Genesis: Historical research - rubric Personality in history
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Personality in history
Loshchenkov A.V. - Panchen Lama II Lobsang Yeshe and his creative heritage pp. 1-8

DOI:
10.7256/2409-868X.2016.5.20313

Abstract: The subject of this research is the figure of Panchen Lama II Lobsang Yeshe (1663-1737), the second of the highest hierarchs of Tibetan Buddhism, as well as his written heritage which is referred in its genre to the Buddhist texts – Gsung-'bum. This topic until present has not been a subject of examination in the Western and Russian Buddhology. This work sets a goal to fulfill such gap, as well as give characteristics to the figure and activity of Panchen Lama II based on the original Tibetan sources. The main stages of his biography along with the texts that belong to the tradition of Lamrim (“stages of the path”) are being described. The scientific novelty is defined by the subject of the research. The author makes an attempt to understand the role of Panchen Lama II in the strengthening of independence of the Buddhist civilization of Tibet and Tibetan statehood. For the first time the biography and overview of Panchen Lama’s heritage is being presented: the author describes the compilation of his works, analyzes its content, and determines the landmark compositions. All of this characterizes the author as a highly qualified multifaceted master of the Tibetan Buddhism.
Butovskiy A.Y. - Matvey Aleksandrovich Sulkevich. Life history of the Lieutenant general of the General Staff of Russia; his military-scientific and social activity (June 20, 1865 July 2, 1920) pp. 1-18

DOI:
10.25136/2409-868X.2019.2.28396

Abstract: The object of this research is one of the key personas in history of the Russian Civil War – Matvey Aleksandrovich Sulkevich. The subject of this research is the explication of the beginning of life path of the future prominent General, his career advancement, complicated process of acquiring experience in the military-professional activity within the context of scientific and publishing activity of the scholar. The author examines the biographical details of M. A. Sulkevich, his scientific-military and social work, assessment of the vector of activity of the General, and development of his personal values. Using the source analysis and biographical method, the author qualitatively processes the biographical information from the reference material in the prerevolutionary annual publications, reminiscences of the comrades, as well as the history of Sulkevich’s military service. The scientific novelty consist in the fact the author is first to determine within the extensive biographical material the two discernable vectors in the scientific and publishing activity of M. A. Sulkevich; one of which was related to the military career of the prominent General, future Chief of the Crimean Regional Government. His brilliant education received in the Voronezh Cadet School, Mikhailovsky Military Artillery and General Staff Academy, as well as participation in the Russia-China and Russo-Japanese War and Chinese expedition against the Boxer Rebellion cemented the reputation of M. A. Sulkevich as one of most skilled military experts of the Russian Empire.
Babich I.L. - Muslim documents from the French archive of Alimardan Topchubashov pp. 1-7

DOI:
10.25136/2409-868X.2021.2.32216

Abstract: This article analyzes the archival materials of France, which belonged to the Caucasian emigrants (after the October Revolution). Having immigrated to Europe, they took with them the archives, which contained the documents that covered various aspects of history of the Russian Empire. This is the first article in Russia that carries out an analysis of all the documents on the topic. The goal consists in examination of the documents from the archive of the prominent Azerbaijani figure Alimardan Topchubashov (Paris, France), which reflect life of the Russian Muslims prior to the 1917 Revolution. Before the Revolution, Topchubashov i (having a degree in Law) was one of the active supporters of modernization of Islamic life in the Caucasus; therefore, his archive contains the materials on this aspect of life of the citizens of the Russian Empire (deputy to the State Duma in 1906, initiator of creation of the Muslim faction in State Duma, initiator of the Muslim congresses in Russia). The aforementioned documents are analyzed in the Islamic context of the Russian history for the first time. The conclusion is made that the Muslim part of the archive of Alimardan Topchubashov is a unique compilation of primary sources, which give an general outlook on life of the Muslims in the Russian Empire, including Caucasus over the period from 1890 to 1917. The author unites these documents into three groups. The developed by Alimardan Topchubashov program of the fundamental changes in life of the Muslims is described in these documents.
Druzhevskii A.O., Eil'bart N.V. - Grozny and Batory in Epistolary Political Polemic pp. 1-9

DOI:
10.25136/2409-868X.2023.4.40135

EDN: RGHAII

Abstract: In the article, the authors analyzes the diplomatic messages of Ivan V to the Polish king Stefan Batory of 1579, 1581. It also considers methods of manipulation and persuasion by the king of the opponent, as well as methods of confronting this manipulation in the response of the Polish king Stefan Batory to the tsar of 14.11.1581. Conclusions are drawn about the great political erudition of Grozny, as well as about the infertility of the arguments presented by both sovereigns and did not contribute to the resolution of the military conflict.
Druzhevskii A.O. - Ivan the Terrible through the eyes of Western diplomats pp. 1-7

