Arctic and Antarctica - 2 2020
Arctic and Antarctica
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MAIN PAGE > Journal "Arctic and Antarctica" > Contents of Issue 02/2020
Contents of Issue 02/2020
Natural resources of the Arctic and Antarctica
Agafonova E., Polyakova Y., Romanenko F. - Diatoms in the Holocene sediments of the Tersky oast of the White Sea in connection with the history of its development in the postglacial time pp. 1-16


Abstract: This paper demonstrates the results of diatom analysis of the Holocene sediments from the southeastern part of the Tersky Coast of the White Sea. The main subject of the study is the diatom assemblages’ concentration and composition, as well as the ratio of the main diatom ecological groups in sediments. The study sites were located on the Tersky Coast from the village Chavanga to the right coast of the Varzuga River, at heights from 17 to 52 m. Our reconstruction of the Tersky Coast of the White Sea development is based on diatom study of Holocene sediments from three cores. Age was determined according to radiocarbon dating. In this work, the author determines the features of environmental development, starting from the first half of the early Holocene, clarified the age of the main transgressive stages - Folas, Tapes, Trivia and the absolute heights of their marine sediments. According to the changes in concentration and composition  of the main ecological groups of diatoms, the author records the significant trends in the water temperature changes in coastal reservoirs and hydrobiological conditions in the Holocene, such as short-term decrease in the temperatures of the end of Boreal and the first half of Atlantic time, the Holocene hydrobiological optimum, and changes in temperatures of the Subboreal and Subatlantic time.
Arctic ice
Fedorov V.M., Grebennikov P.B., Frolov D.M. - Analysis of responses in the dynamics of the sea ice extent of separate regions of the Arctic to change insolation pp. 17-33


Abstract: The correlation analysis of changes in the sea ice in selected regions of the Arctic was carried out. The levels of internal regional relations between multiyear monthly changes in sea ice area were determined. In general, for the Northern Hemisphere, there is a close relationship for all long-term series of monthly sea ice area values (66 correlations with an average R = 0.818). The features in the annual variation of the amplitude of the interannual variability of monthly values of the sea-ice extent for individual regions of the Arctic were determined. Interregional relations in the annual course of the amplitude of interannual variability were found. For long-term series of annual values of sea ice area, a close relationship with the annual insolation contrast (IC) is observed for the Hudson Bay, Baffin sea, Greenland sea and Arctic ocean. On the basis of found relationships, the algorithm of the estimated forecast of change of the area of sea ice was offered.
Permafrost and ground ice of the Arctic, Antarctic and mountain regions
Vasil'chuk Y.K. - Syngenetic and cyclical yedoma strata of the north of Yakutia pp. 34-64


Abstract: The development of ideas about the syngenetic formation of frozen strata laid down by Lopatin, Abolin, Leffingwell and Nekipelov is shown. It is emphasized that the theory of syngenesis is substantiated by the works of Gallwitz, Popov and Katasonov.It is mentioned that Dostovalov proposed a method for approximate determination of the age of ice-wedge ice and calculated that 3m wide ice wedges in the vicinity of Abalakh Lake are older than 2160 years, and 30-40 m high ice wedges in the Novosibirsk islands are older than 12,000 years according to Dostovalovs calculations.The subject of a detailed study is the meso- and macrocycles in the structure of yedoma strata in the north of Yakutia. Mesocycles in the yedoma strata of the Zelyony Mys, Stanchikovsky Yar, and Batagay have been studied. The macrocycles of the Batagay yedoma are investigated. The mesocyclicity of the cryolithogenic strata is analyzed in the cross sections: in Bolshoy Lyakhovsky Island, yedoma in the Belyanka River valley, in the outcrop Soplivaya Gora in the Yana River valley, in the valley of the Vilyuy River downstream of Verkhnevilyuysk, etc.The duration of the mesocycles formation in the yedoma strata of the north of Yakutia is established:a. One subaquatic-subaerial mesocycle in the Zelyony Mys yedoma consisting of a subaquatic sandy loam and a subaerial peaty horizon of 4 m thick had been accumulated over 3 thousand years.b. One subaquatic-subaerial mesocycle in the Stanchikovsky Yar yedoma 5 m thick had been accumulated over 3.3 kyr.c. One mesocycle in the section Soplivaya Gora, in the Yana River valley with a capacity of 3 m had been formed for about 3 kyr.Three macrocycles are identified in the Batagay section, with a mean thickness of 7, 10 and 40 m, the time formation of each macrocycle here varied from 15-20 to 40 kyr or more.
Khimenkov A.N., Koshurnikov A.V., Stanilovskaya J.V. - Geosystems of gas-saturated permafrost pp. 65-105


