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MAIN PAGE > Journal "Man and Culture" > Contents of Issue 05/2019
Contents of Issue 05/2019
Music and music culture
Tokarev N.A. - Successors of M. I. Tabakov pp. 1-10

DOI:
10.25136/2409-8744.2019.5.30156

Abstract: The author examines the periods of professional training in the art of playing the trumpet and activity of the pedagogues-trumpeters who worked in the Moscow Conservatory from 1930’s to 2005 – students and successors of M. I. Tabakov, differences in their methods, innovations, continuity of pedagogical and performing traditions, as well as their principles. The article contains the previously known records on pedagogical activity of G. A. Orvid, S. N. Yeremin, L. N. Volodin, Y. A. Usov, A. Maksimenko, V. Y. Yudin, E. Y, Fomin, and Y. E. Vlasenko, along with the new information obtained via conversations and interviews with their colleagues and students. The selected complex methodology combines the historical-chronological method, logical analysis, retrospective method, chronological method, systemic analysis, comparative and descriptive analysis, method of classification; analytical, historiographical and historical approaches towards studying documental materials, as well as technological approach. The scientific novelty consists in the fact that this article is first to provide a full-scale review of the work of M. I. Tabakov’s successors in the Moscow Conservatory, analyze their creative activity and pedagogical principles as a part of a peculiar and unique phenomenon of the Russian music culture and education, as well as a part of the world’s musical heritage.
Volkov D. - Various traditions of playing gusli and current status of the instrument pp. 11-26

DOI:
10.25136/2409-8744.2019.5.30847

Abstract: This article covers the traditions of gusli performance since the VI century until present time. Leaning on the extant documents, the author analyzes the art of playing gusli during the different historical periods, as well as determines several inwardly homogenous traditions: epic, spiritual, buffoonish, and class of the XVII-XIX centuries.  The subject of this research is the early traditions of the art of playing gusli. The object of this research is the survived archival documents and literary sources reciting about the art of playing gusli since the VI century until the beginning of the XX century. Particular attention is given to correlation between the traditions and the modern performance art of playing gusli. The main conclusion in the statement that playing gusli being the most ancient Russian folk art was popular among all social classes and greatly impacted the Russian pre-classical and classical music, contributing to the development of its epic beginning. The interest to playing gusli revived in the late XX century, when it became a part of the professional academic art. The scientific novelty consists in the fact that the author is first to systematically examine the connection of the art of playing gusli since its conception and early existence with the modern practice.
Culture and cultures
Andreeva E.V., Verkhovtseva M.A., Petrova T.Y. - Amulets in the symbolic and everyday practice of Sakha people pp. 27-33

DOI:
10.25136/2409-8744.2019.5.30987

Abstract: The subject of this research is the study of the potential of traditional symbols of Sakha people in preservation of cultural memory and development of socio-cultural processes. The authors analyze the role of the traditional symbols of Sakha people in the formation of culture as the framework for development and survival of the ethos; examine function of the traditional symbols of Sakha people, namely amulets within the modern socio-cultural environment; as well as conduct classification of amulets as symbols (in accordance with Charles Sanders Peirce). Special attention is given to studying the everyday practice of using amulets by the various population categories of Sakha Republic (Yakutia). Including youth. The nature and role of the traditional national symbols in the development of socioeconomic sphere of Sakha Republic is determined. The following conclusions were made: amulets as symbols of the traditional culture of Sakha people currently manifest as the adaptation (protection) mechanisms, allowing to retain inner balance and confidence, adjust to the changing external and internal conditions of social development; being multifunctional as any symbol, amulets within the system of traditional symbols may serve as the means for translating and preserving culture and cultural memory if appropriately incorporated into the context of social and educational activities.
Culture and authority
Alekseev-Apraksin A.M., Bogdanova R.Y. - Current issues of monotowns and their cluster history pp. 34-44

DOI:
10.25136/2409-8744.2019.5.31068

Abstract: This article is dedicated to monotowns and the ways to resolve their issued, including the cluster model of development. The relevance of this topic is substantiated by the disastrous state of the Russian monotowns and the need for finding a viable solution to remedy such situation.  The government of the Russian Federation encourages the development of special programs and projects aimed at supporting monotowns, but the majority of them seen to have failed. The article analyzes the history of establishment of monotowns, means of their territorial organization, and the applied methods of regional development. Leaning on the official statistical data, the authors underline that under the current circumstances, the development of economic sector only, excluding social, geographical, cultural, environmental and other factors, becomes impossible. The study demonstrates the essential conditions for the development of monotowns and possibilities of their implementation. The conclusion is made that the local residents should be provided with opportunities for self-organization, cluster opportunities for overcoming crisis, as well as explore cultural potential of one or another topos and search for the ways of its all-round development.
Applied culturology
Travin I.A. - Cultural continuity of decorative ornaments as a marker of dwelling of the ancient Sami population on the territory between Upper Sukhona and Upper Volga pp. 45-53

