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MAIN PAGE > Journal "Legal Studies" > Contents of Issue № 01/2023
Contents of Issue № 01/2023
State institutions and legal systems
Gulemin A.N. - Legal Regulation of the Use of Information Technologies in International Economic Activity pp. 1-12

DOI:
10.25136/2409-7136.2023.1.39575

EDN: LMBEGO

Abstract: The object of the study is public relations regarding the formation of the digital economy at the national and global levels. The author identifies the most urgent, in his opinion, problems requiring legal regulation in the conditions of the use of new information technologies in economic activity. The issues of international scientific and technical cooperation, the development of ecosystem methods of economic activity, the problems of using information technologies in the format of import substitution are considered. The importance of changing certain conceptual policy documents in connection with the need to transition to the digital economy, the commitment of the Russian Federation to the principles of ensuring compliance with international obligations to ensure international economic activity in the field of high technologies is emphasized.    The novelty of the research lies in the fact that the article comprehensively examines the directions of formation of state policy in the field of the use of information technologies in economic activity, considers new ways of conducting it that require changes in legislation and makes proposals for its improvement. As a result of the analysis, the following main conclusions are formulated:1) in conditions of limited access of the Russian Federation to Western information technology markets, it is necessary to form a policy of scientific and technical cooperation of the state, taking into account the support of joint research teams developing practical solutions for business communities; 2) it is necessary to adjust the current legislation for the development of ecosystems as a new direction of economic activity, taking into account the balance of interests of all participants in the field of consumer information processing and the use of information systems that ensure data security; 3) at the regulatory level, it is necessary to ensure the control of import-substituting software, its compliance with both security standards and international standards for information processing; 4) in modern political and legal conditions, it seems necessary for all states to maintain their commitment to the consolidated development of the digital economy and preserve all ways of participating in international lawmaking on the safe use of information technologies in economic activities.
History of state and law
Biyushkina N.I. - Ethnic conflicts and separatism as prerequisites for the collapse of the USSR in the context of the crisis of official ideology pp. 13-21

DOI:
10.25136/2409-7136.2023.1.39582

EDN: KDUHZV

Abstract: The object of the study was the federal relations within the USSR and the RSFSR, developing in the crisis conditions of ethnic conflicts and stagnation of the official Soviet ideology. The subject of the study was ethnic conflicts and separatism as prerequisites for the collapse of the Soviet Union in the context of the crisis of communist ideology. The purpose of this study was to study certain negative trends in the development of federal relations in connection with the growing crisis phenomena in the USSR. To achieve this goal, a set of universal (dialectics), general scientific (analysis, synthesis, deduction, induction, structural-system method), private scientific methods (historical method), special methods (formal-legal) were used. The novelty of the research lies in the fact that on the basis of archival documents, the author substantiates the dualistic nature of the genesis and development of interethnic conflicts, which, on the one hand, have deep historical roots, and on the other hand, were aggravated due to the miscalculations of Soviet federal construction. In addition, the crisis of the ideology of Soviet internationalism, which degenerated into scholastic dogmatism, mechanically exploited by the supreme power, without successful attempts at modernization, is clearly shown. A special contribution of the author to the research of the topic is the introduction into scientific circulation of archival documents from the funds of the State Archive of the Russian Federation and the State Archive of Socio-Political History.
Kodan S.V. - Fundamentals of the Legislation of the Union SSR and the Union Republics in the Centralization of the Legislative Space of the USSR (the Second Half of the 1950s - 1970s) pp. 22-33

