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MAIN PAGE > Journal "Philosophical Thought" > Rubric "Ontology: being and nihility"
Ontology: being and nihility
Kutyrev V.A. - Cognitisation of the World: its Philosophical and Historical Foundations pp. 1-45
Abstract: The article is dedicated to review of historical forms of cognitive modeling of reality: ontology, gnoseology, epistemology, cognitology. Qualitative and notional kind of cognition is replaced by quantitative and formal within direction of «cognitivism». «Logos» is reduced to «mathesis». Transcendental philosophical systems of Kant and Husserl can be considered as a basis of «cognitivism». Postmodernism (first of all in the person of Deleuze) overcame incoherence of these systems and replaced «identity and contradiction» as a substantiaties principle of thinking by «difference and repetition» in its radical interpretation. This is informationism. It means the replacement of ontology by nihitology, the replacement of human objective sensual universe by constructed, cognitive post-human world.
Maydanov A.S. - Cosmos in the Mirror of Mythology and Science pp. 1-52
Abstract: The article describes the views of the Vedas authors on cosmogenesis and how the picture of cosmogenesis developed from antropomorphic models to biomorphic and physiomorphic models. It is shown how the mythology formed the basic questions of all subsequent cosmology regarding fundamental characteristics of the universe - its beginning, genesis, structure, sources of its dynamics and the role of human as a living creature, i.e. part of the world. The author of the article also investigated the features of the cosmological thinking of archaic humans, methods and techniques of such thinking and the strategy of understanding the history of the universe. All these factors are considered in terms of their development and contribution to the modern cosmological thinking. The author of the article offers new interpretations of some extremely complex but cognitively informative images of gods - demiurges of the Universe that are analyzed from the epistemological point of view.
Prokhorov M.M. - Existence and history: interrelation and definition pp. 1-71


Abstract: Summary: This article explores the interrelation between and the definition of categories of existence and history. Special attention is given to the culture of the definition of existence. The author analyzes the relationship between existence and history, describes the law of communication between history and existence, and delves into the substantive level of definitions of existence and concomitant prejudices. The article explains that the substantive level of existence correlates to an inherent historical level, at which existence appears in the form of human activity. The correlation of tendencies to cephalization in the history of the evolution of animals and to humanization in the history of people is explored. Discrepancies in human history are investigated, as is the necessity to bring together the various strands of its emerging evolution.
Prokhorov M.M. - Attributive Definition of Being: the Third Historical Form of Contrast of Dialectics and Metaphysics pp. 1-100
Abstract: The present article is the third article in a series started with the article «Being and history: relation and definition». The present article is devoted to the attributive level of definition of 'being'. The first part of the article is the introduction that contains general provisions. These provisions are followed by an explication of an essence of attributive level of definition of 'being' in terms of such ontological categories the thing, property and relation. The following part of the article describes historical forms of contrast of dialectics and metaphysics and analyzes the philosophy of Russian cosmism as it is presented by the contemporary follower of Russian cosmism. In addition, the history of post-Soviet Russia is presented as the evidence of existence of the third historical form of contrast of dialectics and metaphysics, i.e. positive and negative dialectics. The other part of the article contains the research of rarely quoted works of Jacque Derrida about Hegel. The article is ended with a very important description of particular historical properties and features of the modern age.  
Prokhorov M.M. - Ontology: «Existence and Non-existence» or «Being and Essence»? pp. 1-102


