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MAIN PAGE > Journal "Legal Studies" > Contents of Issue № 10/2020
Contents of Issue № 10/2020
Nikitin V. - Mandatory and voluntary standards and norms of technical regulation in the activity of construction companies (legal aspect) pp. 1-14


Abstract: The subject of this research is the correlation between standards and technical regulation in construction sector, as well as the examination of practical consequences of various legal regimes – and mandatory and voluntary for business activity of construction companies in the Russian Federation. Standards and technical regulation of industry are viewed as legal norms in the context of progress made on harmonization of Russian law, legislation of the Customs Union, and regulations of the World Trade Organization. In this regard, standards are considered as voluntary set of norms, adherence to which is declared by the contractors and service providers, and controlled by independent organizations that conduct verification of adherence. The norms of technical regulations are referred to as mandatory norms. The conclusion is formulated on the essential voluntary nature of standards and mandatory nature of technical regulations. The author clarifies the concept of the basic goal of standardization – achievement of high quality, and the key goal of technical regulation – achievement of safety in the process and in usage of the results. Practical limitations of application of the formulated conclusions in the activity of construction companies are outlined. The author also concludes on deformation of the general framework concept of voluntary and mandatory norms of technical regulation in construction sector towards increasing the number of mandatory requirements. Such deformation is a result of passing a separate law – Technical Regulations on the Safety of Buildings and Structures, which is special in regards to the Law on Technical Regulation, as well as to multilevel and thus often contradictory regulation of technical norms in construction sector.
Savichev A. - Administrative-legal models of state management of tourism sector in the Russian Federation pp. 15-26


Abstract: The formation of optimal system of state management of tourism sector is one of the most relevant problems of tourism development in Russia and abroad. The subject of this research is peculiarities of the models of state management of tourism sector, as well as federal and regional normative legal acts that establish the structure of executive branches and determine the competence of bodies that have special authority in tourism sector. The article explores the administrative-legal aspect of the foreign model of state management of tourism sector. The author reviews the evolution of formation of executive branches in the Russian tourism sector in pre-revolutionary, Soviet, and modern periods; as well as gives assessment to the existing model of tourism management in the Russian Federation in light of the Presidential Decree No. 372 of 06.05.2020 “On the Enhancement of State Administration in the Sphere of Tourism and Tourist Activities”. This article is first to analyze the models of state management of tourism sector implemented on the level of the federal subjects of Russia. The author comes to the following conclusions: the reform of national tourism administration will be continued; the most common model in the subjects of the Russian Federation is the model of cross-sector regulation of tourism.
Law and order
Berchanskiy K.A. - Causal link in iatrogenic crimes: problems of correlation of the categories of causality in forensic examination and Russian criminal law pp. 27-51


Abstract: The subject of this research is the Russian case law of conducting legal proceedings against the representatives of medical sphere based on the constituent elements of crime established by the Part 2 of the Article 109 of the Criminal Code of the Russian Federation – infliction of death by negligence due to improper discharge of professional duties. The subject of this research also includes legal norms that regulate the procedure of forensic medical examination in the Russian Federation, norms of medical legislation, as well as corresponding provisions of the Criminal Code of the Russian Federation. The object of this research is the social relations emerging in the event of causing death due to improper provision of medical care, conduct of forensic medical examination, as well as consideration of such cases by the courts. The scientific novelty consists in comprehensive approach towards its implementation that would include the analysis of relevant practice of Russian courts on iatrogenic crimes. As a result of this research, the author outlines the key problems faced by the Russian courts in assessment of causal link in iatrogenic crimes, first and foremost committed by medical negligence. The detailed analysis of legal norms that regulate the procedure forensic medical examination allowed determining the possible reasons for discrepancies in forensic practice, which, in turn, lead to discrepancies in judicial practice. Based on the historical method of interpretation, the author detected the presence and origins of fundamental contradictions in the relevant legislation. The comparative-analytical method applied to the Russian criminal and forensic legislation allowed identifying the key issued that currently impede the efficient and just consideration of iatrogenic cases; the solution approach depending on priorities of the government in criminal law policy is proposed.
International law
Kalinina A.L. - Problematic issues and practice of using string operations based on the rulings of the European Court of Human Rights (on the example of case law on corruption) pp. 52-63


Abstract: Usage of sting operation in law enforcement for documenting the facts of bribery and commercial bribery faces practical issues substantiated by imperfection of the current federal legislation on operational search activity. There is no legislatively secured definition of string operations along with regulation of the procedure for its conduct. The indicated gaps generate contradictory situations pertaining to the assessment of lawful actions of law enforcement agencies during string operationss. The departmental procedure for conducting operational search activity is insufficient for verification and assessment of performance of operational units by investigators, prosecutors, judges, and lawyers. Work on further amendments to the Federal Law “On Operational Search Activity” is relevant and reasonable. Currently, case law on this issue is quite ambiguous due to such formulations as the defense failed to prove the instance of provocation, and that there were no substantial violations or misuse in during conduct of operational search activity. For ensuring legal guarantees for persons against whom is conducted the string operations, it is essential to address the question of availability and quality of professional legal aid during the conduct of operational search activity, due to the fact that all evidence obtained by the operatives in the absence of lawyer and strictly regulated procedures of the conduct of operational search activity, often become key evidence in a case, which are hard to argue in court.
Теория и философия права
Rundkvist A.N. - Correlation between the principle of justice and legal axioms pp. 64-78


Abstract: The objects of this research are the principle of justice as a universal fundamental, cornerstone and key cohesive general legal superprinciple and the legal axioms as transmitters of most objectified legal justice reflected in simple and clear formulations. The subject of this research is correlation between the aforementioned concepts, which allows looking at the problem of indeterminacy of the content of the principle of justice from a new perspective, namely through indicating the violation of legal axioms as one of criterions of ultimate injustice. Methodological framework is comprised of the general scientific methods of deduction, induction, analysis and synthesis, as well as sociological method of content analysis used examination of the materials of law enforcement practice of the Constitutional Court of the Russian Federation. The work yielded the following results: 1) substantiation is made on the key role of the principle of justice in law as a whole; 2) an original definition is given to the legal axioms ; 3) demarcation is drawn between legal axioms and legal principles in accordance with the criteria of external manifestation, evidence of conformity or nonconformity, nature of action, and depending on the presence or absence of systemic links, which is important from theoretical and practical perspectives, 4) a direct correlation is established between noncompliance with legal axioms and the loss of baseline claim to justice by legal regulation. The theoretical novelty of this work consists in the fact that legal axioms that establish the generally accepted imperative rules are viewed as a primary reference point for resolving the issue on possible violation of the principle of justice
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