DOI:
10.25136/2409-7136.2023.1.39510

EDN: KIZVOC

Abstract: The problem of centralization and formation of a single legislative space in the USSR was one of the directions of maintaining the unity of the Soviet Union state. Even during the creation and the first years of the RSFSR's existence in the first Soviet Federal Republic, this issue was among the priorities in the policy of the RCP (b) and the Soviet state, which considered the "revolutionary codification" of Soviet legalizations as the main means of forming "proletarian legality and law and order". Already the first codes of the RSFSR laid down a steady trend of using the systematization of legislation to create a single regulatory space in the conditions of the Soviet socialist federation. With the creation of the USSR in 1922, the issue of coordinating and ensuring the unity of legislative activity and legislation within the USSR was actualized due to the presence of their own legislation in the Union republics and the need to streamline approaches to legal regulation within the Union and republican legal space. In this regard, the second half of the 1950s was a period of increasing the level of legislative centralization through the use of the Fundamentals of the Legislation of the USSR and the Union Republics as an instrument of unification and the creation of single approaches to sectoral legal regulation in the USSR. The scientific novelty of the article is that the analysis of the phenomena under consideration and the main conclusions allow us to talk about a new stage in the creation of sufficiently effective mechanisms to ensure the unity of the legislative space as one of the main elements of the unity of the USSR as a federal state as a whole.
Transformation of legal systems
Petrova A.V. - Due Diligence in the Implementation of the Sustainable Development Goals and the ESG Agenda: the Balance of Soft and "Hard" Regulations pp. 34-42

DOI:
10.25136/2409-7136.2023.1.39655

EDN: ADQRTB

Abstract: The subject of the study is the due diligence of the company, which can manifest itself to it in corporate governance. Due diligence in corporate governance, considered in the context of the implementation of the sustainable development goals and the ESG agenda, differs significantly from the understanding adopted in Russia from the position of the highest courts in the field of detection and prevention of tax abuses. Both approaches, as well as the definition under consideration, are not normatively fixed, and the first, in accordance with world tradition and practice, is implemented through soft regulation. In an environment of uncertainty and risk diversification, there is a growing trend to make SDG and ESG prudence mandatory. In Russia, such a transition is being discussed, but there is no readiness for it, and references to European experience in the current conditions are problematic. The existing ones in this area have not yet been studied, which hinders the choice of ways and mechanisms for their regulation. The novelty of the study is to identify the need to monitor the effectiveness of soft regulation and the actual activities of Russian companies in the context of the SDGs and the ESG agenda.
JUDICIAL POWER
Solovyev A.A. - Legal basis of the Supreme Council of Magistracy of the Tunisian Republic and its evolution pp. 43-53

DOI:
10.25136/2409-7136.2023.1.38537

EDN: BOSIOQ

Abstract: The subject of this work is the study of the legal foundations of the activities of the Supreme Council of Magistracy of the Tunisian Republic, which is the highest body of the judicial community of the country. The author dwells on the key normative legal acts regulating the foundations of the legal status of the Supreme Council of Magistracy as a constitutional body, examines its structure, composition and competence. Special attention is paid to the place of the Supreme Council of Magistracy in the political system and the evolution of this body in connection with the crisis of 2010-2011 (the jasmine revolution), reflecting the most difficult compromises between political elites, as well as emerging disputes about competence between different branches of government of the country. During the research, the author used various methods of scientific cognition, both general: analysis, synthesis, logical and structural-functional, and special legal: formal legal, legal modeling method and comparative legal. The novelty of the research lies in the fact that the author for the first time in domestic legal science conducted a comparative study of the legal foundations of the activities of the Supreme Council of Magistracy of the Tunisian Republics, and also considered the evolution of this body in the context of a political crisis. The author comes to the conclusion that the evolution of the legal status of the judicial community of Tunisia is directly related to changes in the political system of this country, is very difficult and is currently far from complete.
Law and order
Zaitseva O.V., Dekhtyar' I.N. - The Mechanism of Subordinate Individual Legal Regulation of Crime Prevention Activities pp. 54-64