DOI:
10.25136/2409-8744.2019.5.31156

Abstract: The subject of this research is the wooden décor of the elements of residential houses in the northwest of Kostroma Oblast and decorative ornaments of embroidery and garments applied by Sami people in the northern territories of their contemporary dwelling. The author examines the décor of items created during the period of early displacement of Slavic people in the region. Special attention is given to the examples of clear match up of the elements. The author searches for confirmations of dwelling of the ancient Sami population in the northwest of Kostroma Oblast of the Russian population from the perspective of cultural continuity. The research method is the direct comparison of décor elements. The analysis of acquired data allows pursuing parallels in the elements of décor of the population that abandoned the territory many generations ago, as well as in the widespread modern ornaments of other population in the same territory. The author structures a chain of logical considerations, carries out the analysis of toponyms for the more in-depth overview of the area of displacement of the ancient Sami population. The scientific novelty of this work lies in studying the continuity of decorative ornaments of various ethnic groups that at various time locally resided in the same geographic area. The research result lies in obtaining of visual match of the elements of the decorative Sami ornaments and woodcarving, which suggests that the cultural heritage in the field of decorative and applied arts is historically common. This leads to another assumption that the foundation of decorative ornament was created by one of the ethnic groups, in this case by the ancient Sami population of the region, which subsequently migrated from the region. The conclusion consists in providing additional confirmation of dwelling of the ancient Sami population in the northwest of Kostroma Oblast, but from the perspective of cultural continuity.
Culture and Cult
Rubin V.A., Spiridonova E.V. - Military memorial heritage in the conditions of government cultural policy of Soviet era pp. 54-64

DOI:
10.25136/2409-8744.2019.5.27877

Abstract: The relevance of this article is defined by insufficient coverage of the question of cultural policy with regards to preservation of military memorial heritage during the turning period of national history, when on the one hand, took place the rejection of many prerevolutionary victories and achievements, physical destruction of commemorative places and buildings associates with the names of prominent military commanders – noblemen, and on the other, were emerging multiple new monuments within the framework of the conducted policy of monumental propaganda. The object of this research is the historic sites, while the subject is the Soviet government cultural policy with regards to preservation of military memorial heritage during the 1917-1991. The conceptual grounds of cultural policy of modernity alongside the problems of translation of the Russian traditions of preservation of cultural heritage are explored by O. N. Astafyeva, O. G. Avanesova, S. B. Sinetsky, O. V. Galkova and a number of other researchers. The scientific novelty of this work consists in the first-ever comprehensive study of the questions of evolution of cultural policy in the area of preservation of military memorial heritage during the Soviet era. The authors dedicate attention to the traditions of perpetuation of the memory in the Soviet period, as well as its distinct and common aspects with the prerevolutionary period.
Philosophy of culture
Severina E.M. - Digital text in the context of modern culture pp. 65-72

DOI:
10.25136/2409-8744.2019.5.30967

Abstract: The author examines the problem of cultural-philosophical analysis study of the text in the space of modern digital culture, focusing attention on analysis of the concepts of text within the framework of interaction between culture and language. Leaning on the textocentric cultural-philosophical approaches – M. M. Bakhtin’s concept of dialogism, poststructuralist practice of text deconstruction in the concepts of J. Derrida and R. Bart, L. Manovich’s phenomenological concept of the new media, the author attempts to determine the principles of understanding of the digital text phenomenon, as well as studying the new cultural practices in the space of digital culture. Methodological foundation became the cognitive approach to culture and language, and methodological Interdisciplinarity Digital Humanities. The content of this work comprise the results of comparative analysis of the concepts of text in various cultural-philosophical systems in the contexts of understanding the interaction between reasoning, culture and language, as well as analysis of functionality of the text in digital era. The conducted research demonstrates that the dual logics of functionality of the digital text must become the subject of culturological study. At the same time, the author assumes that the concept of hypertextuality plays a special role in understanding of the digital text, and the deconstructive reading-writing practice advances to the level of “material intervention” of a reader into the digital text, turning it to an endless Author-Reader communication, mediated by the logics of computer interface, which language plays a role of the new cultural metalanguage, arranging the conveyed information in a peculiar way and affecting functionality of the text as a cultural object and its perception by the user.
Ethnology and cultural anthropology
Sharaeva T.I. - When speaking of the wedding, even a withered scull is rolling (to the question of the meaning of sheeps head in wedding rituals) pp. 73-81