Abstract: Paper is the fourth in a series of "Being and history: the relationship and determination." It is devoted to the justification of not "being and / or non-existence," and the correlative of 'beings and things, "is the basis of all the other problems in the study of philosophical ontology, that of him, to play with the relationship-being and existence, formed a correlate of philosophy and Science, which reflects the reality of a being and existence.In the first chapter examined and explicated meaning correlativity categories of being and existence, is reflected in the correlation with the relative philosophy and science. It is shown that the reality can not be disclosed separately either science or philosophy. She played in the mind only their correlate or co-relation. In the second chapter of the article reveals the history and logic of relation of philosophy and science. Isolated and characterized the main types of relations, the dialectical interaction of philosophy and science. The author believes that all relevant to these types of "concepts" reproduce the co-relation of philosophy and science, but the concept of each match, so to speak, its own reality relationship of philosophy and science. Some are "on the surface", while others go in depth, up to the essence of the deepest order. Three types of relation of philosophy and science: antiinteraktsionizm, reductionism (two species) and the dialectical model of interaction. The third chapter of the characteristic of the philosophical foundations of science, in the fourth - The essence of the "philosophy of science". Finally, given the conclusions of the article.
Ryabushkina T. - Self-Reflection as a Method of Self-Knowledge: On the Question about the Crisis of Foundations of the Cartesian and Post-Cartesian Theories of Subjectivity pp. 1-59


Abstract: The article shows that the concept of reflection ( the basic concept of Cartesian theory of knowledge) determines fundamental difficulties not only for classical conceptions of self-knowledge but also for modern conceptions that deny the subject-object relation of self-knowledge. Not declarative but real refusal from self-reflection as a method of self-knowledge proves to be the key to finding a productive approach to understanding of subjectivity.
Kutyrev V.A. - Cognitizatino of Reality as Destruction of Human Life World pp. 1-39


Abstract: Cognitology is the theory of informatisation, communication kind of thinking, devoid of consciousness, images and mind. Devoid of reflection, it turns into AI (artificial intelligence). This will unprecedented post-human universe of otherworld, in the ontological sense. The philosophy of science primary goal is the formation of spiritual elite as a sphere interaction qualitative being, on the one hand, cognitive forms, on the other hand. They are transmission in the society. For survival in a hi-tech world requires the creation and support geocentrically and anthropologically justified consciousness. After postmodernism – «gomodern».
Prokhorov M.M. - Principle of Unity of Being and History in Philosophical World View pp. 1-81


Abstract: The author of the article raises a question about renovation of philosophical world view. This question can be solved through implementation of the principle of unity, i.e. interdependence of being and history as the grounds for creating a philosophical picture of the world, human and human attitude to the world. The article is composed of the three parts. The first part is devoted to interpretation of philosophical world view and its structure. The second part represents the results of research of historical forms of opposition between dialectics and metaphysics. The third part describes the 'being and consciousness' and 'being and history' relations from the point of view of philosophical anthropology. 
Iakovlev V.A. - Information Unity of Being: Conciousness, Life and Materia pp. 1-57


Abstract: The main philosophical concept such as space, time, motion, essence, existence, substance, subject and object, in fact, derive from the concept of 'being', represent different aspects thereof and form some kind of a metaphysical frame (cluster or pool) that is used to describe all famous universal phenomena in this way or another. This 'hard core' (according to Imre Lakatos) of all natural science and philosophical research programs conducted by the majority of philosophers, cultural researchers, theologists and scientists has been called 'metaphysics' since Andronicus of Rhodes published Aristotle's works. The author of the article offers a new interpretation of being as information reality that unites the three important elements of the universe - conciousness, life and materia. The research is based on historical and philosophical traditions of interpreting the category of 'being' and definition of being in modern natural science. In modern natural science and socio-cultural research the category 'being' means information being or existence of information represented as the unity of the three spheres of reality - conciousness (reason), life and materia. 
Demenev D.N. - Rational Element as One of the Most Important Ontological Grounds of the Creative Process pp. 1-49