DOI:
10.25136/2409-868X.2023.5.40537

EDN: RTVNYU

Abstract: In the article, the author analyzes the notes of diplomats who came to Muscovy at the end of the XV century and had the opportunity to feel the features of the daily life of the royal court of Dopetrovskaya Rus, entering into direct contact with the highest authorities. Being cunning and observant people, they comprehended the character and motives of Ivan the Terrible's actions, with whom they had a number of private conversations. Conclusions are drawn that reflect the specifics of diplomatic works as a special type of historical source, emphasis is placed on the features of the "Western mentality" of their authors. The author comes to the conclusion that the negative image of Grozny in these works is present largely due to the failure of diplomatic missions. Since the foreign envoys failed to achieve their goals, with bitter resentment they reflect in their writings the customs of a country they do not understand and its sovereign. This serves as an additional reason for classifying these writings as highly subjective.
Khandarkhaeva V.V. - Principles of Stratagem and Hard Power in Mao Zedong's Economic Reforms pp. 10-17

DOI:
10.25136/2409-868X.2023.11.68987

EDN: OTPJYR

Abstract: The object of the study is the principles of stratagem and hard power in China. The subject of the study is the principles of stratagem and hard power in Mao Zedong's economic reforms. The author of the article examines the principles of stratagem and hard power used by Mao Zedong during the rule of the CPC of the People's Republic of China. Particular attention is paid to the fact that Mao Zedong actively applied these principles in the framework of economic reforms in the country. This article analyzes his approaches aimed at forming effective management systems, stimulating economic growth and strengthening the state structure of China. The author in the article analyzes the tactical techniques of Mao Zedong, which he used in military operations with Chiang Kai-shek, and in the future, in strengthening his power in the country. Special attention is paid to his methods of exhausting the enemy, stratagem techniques and tough approaches to winning the war. Also in the article, the author examines the rigidity of his approach as a political and military leader, expressed in the use of harsh methods in military tactics and in the economic development of China.The fundamentals of the methodology of this research are based on the principles of objectivity, scientific truth and historicity. Objectivity requires considering China's historical past without preconceived beliefs and analyzing the current situation of the country, taking into account its complex characteristics. Scientific nature ensures that conclusions are based only on documented facts. The main conclusions of the study are the principles of stratagem and hard power, which Mao Zedong applied while modernizing China during his reign. As a result of his efforts, China has overcome the status of an underdeveloped semi-colonial country, becoming a powerful nuclear power in the world. The author's special contribution to the research of the topic is the application of the principles of stratagem thinking and hard power, which allowed the article to describe the policies and initiatives of Mao Zedong. The novelty of the study is to identify economic reforms, the main directions in the policy of the modernization department of the People's Republic of China Mao Zedong, which had a huge impact not only in world foreign policy, but also within the country, affecting the social sphere, culture, economy and political system of China.
Vobolevich A.A. - Political portrait Yasser Arafat pp. 19-27

DOI:
10.25136/2409-868X.2019.2.28828

Abstract: This article analyzes the activity of the leader of the Palestinian National Liberation Movement Yasser Arafat. Leaning on the Russian and foreign sources, the author examines the process of establishment of Yasser Arafat as a politician, analyzes the benchmarks of his political course, as well as Arafat’s impact upon the Arab World and the rest of the world. The article demonstrates the various points of view upon the activity of Yasser Arafat, because some consider him a terrorist, while the Palestinians call him the “chief”, who made an indisputable contribution to the development of the non-existent state of Palestine. Using the historical-biographical approach and methodology of narrative history, the author determines such traits of Yasser Arafat, which made him the leader of his nation, as well as analyzes the factors that impeded the successfulness of the political course of Y. Arafat.
Runev A.O. - The head of Defense of the Okhotsk district of the Siberian Volunteer Squad is Captain Boris Mikhailovich Mikhailovsky pp. 20-33

DOI:
10.25136/2409-868X.2023.12.69215

EDN: TVUPVO

Abstract: The article is devoted to the military biography of the participant of the First World War, the civil war in Siberia, the governor of the Tomsk province during the reign of Alexander Vasilyevich Kolchak, the organizer of the Yakut campaign and the chief of defense of the Okhotsk district of the Siberian Volunteer squad, Captain Boris Mikhailovich Mikhailovsky, whose biography is currently incomplete and focuses on the events when B. M. Mikhailovsky held the position of manager The province. Meanwhile, all that is known about B. M. Mikhailovsky as the chief of defense of the Okhotsk district of the Siberian Volunteer squad is that he disobeyed the order of the commander of the squad A. N. Pepelyaev on the transfer of civil power to representatives in Okhotsk and usurped power in the Okhotsk region. The work was carried out in compliance with the basic scientific principles of objectivity, historicism and multifactoriality. Within the framework of the problems of intellectual history, it is considered justified to apply an approach based on microhistoric analysis. The author pays special attention to the period of Mikhailovsky's participation in the organization and implementation of Lieutenant General Pepelyaev's campaign in Yakutia, as a poorly illuminated area in the biography of a white officer. Documents from the National Archive of the Republic of Sakha (Yakutia) are introduced into scientific circulation, which contain orders, proclamations, letters from participants in the events of 1922-1923. Special attention is paid to the situation of the city of Okhotsk during the civil war in Yakutia, the cold confrontation between Mikhailovsky, as a representative of the Siberian Volunteer Squad and the Provisional Yakut Regional People's Government. The author concludes that Captain Mikhailovsky was not the last officer in the Civil War and the Yakut campaign, and played an important role in the events under consideration. This work is important for a comprehensive and objective coverage of the events of the civil war in Russia, filling in the white spots in the biography of Mikhailovsky, who is widely known as the governor of the Tomsk province during the Kolchak government, but remains unknown during the years of the campaign of the squad in Yakutia, one of the organizers of which he was. In addition, this work allows you to get to know Lieutenant General Pepelyaev's entourage better through studying his associates. The article is a continuation of the study of the biography of the command staff of the Siberian Volunteer squad.
Skrydlov A. - A scholar-statistician and state authority in the early XIX century: on the biography of K. I. Arsenyev (1789-1865) pp. 37-47

