. The author reveals the dynamics of the key trends in reflecting a city as a concept in the works of artists of various eras. Peculiar for this study became the imposition of subject areas of a city as a concept (as a term, mental construct) and methods of working with visual sources, namely the analysis of visual "texts" in form of the urban landscapes (the author compiled 843 city landscapes). A link is established between the term of "city" and the spectrum of qualities, characteristics and associations that stand behind it and form the perception of such fragment of reality. Analyzing the connection between the terms of "concept" and "image", the author concludes that the image and the concept have a similar structure (centered core, following by concentric layers in proportion to weakening of characteristic and decrease of its importance and awareness in the consciousness of recipients). However, the term of "image" is broader, filled with visual and emotional components. The concept is more focused on the category of essential and typical features, as well as familiar meanings. Describing the specificity of artistic image, the author notes that it is related to specificity of the sphere of art, which  distinctness manifests in subjectivity and emotionality of perception and presentation. The author determines the range of basic characteristics included in the concept of "city" that allow singling out the specific perception of this fragment within the framework of artistic imagery reproduced in works of art.
Burova O.G. - Small architectural form: assessment of load-carrying capacity and selection of optimal module frame based on structural weight pp. 79-87

DOI:
10.7256/2310-8673.2019.1.29172

Abstract: This article is dedicated to the questions of engineering of structural frames for small architectural forms. The object of this research is the bearing frame of multifunctional module of the small architectural forms, intended for increasing comfort level of stay, recreation and awareness of population in urban and suburban environment. For comparative assessment and search of minimal weight construct, the author analyzes the options of frame manufacturing from steel, aluminum, and fiberglass. The module frame represents a framed structure consisting of rectangular cross-section tubular elements. The modelling of stress-stain state and evaluation of load-carrying capacity of the frame for various combinations of loading were conducted using the finite element method. The results of multi-variable calculations demonstrate that in ensuring the requirements of durability and rigidity the construct made out of composite material is lighter that the steel and aluminum alternative by about 71 and 7% respectively. The author formulates the factors limiting the reduction of material intensity of the constructs made out of composite materials and offset their advantages if compared to metallic materials.
Mukhamedzhanova N.M. - Social fabric of the city in the mirror of architecture pp. 81-90

DOI:
10.7256/2310-8673.2021.4.36510

Abstract: The relevance of the selected topic is determined by the fact that the city first and foremost is the center of culture and civilization, which characterizes the development of the surrounding territory and the entire country; secondly, it is the most vivid manifestation of social challenges that modern society is faced to solve. The goal of this research lies in tracing interrelation between the social problems of modern society and the architectural environment of the city. The subject of this article is the modern urban residential development, which is the center of people’s everyday life, as well as forms their attitude towards the city and the country overall. The theoretical framework is comprised of the basic provisions of urban studies presented by the Western and Russian authors: F. Braudel, A. Gutnov, G. Simmel, L. Wirth, R. Park, G. Revzin, F. Urban, C. Ellard, and others. The author proves that the development of capitalist relations in the XX century posed a problem of large-scale housing development, which had to meet the two key requirements: a) be affordable for the consumer; b) be profitable for the property developer. Industrialization, unification and typification of construction became the way to solve this task – the modern urban neighborhood units, slums of industrial and postindustrial era, in which there is neither past nor future alongside social hierarchy and local community united by common goals and values. Having assessed this phenomenon, the author proves that living in such environment aggravates the social, spiritual, and psychological problems of citizens, described by the classics of urban studies. Therefore, the main conflict of modern city is the clash between the economic efficiency of housing development and the aesthetic requirements for the organization of residential environment. This conflict goes beyond the framework of architecture due to the fact that the principles of industrialization, unification, and typification are now universal to all spheres of social life, including culture.
Kozyrenko I.S. - Contemporary styles and images in Harbin architecture pp. 82-103

DOI:
10.7256/2310-8673.2020.1.32190

Abstract: The object of this research is the contemporary architecture of Harbin, which is currently developing as a megalopolis of the Northeast of China. The subject of this research is the architectural peculiarities of cultural public objects, built in the first decade of the XXI century. At the present time, Harbin determines the old districts of the Russian period of development of the city; new building imitating historical architectural styles; and unique objects of cultural designation. The authors of exclusive projects and the Chinese architectural firms that recently improves their rating not only in China, but also abroad. The scientific novelty is defined by the rapid construction rates in Harbin and formation of its new architectural image. The article is first to explore contemporary architecture of the unique objects for the purpose of determination of stylistic and imagery characteristics. This would allow forecasting future development of architectural environment of the “Russian Atlantis”. The main conclusion consists in the fact that Harbin actively develops cultural functions that increase its status as an international tourism center. Chinese and foreign architectural firms are attracted to design of the objects. Their works indicate the search of memorable and remarkable objects with attached profound semantic meaning. Contemporary architectural objects reflect history, culture and traditions of China, as well as innovative approaches to the formation of urban environment.
Khettou D., Razin A.D. - Strategies for the sustainable development of tourism through the design of tourist facilities (example of the Algerian coast) pp. 91-101