Abstract: The article is devoted to the question about the rational part of the creative process and its relation to the sensual element. Describing the structure of art process as starting from the sensual level, the author proves the need in rational grounds of art, too. Concrete thinking and abstract thinking of an artist create such grounds. These cogitation patterns exist in the creative process and often transform from one to another. These patterns lie in the basis of the outcome of art process. The result of any creative process of an artist is either images resembling (reflecting) something or true art images created based on a certain degree of abstraction. The former images are easy to understand so they satisfy tastes of the majority of people and the latter images are not so comprehensive  and therefore are not always understood by the audience. The author of the present article tries to answer the question about what makes such 'ununderstandable' artwork to be created? At the end of the article the author makes a conclusino that being one of the most important ontological grounds of the creative process, the rational element is interchangeable with the sensual element and creates grounds for formation of the third stage of the creative process, i.e. life experience of the artist himself.  
Faritov V.T. - Transgression and Transcendence as Prospects of Time and Existence in Martin Heidegger's and Friedrich Nietzsche's Philosophies pp. 1-24


Abstract: Research of specifics of Heidegger's approach to interpretation of fundamental categories of ontology is presented in the offered article: time, life and anything. Conceptual development of M. Heidegger is considered in the horizon of comparative research with the doctrine F. Nietzsche, and also – Zh. Bataille, G. Bashlyar, J.P. Sartre, Zh. Delez, Ge. Derrida. The main attention in article is paid to the analysis of nature of interaction in Heidegger's philosophy of ontologic prospects of a transtsendention and transgression. The dual relation of Heidegger to the classical and nonclassical philosophy is explicated. Along with traditional methodology in article the methodological arsenal of nonclassical philosophical thought is used: hermeneutics, semiotics and deconstruction. The methodological principles of comparative research of philosophical doctrines are applied. Situation locates in article that Heidegger's ontology is constituted mainly on the basis of the transtsendention horizon, but the transtsendention thus gains in its doctrine absolutely other semantic fullness, in comparison with classical tradition of the use of this concept. At Heidegger the transtsendention in character comes nearer to transgression, to disclosure and the statement of plurality and formation. In this plan Heidegger's doctrine comes nearer to F. Nietzsche's views. However at the same time Heidegger keeps primary orientation to life as that, on identity and unity. Plurality and heterogeneity (transgression) at it are subordinated to the dominating prospect of identity (transcendence).
Faritov V.T. - Transcendence as the ontological horizon of scientific discourse (Heidegger's philosophy of science) pp. 1-31


Abstract: The subject of the study is the specificity of the interpretation of the phenomenon of science in the doctrine Martin Heidegger. Since the approaches to understanding of being as such, Heidegger begins with the development of existential analysts, before this study is twofold purpose. First, the interpretation of the phenomenon of science as a modus of human existence, that is, as the way in which things become accessible to man in his being. The study revealed the existential-ontological and metaphysical bases of scientific knowledge. Second, we show how the phenomenon of science represents being as such or transcendence.Along with the traditional methodology used in the article methodological arsenal of non-classical philosophy: hermeneutics, semiotics and deconstruction.The main result of the study is the explication of the ontological base of scientific knowledge in the context of fundamental ontology of M. Heidegger. Ontological foundation of science is to present things as objectivity, existing outside and independent of human existence. It follows that science is one of one of the modes of being in the world, or transcendence. Science is the way in which things become available in being human.
Faritov V.T. - Discourse and transgression. Prospects of ontological research pp. 1-9


Abstract: The subject of the present article is to study the phenomenon of discourse in terms of conceptual developments of modern non-classical ontology. The author examines the main trends, problems and prospects of the philosophical concept of discourse studies. On the one hand, affect the basic problems of ontology, such as being and consciousness, thought and reality. Offers solutions to these problems within the framework of philosophical discourse theory. On the other hand, considers the prospects of integration into the philosophical discourse theory of conceptual development of non-classical philosophy. In this vein, special attention is paid to the phenomenon of transgression as a way to neutralize the borders existentially-semantic certainty discourse. Used methodical arsenal developed non-classical philosophical and socio-humanitarian thought. Partially used and methodological orientations hermeneutical poststructuralist approaches. The main conclusion of the study is the thesis about the formation of a modern ontology new research paradigm - a philosophical theory of discourse. The discourse is presented as an ontological phenomenon, which removes the basic opposition of classical metaphysics, such as being and consciousness, language and reality. A significant finding is the conclusion of transgression as a special way of being and of sense, can overcome the power of discourse prospects.
Spektor D.M. - M. Heidegger: time and sense pp. 1-53