DOI:
10.25136/2409-868X.2020.11.34470

Abstract: The object of this research is the evolution of statistical science in the Russian Empire in the early XIX century. The author analyzes the peculiarities of interaction between the academic community of statisticians and state authority on the example of career trajectory of the academician K. I. Arsenyev. The research leans on the basic methods of historical science – problem-chronological for studying the time sequence of events; historical-genetic and historical-comparative analysis for determining the key stages of the scholar’s scientific biography, as well as objective and subjective factors that impacted his performance. Special attention is given to the analysis of scientific works of K. I. Arsenyev, which prompted the major statistical discussion that unfolded in pre-reform Russia during the 1818-1819. The author examines the impact of the “Professors’ Case” upon Arsenyev's future career, traces the history of his relationship with the Emperor Nicholas I, and analyzes the scholar’s role in the development of administrative statistics in Russia. In the course of this research, it was established that academic career of Arsenyev is not typical, but rather illustrative for characterizing the status of a scholar-statistician in the first half of the XIX century. The difficulties of undergoing censorship, limited access of the scholars to departmental statistical materials, and risk of being suspected in political unreliability impeded the development of statistics during the indicated period. Patronage of the emperor relieved some of these constraints for Arsenyev; thus, receiving more freedom for scientific pursuits, he achieved impressive results. Overall, the representatives of conservative part of the elite continued to view statistics as a political science, which requires deliberate attention and control of the government.
Ilyichev A.V. - Baldwin IV of Jerusalem as the image of the ideal ruler of the Middle Ages pp. 46-62

DOI:
10.25136/2409-868X.2021.11.34246

Abstract: This article is dedicated one of the most remarkable kings of Jerusalem Baldwin IV, also calked the “Leper King”. The goal lies in analyzing the role of Baldwin IV in military-political history of the Kingdom of Jerusalem. The central task is to determine historical veracity of the positive image of Baldwin IV described in literature and cinematography. The historiographical framework is comprised on the works of national and foreign authors devoted to the history of the Latin Kingdom of Jerusalem; works of the Latin chronographers, as well as fragments from Arabic sources that were translated into English by M. C. Lyons and D. E. P. Jackson in their monograph “Saladin: the Politics of the Holy War”. The article raises the question of whether it is possible to advance a thesis that Baldwin IV is the prominent ruler of his time based on the analysis of personal traits and actions. Special attention is given to consideration of the domestic policy of the Kingdom of Jerusalem in the late XII century, as well as relationship of the young king with different political alliances. The conclusion is made that by virtue of his personal traits and actions, Baldwin IV significantly contributed to ensuring security of the Kingdom of Jerusalem. However, serious illness alongside critical internal challenges, led to the siege of Crusader state in the Battle of Hattin. Baldwin IV was unable to prevent it. The personality of Baldwin IV has not previously become the object of separate comprehensive study, which defines the scientific novelty of this paper. The article also views the events that took place in the Kingdom of Jerusalem over the period from 1160 to 1180 from the perspective of personality approach.
Mikheeva V.V. - The early years of the biography of Nikolai Kostomarov pp. 54-61

DOI:
10.25136/2409-868X.2022.4.37231

Abstract: The article is devoted to the early years of Nikolai Kostomarov's biography. The scientific literature still pays little attention to this period in the life of Nikolai Kostomarov. In this study, attention is focused on the early stage of the historian's life. In most cases, pre-revolutionary literature showed interest in this period. Later, the early years of the scientist's biography were presented only in the form of individual episodes. Traditionally, the main attention of researchers has been attracted by the problem of participation in the national liberation movement, its historical and political views. The subject of the study is the initial stage of the formation and development of the socio-political views of N.I. Kostomarov. The methodological basis consists of the principles of historicism and objectivity. The scientific novelty of the study is as follows: the pedigree of the Kostomarov family is partially reconstructed, the conditions in which the personality of the future scientist was formed are shown. The article describes the first seventeen years of the life of the future Russian and Ukrainian historian, ethnographer, writer and literary critic. The conditions in which the development of Kostomarov's personality took place, difficult life circumstances that contributed to the formation of his character are shown. The practical significance of the research lies in the fact that the actual data can be used in generalizing works characterizing the socio-political situation of the Russian Empire of the XIX century, in historiographical studies.
Polyakov A.N. - On the question of polygamy and debauchery of Prince Vladimir Svyatoslavich pp. 58-68