DOI:
10.25136/2409-8744.2019.5.27474

Abstract: The subject of this research is the semantics of sheep head in wedding rituals of the Kalmyks. In the the traditional wedding ceremony, offerings to various patrons, ancestors and sun bestowing prosperity and good life. Rituals with throwing the sheep’s head out of chimney among the Turko-Mongol peoples were aimed at requesting abundance in life of the newly married couple, childbirth, and blessing of the dwelling. In cultural traditions it was considered that sheep has “solar” nature, possesses cleansing, protective and fruitful power. In the course of this study, the author applies the comparative and problematic approaches, as well as semiotic approach in examining separate elements of the rituals and their interpretation. The conclusion is made that the a solar symbol smeared with oil on forehead of the bride is currently correlated with the idea of “solar nature” of a sheep, its sacrificial mission in the rites of offering, rebirth and request for protection, ritual “substitution” of a human. The offering of sheep’s head with cults to the senior generation was related to the cult of ancestors and the concept of “opening” of sacred channels for achieving the ultimate connection through the ritual actions.
Historical culturology and the history of culture
Shapiro B. - Russian cavalry at the turn of centuries: Belle Époque or Fin de Siècle? pp. 82-93

DOI:
10.25136/2409-8744.2019.5.30802

Abstract: The turn of the XIX and XX centuries is one of the most controversial periods in the history of Russian cavalry, since its development was affected by the two conterminous cultures: Belle Époque reflecting the idea of revival, and Fin de Siècle naturally associated with the decadent moods of cultural crisis. The conflict of two antithetical trends marked several vectors of development, which have severely aggravated by the end of the XX century. The so-called accelerator for the development became the loss in the Russo-Japanese War, which escalated the pessimistic moods. Research methodology is based on the historical-systemic method, used for covering the topic as a combination of interrelated events, occurrences and objects that form a specific form of the Russian military culture. Method of periodization is applied for indicating the stages of historical evolution of this form of culture. The work is structured in accordance with the problematic-chronological principle of discussion. The materials are introduced into the scientific discourse that allow tracing the historical development of the Russian cavalry at the turn of the XIX and XX centuries, as well as declare it as a cultural form, subjected to the same conflict of the turn of centuries as the other “peaceful” forms of culture. The research results allow considering the history of development of the Russian cavalry in the context of cultural crisis not only as a part of the Russian military history, but also as a part of cultural history of the country.
Culture of the mundane
Sbitneva A.M. - Clubs of the Early Middle Ages as an element of historical reconstruction movement in modern Russian pp. 94-104

DOI:
10.25136/2409-8744.2019.5.27526

Abstract: The object this research is the clubs of historical reconstruction of cities in Moscow Oblast – Ramenskoye, Zhukovsky and Tomilino involved in the Early Medieval Period (IX-XI centuries). The subject of this research is the peculiarities and trends in the work of the clubs of historical reconstruction. The author highlights the following tasks: identify the reasons for selecting the historical period for reconstruction, understanding the correlation between the ideology of “Historical Reconstruction” (Kievan Rus’) and Orthodoxy, determine the role of the clubs of historical reconstruction within youth organizations and movements, as well as the impact of such clubs upon youth (and other) organizations and movements. The method of overt observation and interview via the method of oral history were used in the course of research. The sources for the article became the materials of personal observations and questionnaire-based surveys of the members (“White Lynx” in Zhukovsky, “Luchezar” in Tomilino, “Heritage of the Ancestors” in Remanskoye), as well as the participants of the medieval festivals. During the period from 2000-2010 few works dedicated to examination of historical reconstruction movements were published in Russia (by A. A. Turygin, E. A. Kharitonov, A. V. Fakhrutdinov, N. S. Bozhok, S. I. Polyakov). There are also writings dedicated to the clubs of historical reconstruction specialized on the mediaeval era (E. V. Bykova, E. Y. Mokerova, A. I. Dik, V. O. Fedyaeva, D. V. Frolov, and others). The scientific novelty is defined by the fact that the clubs of Medieval Period of Moscow Oblast have not been previously the subject of scientific research.
Art and Art History
Kolpetskaya O.Y., Spiridonova N.S. - Restoration spectacle of Léonide Massine Ottorino Respighi The Magic Toyshop on the music by Gioachino Rossini pp. 105-112