Abstract: In article aspects of temporariness are considered through a prism of philosophy of Heidegger. The special attention is paid to the leading line of research, life real, unlike real vremenyashchy itself as initial temporariness. This message is taken as the fundamental and reliable; however the fenomenologizm which isn't able and not able to leave description limits is insufficient in respect of explanation of the reasons of distinction of real and (its) life, and interpretation of the last in the area of temporariness, and is supplemented with a historical and dialectic method.The method of research is connected with a consecutive reduction here - lives to its historical bases; the structural components revealed in its course (a community and isolation) are traced further in their projection to time and history.Scientific novelty of research consists in consecutive leading under ontology here - lives of realism of nationalization. "Here", under which the prototype of an individual (the isolated life) is brought, aspires to life (community), but also the last recreates in tendency; but also life holds "here" (individual) on the brink of falling, from time to time carrying out break of an enlightenment. This break of "present" is compared with its chronological disposition. Besides, "ordinary" as not original time also takes roots in life, corresponding to structure of an agon.
Spektor D.M. - Being and subjectivity pp. 1-46


Abstract: The subject of this research is subjectivity: this quite uncertain on the topic and notion connotation is revealed with regards to its ontological status; for these purposes, subjectivity is being reduced to its origins, which include the conditions of initiation, possession, orgiastic festivities, etc. Within the logical field, subjectivity is correlated to “aspiration”, including modification of desire (also psychoanalytical) and “realization” (phenomenology). The modern developments of problematics of the “body” and its connection to the space and time are taken into account. The method of research is linked to the analysis and historical reconstruction of the notions of “body”, time, and Other; the “subject” is viewed in its internal substantiation, which acquires in history an adaptive status, but not originating out of it. Scientific novelty of the conducted research consists in the proof that genesis of subjectivity is justified by initial transformation of attraction to the motive (involvement). Motive (intention) is directed not by the object (stimulus), but its being (realistically-existing). Being is revealed as a game of transition of embodiment into the subject of unembodiment (in motivation).
Tsendrovskiy O. - The notion of being (Seyn) in M. Heidegger’s philosophy and its methodological peculiarities pp. 18-36


Abstract: This article conducts a thorough analysis of the fundamental for M. Heidegger’s doctrine notion of being (das Sein/Seyn), as well as resulting from it interpretations of the methodological peculiarities of the thinker. In a paradoxical way, within the scientific tradition of the study of Heidegger’s heritage, the question about the specific content of the notion of being is revealed briefly and unsatisfactory, even despite its paramount importance. The author makes an attempt to eliminate this flaw carefully examining all of the existing conceptual layers of Heidegger’s Seyn. The work present a detailed review of the peculiar features of the philosophical thought of Heidegger, which directly originate from the understanding of its main subject – the being. The described analysis is conducted in accordance with the text written after a so-called “turn” that took place in the philosophy of Heidegger in the 1930’s. It allows avoiding the spread methodological mistake of exaggerating the importance of the “Being of time”; as well as the attempt to interpret a semicentennial development of his though through the prism of a certain book, which in the philosopher’s opinion was unsuccessful. The author’s main contribution lies in the unique for the commentator’s tradition scheme, which suggest the gradual and systemic clarification of the essence of being in the doctrine of Heidegger through the 10 of his fundamental attributes.
Zhul'kov M.V. - Noospheric energitism: fundamental ontology pp. 23-45