DOI:
10.25136/2409-868X.2022.3.35313

Abstract: The subject of this study is the family ties of Prince Vladimir Svyatoslavich. The object is the personality of Prince Vladimir. The purpose of this article is to establish, based on a comparative analysis of sources, the degree of reliability of the facts they contain about promiscuity, the number of marriages and children of Vladimir. A materialistic approach to history is used as a methodological basis. Within its framework, the article applies: the comparative historical method, the method of critical analysis, the principles of historicism and objectivity. The source base is the data of the Russian chronicles ("The Tale of Bygone Years", the Laurentian Chronicle), the Chronicle of George Amartol, biblical texts, the writings of Titmar of Merseburg, Leo the Deacon, John Skilitsa, Ibn Haukal. The article discusses the controversial issue of Prince Vladimir's family ties. The author comes to the conclusion that Vladimir Svyatoslavich, contrary to the instructions of the chronicle on the prince's polygamy in the pagan era, was married only twice the first time by a pagan marriage to the Polotsk Princess Rogneda and the second time by a Christian marriage to the Byzantine princess Anna. The number of the prince's children exceeded the figure indicated in the chronicle about 8 sons and 9 daughters. The main "antihero" of ancient Russian history, Prince Svyatopolk, according to the author, was the legitimate son of Vladimir, not Yaropolk. At the same time, the author believes that Vladimir was distinguished by intemperance in relationships with women and kept many concubines.
Akberdeeva D.I. - The social circle of Deputy to the State Duma N. L. Skalozubov pp. 68-82

DOI:
10.25136/2409-868X.2021.3.35365

Abstract: The object of this research is the persona of N. L. Skalozubov – agronomist of Tobolsk governorate, public and political figure, breeder, and scholar. The subject of this research is his social circle during the period of being a deputy to the State Duma of the 2nd and 3rd convocations. The goal is to examine the relationships between the deputy N. L. Skalozubov and former colleagues, like-minded people, representatives of science, government, family, and friends. Special attention is given to his participation in the lives of political exiles. The article employs the published and unpublished sources, preserved in the Tobolsk State Archive and Tobolsk Historical and Architectural Reserve Museum (correspondence, memoirs, diaries).. The scientific novelty is defined by the fact that the circle of contacts of the deputy N. L. Skalozubov becomes the subject of special study for the first time. The author concludes that during the five years as a deputy to the State Duma of the 2nd and 3rd convocations, N. L. Skalozubov communicated with numerous people belonging to various social classes, including prominent scientists, public figures, and politicians.
Vyrodova M.V. - Women of the bohemian circles of Paris in establishment of French theatricality of Belle Epoque pp. 69-77

DOI:
10.25136/2409-868X.2020.2.32168

Abstract: The period of last quarter of the XIX – beginning of the XX century in France after the World War I receives a name “Belle Epoque”. It is the time of development of entertainment industry, origination of mass culture, where women play a special role. The object of this research is the life strategies of women of the bohemian circles of Paris of “Belle Epoque”. The subjects is the women in French theatricality of the late XIX – early XX century. The goal of the work consists in determining the role played by thre women with a new female life strategy in formation of the phenomenon of French theatricality of “Belle Epoque”. Methodology is based on the sociocultural approach towards the problem, and suggests detailed analysis of the rare memoires of the performers, actresses and dancers, which were not published in Russian or translated into the Russian language. It is noted that women in the bohemian circles reconsidered their strategies in achieving life goals, putting the questions of career and personal growth to the forefront. They also were able to respond to the desires of audience of the late XIX – early XX century, attracting attention to the art of dance, pantomime, theatre, bringing their personal outlook upon the manner of performing. Women performed equal to men, often superseding them in some fields of art due to their natural femininity and talent.
Kurochkin R.V. - Bulent Ecevit and Turkeys Security Policies after Cyprus Conflict (1974) pp. 74-83

DOI:
10.25136/2409-868X.2023.3.39641

EDN: BTTAHU

Abstract: The geopolitical strategy of Turkey and its foreign policy course today is of interest to many scientists. Events and measures that took place decades ago can help shed light on the origins of the current course. This article is devoted to the provisions on the national security of Turkey, developed by Bulent Ecevit as Prime Minister in 1978. The object of this study is the national security policy of Turkey after the Caribbean crisis of 1974. The subject of study is B. Ecevit's appeal to Western partners entitled "Turkey's Security Policies, published in Survival: Global Politics and Strategy in 1978. The purpose of the work is to analyze the decisions made by B. Ecevit and their impact on the subsequent development of the foreign policy of the Republic of Turkey. The author uses the methods of scientific knowledge, observed the principles of logic, systematic and consistent presentation of the material. In this article, for the first time in domestic historical science, an attempt was made to consider B. Ecevit as a key figure who laid the foundations of Turkey's modern geopolitical strategy. As a result of this study, the author comes to the conclusion that the measures proposed by B. Ecevit became the basis for subsequent decisions taken by the leaders of Turkey over the coming decades, they will become the foundation for the doctrine of "zero problems with neighbors", prerequisites for economic development and growth the military-industrial complex in particular.
Mikheev D.V. - The Formation of the Image of Ivan the Terrible in English Sources of the Second Half of the XVI Century pp. 82-95