DOI:
10.7256/2310-8673.2020.3.34070

Abstract: The development of sustainable tourism has become a growing trend in multi-level projects in developing countries aimed at supporting the economy and preserving the ecosystem. Despite the fact that Algeria is considered one of the richest and most diverse countries in Africa, the development of tourism on its 1200 km coastline faces many problems and difficulties. One of these obstacles is the lack of a comprehensive strategy that guarantees the development of the tourism sector. In recent years, the economic importance of tourism has grown significantly. However, the tourism industry without a properly planned strategy, as in the case of Algeria, cannot provide the expected economic growth. The purpose of this article is a theoretical review of various strategies for sustainable development through the development of various tourist facilities on the Algerian coast, as well as an assessment of the selected strategies for the development of tourism in Algeria in terms of urban infrastructure, ecosystems, the growth of the number and quality of architectural structures. Methodologically, this study analyzes various strategies of sustainable tourism development applied in the world. The study examines tourism development strategies and the role of designing various types of tourist facilities and resorts for the development of this industry in the coastal areas of Algeria, taking into account the conservation of natural resources and biodiversity.
Smol'yaninova T.A. - Consular Buildings as an Image of Foreign Architecture in the Cities of Northeast China pp. 97-106

DOI:
10.7256/2310-8673.2023.2.38331

EDN: RVDKTJ

Abstract: The subject of the article is the buildings of consular offices in the cities of Northeast China. The object of the study is the architectural features of the preserved buildings of consular institutions. The author examines and analyzes consular institutions during the period of their appearance and the formation of the basic principles of their design at the end of the 19th - first half of the 20th century on the territory of Northeast China. The historical prerequisites for the appearance of consular institutions are considered. The principles of the placement of consular offices in the cities of Manchuria are highlighted, depending on their status, transport links, the location of administrative zones of settlements and the peculiarities of the layout of Chinese districts. In the course of the study, the peculiarities of the location of consular buildings were revealed depending on the urban planning position in the urban structure and their significance. The architectural appearance of consular facilities is briefly analyzed, which is presented in the form of a generalized table of graphic images. It presents the preserved representative objects of consular institutions and enlarged decorative elements. The compositional and stylistic features of the buildings of consulates are analyzed. The main conclusions of the study are that consular offices were important objects for the formation of compositional structures of cities, raising their prestige. The architecture of the consular buildings, reflecting the stylistics of different countries, filled the cities with stylistic flavor, increased the level of improvement of the territories adjacent to these buildings.
Kazantsev P.A., Lobacheva M.A. - The peculiarities of formation of sustainable architectural environment using green photobioreactors pp. 109-126

DOI:
10.7256/2310-8673.2021.1.35477

Abstract: The subject of this research is the peculiarities of formation of sustainable architectural environment using green photobioreactors – a technical devices that ensures specific conditions for the life cycle of microalgae. In global practice, this direction is known as “Algaetecture”. The authors define “Algaetecture” as a set of measures and means for the formation of environmentally sustainable urban environment, based on the integration of green photobioreactor systems into the structure of open and closed urban spaces. The research demonstrated that the spatial characteristics of objects containing photobioreactor systems are directly associated with the conditions for the life cycle of microalgae. Modelling of the shape for enduring the life cycle of microalgae is one of the leading factors in the formation of volumetric planning characteristics of buildings, development of landscape design of the vicinity, and architectural solution of the photobioreactor systems themselves. As a result, the author determines the main methods of creating urban environment that maximize the efficiency of based on photobioreactors green systems that are integrated into the building. This includes: consideration of local climate peculiarities in development of spatial characteristics of the buildings, namely for redistribution of solar radiation; use of various techniques for the formation of multilayered, weather-adaptive façade envelopes and roofs of the buildings; ensuring the interface between the architecture of external photobioreactor systems and interior environment of the buildings for creating the inside light and heat comfort; formation of the vicinity open spaces and surfaces of the building that contains photobioreactors, as a unified system that regulates insolation and wind streams; combination of different photobioreactor systems and microalgae cultures, including in the one particular architectural object. Based on the acquires results, the author offers solutions for the volume, surfaces and territory of a building that includes photobioreactor systems, considering the specificity of the monsoon climate of Southern Primorye. The recommendations are elaborated on the development of the architecture of photobioreactor systems for the facades of buildings depending on their expansion into the main sectors of the horizon.
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