Abstract: The object of study is the geosystems of gas-saturated permafrost. At present, the theoretical basis for studying the gas component in permafrost is practically not developed. At the same time, the theoretical and practical significance of this problem has increased dramatically in recent years. This is due to gas emissions during drilling of wells in frozen rocks, the identification of significant greenhouse gas emissions in the Arctic, the detection of previously unknown processes in the permafrost zone - the formation of craters due to gas emissions.The main method used in this publication is the analysis of research materials. The synthesis of the results was carried out on the basis of the geosystem approach.This publication shows for the first time that gas-saturated zones in seasonally and permafrost rocks have all the attributes of geosystems: localization in space, boundaries, morphology, individual structure and properties, development history, life cycle, hierarchy. 5 types of geosystem data were distinguished: active layer; genetic type; confined to geological structures; secondary, associated with the decomposition of gas hydrates in vivo; technogenic (due to thermal or mechanical effects on hydrated and gas saturated frozen rocks). Promising directions in the study of gas-saturated geosystems of permafrost zone and the most promising research methods are proposed.
Engineering Geology of Cold Plains and Mountain Regions
Sidnyaev N.I., Vasiliev V.I., Ilina Y.S. - Calculation methods of nonstationary temperature fields influence on foundation in cryolithozone pp. 106-125


Abstract: The article is devoted to mathematical modeling and computing experiment in problems of temperature fields forecast in continuous foundations in cryolithozone, which will provide a qualitative approach to non-stationary thermal calculations for making design decisions to ensure the stability and reliability of bases and foundations of buildings in the Arctic zone. The article formulates the problem of forecasting by determinating changes in temperature, areal distribution, thickness, and vertical structure of permafrost, seasonal and perennial freezing of the soil, its temperature and stress state and properties in connection with the construction of buildings.Presented mathematical calculations are based mainly on the assumption of a nonstationary process of heat exchange. Mathematical models for determining depth of thawing are considered. The problem of determining the temperature in the basement of the foundation, limited on the one side, in which the temperature depends on only one coordinate with the condition that the surface temperature of the permafrost soil undergoes periodic fluctuations around zero value under the influence of external influences, has been solved.It is shown that the two-dimensional problem of permafrost ground with a semi-infinite foundation thickness can be generalized even more. The problem is formulated in the form of a differential equation of heat balance taking into account the heat flux, which varies according to the Fourier law.
Surface Processes in Cold Plains and Mountain Regions
Sal'va A.M. - Tracking areas of thermokarst manifestations from satellite images (on the example of the main water pipeline route in Central Yakutia) pp. 126-137


Abstract: In the areas of permafrost distribution and development of the ice complex, lake thermokarst is the main relief-forming process, forming a characteristic permafrost relief. In addition to the formation of lakes as a result of thermokarst subsidence, accompanied by water runoff, formed polygonal microrelief including baijerakhi and bumpy-zapadinnye forms. As a result, thermokarst manifestations are formed.The object of research is thermokarst manifestations, in particular, polygonal microrelief and frost cracking. They were studied on the section of the main water pipeline Lena Tuora-Kyuel Tatta, near the settlement of Maya Megino-Kangalassky ulus of the Republic of Sakha (Yakutia). These thermokarst manifestations were identified from satellite images that are publicly available on the Internet site, and methods of processing engineering and geological information, literary and stock material were also used in the work. Field research and simple photography were also performed to determine the shape of polygons and measure them. The main conclusion of the study is the proposal of a simple method that allows to conduct area zoning of the territory to activate the polygonal microrelief as thermokarst manifestations.
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