DOI:
10.25136/2409-868X.2022.12.39323

EDN: ZRTBNN

Abstract: After the establishment of permanent Russian-English diplomatic and trade relations in the middle of the XVI century, the problem of the formation and evolution of the image of the Moscow tsar became one of the central ones in the descriptions compiled by English merchants, travelers and diplomats who visited the possessions of Ivan IV. Along with the real features of the Moscow ruler, we find in his descriptions a huge number of myths and exaggerations, emphasized both from other tendentious foreign writings of the era and from earlier treatises describing states with a despotic regime allegedly characteristic of all Eastern states. Images rooted in the specified historical epoch will continue to accompany the descriptions of most Russian rulers for centuries. Russian state and the first Russian tsar's image formation in the English writings of the second half of the XVI century opens up the prospect of revealing the characteristic features and stereotypes that have become established in English and in Western society in general in relation to the Russian state in the following centuries. In the course of the study, the peculiarities of the presentation of the image of Ivan the Terrible in English sources were revealed. The reasons for his despotic rule, which began with glorious deeds, English authors see the need to preserve the unity of the state by concentrating all wealth and power in the hands of the ruler, which invariably leads to his corruption and arbitrariness. The Russian tsar is not called a madman, but is considered a tyrant, similar to the eastern despots described by ancient authors.
Korobitcyna L.V. - Alan John Percivale Taylor public figure and popularizer of history pp. 84-90

DOI:
10.25136/2409-868X.2018.3.24612

Abstract:     During the years of the World War II, British government paid particular attention to formation of public opinion inside and outside the country, organizing the research institutes and statutory authorities on creation of the black and white propaganda, as well as attracting prominent historian scholars to cooperation. One of the remarkable representatives of the experts-intellectuals was Alan John Percivale Taylor, the author of several works written on request of the Directorate on the military policy affairs. The subject of this research is the activity of the famous British scholar and popularized of history A. J. P. Taylor, whose participation in the sequence of radio lectures of 1940’s laid the foundation for the development of popular science television. Methodological basis contains the principles of microhistorical approach that allows determining a number of trends characteristic to the entire British intellectual continuum of the late XX century. The scientific novelty consists in the fact that the indicated problem was not fully covered in the national historical science, thus this article will attempt to fill the gaps regarding the engagement of the British intellectuals into media space during the war and post-war years. A conclusion is made that participation of the representatives of academic environment in propagandistic activities through using such high-tech for the 1940’s mass media as radio and television, contributed to origination of the popular science and educational programs.    
Veselova I. - Contribution of Joaquín García Icazbalceta (1825-1894) to Mexican historiography pp. 113-122

DOI:
10.25136/2409-868X.2020.10.34032

Abstract: The subject of this article is the research activity of Joaquín García Icazbalceta (1825-1894) – a historian, linguist and bibliographer who published a large number of documents on the history of Mexico, namely records on Spanish colonization of the Americas and establishment of the colonial system. Analysis is conducted the formation of scientific views of the Mexican scholar in the context of the impact of external factors, such as the political and socioeconomic situation, as well as public thought. This author reveals the historiographical and methodological foundation of the indicated concept, as well as assesses the degree of influence of the external factors upon the movement of Mexican historical science in late XIX century. Joaquín García Icazbalceta was a persevering scholar, who dedicated most of his life to collecting and publishing of the rare historical writings and documents. He is the author of a number articles, which although are not considered complete research works, are based on reputable sources and shed lights on some aspects of the ancient and colonial history of Mexico. Despite the seeming affinity for Spanish heritage in Mexican culture, Joaquín García Icazbalceta greatly contributed to research on the history of Aztecs, forming and leaving to the future generations of historians a substantial documentary base that allows discovering Mexican history of the XVI century, as well as other periods of history of the country.
Bulatov I.A. - The influence of the image of Peter the Great on out-of-school education in the late Russian Empire and in the emigration. pp. 117-124

DOI:
10.25136/2409-868X.2022.7.38084

EDN: DRFKDA

Abstract: Part of the image of Peter I in the historical memory of the people are his comrades in children's games "funny". Thanks to them, the first emperor of Russia is strongly associated with youth associations. The subject of the study is how this part of the image of Peter the Great influenced the formation and development of youth movements in the Russian Empire and in the interwar Russian diaspora. Russian Russian Scouts (NORR), whose members worked with children in most of the countries of the Russian diaspora, as well as the senior wing of this organization, the Petrovsky Union, pay special attention to the organization of the Funny ones, created in the spring of 1909 in Bakhmut, and the National Organization of Russian Scouts (NORR), whose members worked with children in most of the countries of the Russian dispersion. The paper concludes that the appeal to the image of Peter the Great in the Russian Empire was logical, since there are no other children's organizations left in the historical memory of the Russian people except funny ones. And their connection with the Guards regiments only increased the prestige of this image. In emigration, the image of Peter the Great began to play a more significant role. Three factors contributed to this. Firstly, the general emigrant need for unifying symbols has grown. A.S. Pushkin became the main cultural symbol, while Peter I became the most compromising symbol of the statesman. Secondly, the struggle within Russian children's organizations played a role, within which funny ones became in demand again, as an alternative starting point for scouting. The third factor was the personal views of individual leaders of children's and youth organizations.
Kharlan A.A. - Eastern European Policy of the Chancellor of Germany Angela Merkel in Terms of Personal Perception of Russia and Ukraine pp. 122-137