Abstract: This article is devoted to the ontological aspects of the noospheric energitism – an integral part of the doctrine about noosphere. Modern philosophical energitism is based on the specific understanding of energy in the discourse of post-nonclassical science, which includes consideration of not only objective, but also subjective components of energy: physical, mental, information, semantic, spiritual. Energy has universality, unites material and information worlds into one whole, pervades into all spheres of the universe. At the intersection of energitism and noospherology, takes place the formation of a complex scientific philosophical discipline – noospheric energitism, which examines the energetic aspect of the evolution the intelligent life of space, planet, humanity, establishment of the noospheric society and the planetary noosphere. The foundation of noospheric studies consists in V. I. Vernadsky's teachings on biogeochemical and cultural biogeochemical energies, transformation of biosphere into the noosphere under the influence of labor and scientific thought of organized humanity, as well as the doctrine about the autotrophic nature of mankind. In connection with the emerging sections of science, the following general scientific approaches are used in the ontology of the noosphere: systemic, synergetic, universal, spherical (used by Vernadsky), ecological, historical, energy-information. The energy approach must take its place, especially because Vernadsky’s doctrine is fused with the energetic concepts. The author concludes that the noospheric energitism studies energy and energy-information nature of the noosphere, processes of the biosphere's transformation into the noosphere, applies the energy factor in systemic modeling of the noosphere and noospheric society. The key direction of research is the noospheric-energy approach in cognizing the nature and evolution of the consciousness, which will allow studying, modeling, and anticipating the processes of formation of the global consciousness. Noospheric energitism has its own field of research, methodological approaches, as well as possesses a significant potential for its own development.
Kulieshov A.V. - Natural Information and Metaphysics pp. 25-41


Abstract: The problem of information existence in the nature, as well as the extent of natural information distribution is examined in the paper. At the same time information is understood as the subject of metaphysics, it is described as a reality, which is distinct by its mode of being. The description of information is accomplished by using metaphysical categories of matter and form, as well as their derivatives. In this context natural information is determined as the non-local form of one material object within another. To find grounds for natural existence of such form is the aim of the paper.The stated aim is being achieved exceptionally by means of metaphysics as extremely abstract knowledge about reality as such without bringing in the conceptual apparatus of natural sciences. Starting from basic terms with defined meaning and some initial statements using these terms, the grounding of the natural information phenomenon is realized.The novelty of the offered solution consists in that it is based on the specific set of initial metaphysical terms. The conclusion is made about sufficiency of the chosen conceptual base for the metaphysical grounding of natural information existence, and also about validity within the limits of the chosen metaphysical terms of Leibnitz’s idea as for the reflection of the whole world in every of its integral fragments.
Kachay I. - Linguistic, praxeological, anthropological, and ontological grounds of correlation between the notions “artistry” and “creativity” pp. 32-49


Abstract: The object of this research is the creative work as the ontological phenomenon. The subject of study is the various grounds of correlation between the notions of “artistry” and “creativity”, which act as the criterial base of the conceptual separation of the original phenomena. The notion of “artistry” is being understood as internally free, spontaneous, unpredictable, and altruistic process of the improvised formation of the qualitatively new being that has sociocultural importance, high level of perfection, and oriented towards the integral cognition of reality, spiritually-ethical improvement of the universe and self-realization of the subject. The notion of “creativity” is substantiates as dependent from the external factors, algorithmic, technological, and pragmatic process of the stereotype combination of the already present being, which represents the value for mass consumer with low level of performance, as well as aimed at the fragmentary cognition of the world, public recognition, and outrageous self-presentation. The scientific novelty consists in substantiation of creativity as similarity, imitation, and surrogate of the constructive process that is characterized by the plagiarism, pragmatic, and mechanistic nature, and manifesting as the creative work of public and consumer designation. The author’s main contribution lies in formulation of the original understanding of creativity as the pseudo-creativity, substantiation of the level of legitimacy of the use of the notion of “creativity” in scientific works, as well as actualization of the anti-synonymous approach towards the correlation of the terms of “artistry” and “creativity” be means of development of the linguistic, praxeological, anthropological, and ontological grounds of their interaction. The main conclusion is the postulation of the inadmissibility of identification of the notions of “artistry” and “creativity” for avoiding the processes of dehumanization of social relations and devaluation of the personal beginning.
Gonotskaya N., Garadzha N.V. - “Fundamental ontology”: language, word, name pp. 40-46