DOI:
10.25136/2409-8744.2019.5.31031

Abstract: This article is dedicated to the history of creation of the ballet “The Magic Toyshop” (Boutique Fantasque), premiered in London in 1919. The representatives of various types of arts – Léonide Massine, Ottorino Respighi, André Derain worked on this spectacle. Such remarkable team was arranged upon the initiative and organizational talent of the prominent Russian impresario Sergei Diaghilev. The idea to revive the Joseph Bayer’s ballet the “Fairy Doll”, but in a different chorographical and musical interpretation. The musical content for the ballet is based on the piano pieces by G. Rossini from the compilation “Sins of Old Age” (Péchés de Vieillesse), orchestrated by O. Respighi.  The topic under consideration provides an opportunity for target study of such artistic phenomenon as the “restoration” spectacle (O. Brezgin), which is relevant due to interdisciplinary scientific research. Methodological foundation contains the works of the national and foreign scholars and ballet theatre experts, which directly or indirectly pertain to the topic of this research.
History of art
Skvortova E. - Allegorical program of the Portrait of Empresses Anna Petrovna and Elizabeth Petrovna from the Marly Palace in Petergof pp. 113-120

DOI:
10.25136/2409-8744.2019.5.30619

Abstract: This article attempts to interpret the allegorical program of the recently introduced into the scientific discourse “Portrait of Empresses Anna Petrovna and Elizabeth Petrovna”, painted in 1721-1723 by the court artist Louis Caravaque (1684, Marseilles – 1754 Saint Petersburg) for the Marly Palace in Peterhof, as gauged by the photograph from the Scientific Archive of the State Museum-Reserve "Petergof” and a replica of the unknown artist from the Museum of Visual Arts of the Republic of Karelia (Petrozavodsk). The attributes of the models are interpreted in the context of the European traditions of emblem studies and iconography, which were known in Russia. The ordered for private interior portrait was meant for decorating the personal space of the monarch. In the portrait of Peter’s dearly loved daughters, the artist used symbolism and compositional solution reflected in the widespread version of allegorical iconography of the concept of Pax (peace) in a form of two female figures with corresponding attributes, which was relevant for Russian due to the Russia’s triumph in the Great Northern War and requested in 1723 by S. Raguzinsky in direct order of Peter sculptural group of Pietro Baratta. Celebrations dedicated to the Treaty of Nystad in the beginning of 1722 in Moscow concurred with the Name Day of Anna and announcement of Elizabeth’s age of majority. The creation of portrait could be associated with award the title of Tsesarevna for the daughters of Peter. It is not unlikely that the dominant role of Anna in the portrait could be not due to her seniority, but the plans that she would become the dynasty heiress.
Architecture and design
Sokolova M.V. - Victorian country house as a mirror of the Victorian lifestyle pp. 121-130

DOI:
10.25136/2409-8744.2019.5.27546

Abstract: This article is dedicated to the social aspect in the history of British manor architecture. The author examines the design of a Victorian country house, which fairly accurately reflects a particular lifestyle common to the English landlord of Victorian era. The article gives detailed characteristics to the two main elements of the English manor house – the so-called master unit and service facilities; as well as analyzes the structure of each part, and what role their elements played in everyday life of the manor’s owner. Besides the traditional for the art history method such as formal analysis, the author resorts to the meticulous study of layout concepts, using the historical-cultural methods. Despite the fact that the Victorian manor house often became the subject of detailed research, there are very few attempts to trace the correlation between its architectural concept and peculiarities of lifestyle of a specific social class in a specific era.  Pragmatic thinking, characteristic to the era of positivism, generates the desire to find the most rational solution corresponding to the requests of a Victorian family.
Chang X. - The project Dance of Leaves an example of arranging exhibition space within the framework of environmental design pp. 131-145

DOI:
10.25136/2409-8744.2019.5.30991

Abstract: This article is dedicated to the various methods of creating exhibition space as a specific artistic form of interactivity. The foundation for this research became the original project “Dance of Leaves”. The name is associated with the theme and visual content of the exhibition, which is dedicated to the role of photographer and photographs in modern life. This also defines the social significance of the project. The selected theme is reflected in exhibition structure, executed in form of trees and leaves, where a photographer is compared to a tree giving life to the leaves – the photographs. Besides the methods of exhibitory and environmental design, the author applied different technological approaches, which turned the exhibition into a platform for interaction between the exhibition space and a person. One of such approaches became the use of various lightening approach. The research also demonstrates the role of social communication methods in creating designer projects. The conclusion is made that the design of exhibition space is a platform than incorporates the art and technologies. It is not just the phenomenon within the framework of a sign event or platform for information exchange or interactivity between the attenders or attenders and environment, it is also the phenomenon that may be continues outside the boundaries of a specific place or time, as well has functional meaning in everyday life.
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