DOI:
10.7256/2306-420X.2014.6.13665

Abstract: Merger of two German states and change of the status of Germany on the international scene became a consequence of radical geopolitical changes of the end of the 1980th – the beginnings of the 1990th. Germany had an urgent need to modernize the foreign policy in the East European direction as with end of an era of "Cold war" its eastern frontier automatically became eastern frontier of the European Union. Modern Germany as the political and economic leader among the European states is one of the most desirable partners for Russia and Ukraine. The German chancellor Angela Merkel, holding this post since November, 2005, has every chance to continue to influence formation of the East European policy of Germany and the European Union, at least, till fall of 2017. This fact defines scientific and practical interest in its political installations influencing perception of Russia and Ukraine. The German-Russian interaction during Angela Merkel's chancellorship, despite her former reusable criticism of "the special relations" of G. Schröder and V. Putin, didn't undergo essential changes. The position of the chancellor Merkel concerning Russia and Ukraine can be defined as pragmatical and careful. Germany, as before, doesn't wish to finance the Ukrainian European aspirations along with business, more important for Germany, – rescue from bankruptcy of the eurozone. At the same time Germany has no need and transformation of Ukraine into the anti-Russian base, a possible source of intensity in Europe. In too time of Merkel doesn't want that the Russian policy of Germany differed from the Russian policy of the European Union. The politician Merkel concerning Russia and Ukraine Russia and Ukraine in close prospect recognizes that are ready to accept "modernization partnership". Therefore, there is no need to refuse the project "Great Europe" with participation of Russia and Ukraine.
Sushkov A.V., Bedel A.E., Mikheev M.V. - First Secretary of the Leningrad Regional Party Committee Vasily Andrianov: details to the portrait of the statesman of late Stalinism pp. 124-139

DOI:
10.25136/2409-868X.2018.11.28040

Abstract: This article examines the Sverdlovsk and Leningrad periods in biography of the prominent party leader and statesman Vasily Mikhailovich Andrianov. The biography of V. M. Andrianov has not previously been the subject of research. His role in the political events of the late-Stalinist USSR was not subjected to meticulous and unbiased research. The study of V. M. Andrianov’s biography will greatly contribute to restoration of the fuller and more objective perspective on the so-called “Leningrad Affair” – one of the famous political cases of the period of late Stalinism. The article uses biographical method that allows reconstructing and analyzing the paramount stages of Andrianov’s political biography, determine his characteristic traits. The authors introduce to the scientific circulation the previously unpublished documents from the Russian State Archive of Socio-Political History, Documentation Center of Public Organizations of Sverdlovsk Region, and Central State Archive of the Historical Political Documents of Saint Petersburg. The article demonstrates that V. M. Andrianov was a talented leader and organization, known for stern temper and hard statecraft. He decisively punished the party and economic executives for violating the law and precepts of the supreme authority, whose actions were qualifies as “non-party” or “anti-party”. The personal and business qualities of V. M. Andrianov, demonstrated during his work in the Urals, greatly affected the policy of Smolny in the course of “Leningrad Affair”.
Ivlev N.N. - The life and work of an artist-teacher in the Southern Urals as a manifestation of Social and Professional Heroism (based on biographical data about Victoria Mukhametovna Pitirimova) pp. 128-145

DOI:
10.25136/2409-868X.2023.10.48484

EDN: QTKPMX

Abstract: The relevance of this study is due to the fact that the images of heroes reflect the values of society and realize the function of transmitting these values from generation to generation. The images contribute to the formation of ideological attitudes of society, and are a of spiritual support for both an individual and entire multiethnic nation. Outstanding artists are not only masters, but also teachers, mentors who convey not only knowledge, but also a worldview, national consciousness and ideals, the position of a citizen, educate spiritual and moral principles. The purpose of the study is the life and creative path of V. M. Pitirimova as a manifestation of the professional and social heroism of the artist-teacher in the difficult socio-economic conditions of life in Russia at the end of the XX-beginning of the XXI century. The object of research is the biography, the path of creative and professional development of Victoria Mukhametovna Pitirimova. The subject of the research is artistic and pedagogical techniques and methods used by Pitirimova Victoria Mukhametovna, her moral guidelines. The research is based on an interview with the main character of the study V. M. Pitirimova, in which she gives an interpretation of her key creative and pedagogical achievements. In the course of the study, historical-systemic, historical-genetic, historical-biographical and diachronic methods were applied. Based on the materials obtained in the course of the study, an attempt is made to present the main milestones of the life and work of the artist and teacher Pitirimova Victoria Mukhametovna in the most complete and consistent way.The scientific novelty of the research lies in the introduction into scientific circulation of previously unexplored and unpublished information about the creative and professional achievements of Victoria Mukhametovna.
Krizhanovsky N.I., San'kova S.M. - The impact of M. O. Menshikov's childhood upon the formation of his publicistic interests pp. 133-150