DOI:
10.25136/2409-7136.2023.1.39216

EDN: BNBAJH

Abstract: The study is devoted to the scientific analysis of the elements of the mechanism of subordinate individual legal regulation of activities to ensure the criminological security, in order to determine the conceptual foundations of the scientific understanding of this mechanism. The work was carried out on the basis of an interregional empirical study, which includes: a case study of acts of exercising rights and obligations in the field of crime prevention, interviewing law enforcement officers, as well as a content analysis of court decisions on administrative claims on appealing actions (inaction) and decisions of crime prevention subjects. The relevance of the topic is evidenced by the presence of problems of law enforcement due to shortcomings of regulatory legal acts regulating the activities for the prevention of offenses. The paper contains proposals for improving legislation in the aspect of individual preventive legal regulation. For the first time in criminology, a systematic analysis of the structural elements of the mechanism of subordinate individual legal regulation of crime prevention activities was carried out. The authors came to the conclusion that these should include: the object and subject of individual legal regulation; legal fact; method of individual legal regulation; technologies of regulatory law enforcement; individual legal means. New data have been obtained on criminological law enforcement technologies, in particular, on the use of mediation technology in preventive activities. The paper contains proposals for improving legislation in the aspect of individual preventive legal regulation.
Договор и обязательства
Абдулин Р.Р. - Features of legal procedures in the consideration of disputes related to contractual relations pp. 65-73

DOI:
10.25136/2409-7136.2023.1.38430

EDN: BRGFDU

Abstract: The subject of the study is the peculiarities of legal procedures in the consideration of disputes related to contractual relations. The author of the article, by analyzing and summarizing scientific materials, materials of judicial practice, comes to the conclusion that in recent years, in the consideration of disputes related to contractual relations, the search for alternative ways to resolve emerging conflicts has been actualized. The author notes that legal procedures in the implementation of reconciliation of the parties in pre-trial, judicial and other alternative methods of dispute settlement are contractual in nature, that is, contractual legal procedures are used to settle a dispute (conflict) at any stage of contractual relations, which is not typical for other types of civil relations. Meanwhile, from the standpoint of a functional approach, extrajudicial, judicial and other methods of protecting the rights of participants in contractual relations can act as an effective tool for resolving conflicts arising between the parties. In the work, the author creatively used general scientific and private scientific methods in cognitively significant unity and in a complex combination, including: analysis and synthesis, abstraction, system-structural, comparative legal, etc. The scientific novelty of the research consists in the fact that the article is a comprehensive study that examines the regulatory and security functions provided to the parties in contractual relations aimed at establishing (arising) a contractual legal relationship, changing the content and termination of contractual relations, changing the subject matter of the contract, recognizing and confirming the right, as well as eliminating disputability (conflict) in contractual relations. The key to this maxim is that the parties, as carriers of a subjective right or legal obligation, in the event of a dispute (conflict), have the opportunity to choose the method provided for by law or a reasonable model of behavior for its settlement, as well as the procedure for its implementation.
Экологическое и земельное право
Sekretaryov R.V. - On the Issue of Improving Land Legislation pp. 74-85

DOI:
10.25136/2409-7136.2023.1.38910

EDN: BKRBNG

Abstract: The author considers problematic issues of land use, including agricultural land. The methodological aspects of the definition of land relations are investigated. Both theoretical studies and actual judicial practice are analyzed. Carrying out the selection of arbitration practice on the problem raised in the article, the author tried to pick up cases that are problematic from the point of view of the qualification of land legal relations. The author is convinced that the theoretical understanding of the most typical court cases should have a practical effect not only for the subjects of law enforcement activity, but also for the legislator, since it is from the solution of specific incidents that it is often possible to draw a conclusion about (not) satisfactory legal regulation of the relevant sphere of public relations. The scientific novelty of the undertaken research is the analysis of current judicial practice on disputes in the field of land use, as well as proposals for point-by-point improvement of land legislation. The object of this study is legal relations related to the emergence, modification and termination of land rights in the Russian Federation. The subject of the study is regulatory and administrative legal acts defining the procedure for the acquisition, use and termination of land rights and relevant judicial practice. The author used the formal legal method as the main method of scientific cognition in the preparation of the article. In addition, the following methods were used: hypothesis, deduction, induction, typology, classification, structural method of legal modeling.
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