Abstract: This article analyzes some approaches towards comprehension of language in the West and Russian philosophy of the XX century. In particular, the authors compare the linguistic and philosophical approaches to the examination of language; highlight the characteristic features of philosophical method; and demonstrate the implementation process of the ontology of language in the Western European philosophy and the Russian philosophy of name. Special attention is given to the peculiarity of philosophical symbolism of S. Bulgakov, not only as one of the components of the Russian tradition of onomatodoxy (Imiaslavie), but also in the extensive context – with reference to the Western concepts of language. The comparative analysis of “fundamental ontology” (M. Heidegger and S. Bulgakov) allowed revealing their common grounds and demonstrate the drastic distinction. It consists in the fact that the “fundamental ontologies” have different foundations. Unlike the Heidegger’s ontology, penetrated with the “tragic godforsakeness”, the ontology of onomatodoxy (Imiaslavie) finds its grounds in the God-Absolute, who endows with meaning the reality represented through the name-symbol. The absolute ground, symbolically reflected in the name of God, is the existential support for a human inquiring about life. The name acquires a special ontological status: it is not just a symbol that represents reality, but the reality itself that comes to existence through the process of philosophical cognition. Thus, philosophical cognition is simultaneously an instrument, which helps to comprehend the truth of existence, and the condition of possibility of its origination.
Koren' R.V. - Fundamental Culturology as the Science of Survival and Conceptual Analogy to Theological Soteriology pp. 82-134


Abstract: The article is devoted to information as the measure of system certainty. The purpose of the article is to show that it is not important what semantic system information is recorded in. Thus, the Universal Principle of Maximum Information can be used in studies of substances of the both material and spiritual worlds and enrich the cognitive process aimed at survival (salvation). This statement is proved based on the example of the conceptual analogy between fundamental culturology as the science of survival and theological soteriology. The author of the article offers a new paradigm of the 'game culture' that provides the definition of 'survival' based on the energoinformational means. The author also proves that Andrey Flier's statement about the fundamentality of culturology is not quite correct both logically and methodologically. The author describes features of the fundamental and views different approaches to the problem of survival. From the point of view of the system science, when we talk about fundamental culturology as the science of survival, we mean scientific and philosophical fundamentality. Formation and development of the fundamental culturology as the science of survival directly relate to the process of health recovery. This process is provided by the means of culture and art and presents an alternative to traditional pharmaceutical treatment. The author also describes the main provisions of theological soteriology. Theological soteriology is based on the Jesus Christ's Teaching about Salvation. The author shows that it is possible to describe this Teaching from the analytical point of view and provides the criterion of the Last Judgement during the Second Advent of Christ. 
Vetushinskiy A.S. - “We live within a computer game”: video gaming metaphor and its metaphysical potential pp. 164-172


Abstract: This article is dedicated to the critical reevaluation of video gaming metaphor that is more and more often used in the literary works and speeches of contemporary intellectuals. Although video gaming metaphor is a particular case of the usual to the natural and humanitarian sciences of a computer metaphor, namely the video games, being a central product of digital culture, at the present stage become the environment for comprehending the world and the place of human within it. Considering the fact that eventually the significance of video gaming metaphor will only grow, the author suggests to think how valuable this metaphor can be.  In order to evaluate the potential of video gaming metaphor, the article refers to Nick Bostrom’s simulation argument, who attempt to convince that we actually live within a computer game. Having analyzed Bostrom’s argument, the author turn to the theory of digidal media by Lev Manovich, which paradoxically appears to be identical to the theory of object within the framework of modern realistic plain ontologies. Metaphysical meaning of stimulation argument, as well as complete identity of the theory of digital objects and modern metaphysical realism, allow claiming that that world can actually be viewed as digital. In this case, the comparison between real and virtual loses it meaning, and videogames become a speculative instrument for polishing the skills of ontological analysis and search for the language that can be applied for describing the structure of digital worlds (our own world can be acknowledged as one of those).
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