DOI:
10.25136/2409-868X.2021.9.36474

Abstract: The subject of this research is the early life of M. O. Menshikov – one of the ideologists of the Russian nationalism of the early XX century and leading publicist of the largest all-Russian newspaper “Novoe Vremya”. The goal consists in full reconstruction of the conditions of his childhood and early youth. The methods of deduction, induction, comparative and prospective analysis were used for reconstructing separate circumstances of the initial stage of development of Menshikov’s personality and holistic biographical picture. The synthesis of objective analysis of the facts with subjective assessments of the events described by Menshikov himself in his diaries and articles allowed depicting the external circumstances of his youth, as well as reconstruct the peculiarities of development of his inner world and social reflection. The conclusion is made that a range of the core themes of Menshikov's publicistic writing, which were covered in the newspaper “Nedelya” and later in “Novoe Vremya”, and ultimately brought him popularity, take roots in his childhood and early youth: “family relations”, “upbringing and education”, “pursuit of belonging”, “finding  happiness through harmony with the world”. These topics were covered by Menshikov based on the rich life experience, a long path from the poor peasant family to the cadet of Naval Engineering School in Kronstadt. The fact that he was able to understand the problems  of the commoners made him closer to the reader. The provided biography is currently the most detailed study of the early life of M. O. Menshikov's; many facts are introduced for the first time. The article also presents additional empirical material on the history of childhood, elementary and secondary education in Russia of the late XIX century.
tropin n.a. - Karl Petrovich von Rüdinger: the liflyandsky baron on service of the Russian Empire pp. 143-154

DOI:
10.7256/2409-868X.2017.2.21637

Abstract: This article for the first time recreates the biography of Karl Petrovich von Rüdinger (1753-1821) – a liflyandsky baron, who was the native of Phelinsky uyezd. During 1779-1797 he served in the Land Gentry corps, received the rank of the privy councilor (1797) and the post of the civil Governor of Vyborg (1797-1799) from the Emperor Paul I. Upon retirement, he moved to Hapsal and was signed up for the Estland nobility (1815). His life is a typical example of the service of a not highborn nobleman who used his kinship relations and the membership in the Masonic Lodge for the career growth. Due to this, he achieved a prominent position in the society. The study is carried out on the basis of documents and reference books of their time. It is interesting as an experience of creating a historical portrait of an administrator of the «second plan» within the administrative apparatus of the Russian Empire of the second half of XVIII - early XIX centuries.
Shapiro B. - Nikolai Nikolaevich Romanov Senior: cavalryman, horse breeder, collector (based on the documents from the State Archive of the Russian Federation) pp. 152-167

DOI:
10.25136/2409-868X.2018.12.28471

Abstract: This article depicts the general field marshal, general cavalry inspector general Grand Duke Nicholas Nikolaevich Senior as a horse breeder and collector of hippology materials. The goal of this work is to reveal the importance of N. N. Romanov’s pursuits for the history of Russian cavalry. The author attempts to restore the history of life and activity of the Grand Duke Nicholas Nikolaevich Senior, and describe the pattern of its development. The personal biographical, property and record keeping materials of N. N. Romanov from the State Archive of the Russian Federation became the source for this research. The use of historical-biographical and chronological-problematic approaches allowed describing the life story, as well as highlighting the landmarks and patterns of development of certain events. The attention is focused on the results of activity of Grand Duke in the context of their significance for the advancement and improvement of the Russian cavalry. The acquired data complements the already known history of life and work of Grand Duke Nicholas Nikolaevich Senior, as well as the everyday life of the Russian imperial house of the late XIX century and Russian military history.
Stepanov I.N. - Robert Morrison's Missionary Work in the Qing Empire pp. 161-166

DOI:
10.25136/2409-868X.2024.1.39604

EDN: CZRRKC

Abstract: The subject of the study is the activity of Robert Morrison and his role in Protestant missionary activity. The author offers a description of the beginning of this missionary activity in the 19th century in the person of Robert Morrison. The study attempts to determine the characteristics of Morrison in this field and his motivation. When writing the article, the following sources were used: an article by Russian historian Vladimir Grigoryevich Datsyshen about the history of Christianity in China, a biography of Morrison authored by William John Townsend, the head of the Methodist Church, the work of James Alexander, a professor of rhetoric at the College of New Jersey, a contemporary of the missionary, as well as a retrospective by William Milne describing the activities of Protestant missionaries in that time period. The novelty of the article is to familiarize Russian-speaking readers with the problems of Protestant missionary activity in the 19th century through works that have not been translated into Russian. A small practical result in the spread of Christianity in China is confirmed, despite the accumulated theoretical base. The study confirmed the role of the opium trade as an activity that harmed missionaries, and therefore criticized by Morrison because it became one of the reasons for the rejection of Christianity by the Chinese. It also describes a huge amount of work in the translation of literature carried out by missionaries in order to familiarize the Chinese with the fruits of Western culture.
Sokov I.A. - Canadian intellectual F. R. Scott and his impact upon the establishment of political culture in Canada in the XX century pp. 179-193

DOI:
10.25136/2409-868X.2021.5.32925

Abstract: The subject of this research is the personality of the Canadian intellectual Francis Reginald Scott and his impact upon the state and development of political culture in Canada in the XX century. The evolution of Canadian political culture during the life of F. R. Scott affected by the objective historical factors that formed its distinctive features, new political traditions and new Canadian values, as well as by intresubjective factor, through which manifested the influence of Canadian intellectuals, politicians and public figures. The research methodology leans on the scientific principles of historicism, systematicity and objectivity, intersubjective and societal approaches; and special historical methods of research, such as comparative, typological, genetic and systemic. The scientific novelty lies in tracing the evolution of Canadian political culture in the XX century. The acquired results can be used in further research of the history of political cultures of foreign countries, as well as in scientific-pedagogical activity. The author concludes the evolution of Canadian political culture during the life of F. R. Scott was affected not only by objective historical factors, but also by intresubjective factor, through which manifested the impact of political and social activity of F. R. Scott. The author’s special contribution consists in the new approach towards characterization of political cultures of different nations, which obtained their uniqueness in the course of historical development.
Velikotskaya (Mozgunova) N.G. - The attitude of the Ecumenical Patriarchs to the deposition of Patriarch Nikon pp. 185-192

DOI:
10.25136/2409-868X.2023.11.68915

EDN: ZOBADM

Abstract: As a result of Russia's foreign policy in the second half of the XVII century, which was reduced to recognizing her mission as the liberator of Christian peoples and the idea of creating an ecumenical Orthodox Church, Patriarch Nikon of the Russian Orthodox Church found himself in the position of one of the leaders of the Eastern Christian world. The object of this study is one of the issues of Russia's relations with the Orthodox East the attitude of the Greek hierarchs to the conflict between Tsar Alexei Mikhailovich and Patriarch Nikon. The subject of this article is the position of the Greek clergy on the issue of the accusations made by Tsar Alexei Mikhailovich against Patriarch Nikon, the participation of the Greeks both during the attempt to reconcile the parties, and then in the deposition of Nikon, and in his subsequent rehabilitation. The purpose of this article is to study the question of the role of the Greek clergy in the fate of the patriarch, about the reasons for the repeated change of their position on the fate of Nikon. The author of the article uses the historical and systematic method of scientific research - the study and critical analysis of the totality of the complex of published and unpublished documents of the Russian State Archive of Ancient Acts (RGADA). The main attention is paid to the analysis of a complex of archival materials related specifically to the "Nikon case". The scientific novelty of the work lies in the fact that the use of these methods allowed the author to clarify a number of issues related to the "case" of Nikon and concerning the activities of representatives of the Orthodox East, their role in the political and spiritual life of Russia. The research make it possible to draw a conclusion about the regularity of the contradictory position of the Greek clergy in the "case" of Patriarch Nikon, which is explained, first of all, by their political and economic dependence on Russia.
Serov D. - From State Council to Prosecutor of the Prosecutor General of the Soviet Union: various aspects of life on investigator V. I. Gromov (1868-1952) pp. 221-245

DOI:
10.7256/2409-868X.2015.3.15000

Abstract: This article is dedicated to the systematic re-creation of the events of biography of a prominent figure of the judicial branch of the Russian Empire and the originator of the Soviet criminalistics V. I. Gromov. His life path is examined in the context of the era: based on the establishment of the investigative body of the imperial Russia, post-revolution paths of imperial investigators, policy of the Soviet authority with regards to “former people”, conception and initial development of the government apparatus of the Soviet Russia. The author poses questions on the mysterious moments in the biography of V. I. Gromov. During the course of this research lot of new details about his life and work such as the precise date of birth, the circumstances of his service in the judicial branch of the Russian Empire, his pedagogical activity at the Moscow State University are being revealed. The author makes the conclusion, that V. I. Gromov realized his professional potential in both, practical and scientific-pedagogical areas; he was able to responsibly and faithfully serve Russia during the imperial, and later, the Soviet time.
Zharov S. - About the political leader Ahmet Zeki Velidi pp. 246-254

DOI:
10.7256/2409-868X.2015.3.14840

Abstract: The object of the research of the given article is a political activity of a well-known leader of the Russian culture and science, one of the leaders of the Bashkir nationalists Ahmet Zeki Velidi from the kin of Togan in 1917-1923 on the territory of the Soviet State. Validi’s memories about his own activity, opinions of his contemporaries who knew the turcologist, texts by contemporary researchers providing the point of view of the heads of Bashkortostan Republic and its scientific institutions are the subject of the research.  Special attention is paid to the influence of Velidi’s ideas and activity on forming the modern Russian federalism. The methodological basis of the research consists of historical method, historical comparative method in its kinds, diachronic and synchronic comparison foremost.  The main conclusion of the research is a scientifically proved author’s opinion that Ahmet Zeki Velidi of the kin of Togan is undoubtedly an outstanding turcologist, a well-known man of Russian science and culture. But it is an obvious exaggeration to announce him a creator of the Russian federalism and a father of the modern Bashkir nationhood. 
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