Genesis: Historical research - rubric Theory and methodology of history
Genesis: Historical research
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MAIN PAGE > Journal "Genesis: Historical research" > Rubric "Theory and methodology of history"
Theory and methodology of history
Myurberg I. - On the research of evolution of the global political image within the European academic tradition: from the political society to the political realm pp. 1-26


Abstract: The subject of this research is the historical-analytical commentary to the thesis on the specificity of political philosophy as a theoretical knowledge of a particular type. Christian civilization emerged in the Middle Ages is characterized by certain conceptual codes that express the attitude of Christians (and pro-Christians) towards the world of politics. Since the early medieval times, the quintessence of such attitude consisted in the notion of political society, which has been significantly reformed throughout time. On the stage of late Modernism the concept of “political society lost its relevance, thus in in this article the author correlates it with the notion of “political realm”. Theoretical novelty of the conducted research lies in clarification of the essence of a number of conceptual innovations within modern political science, such as the notion of “political” and why it is so important to distinguish in the “intellectual broth” of a specific era the ideas, concepts, and moods that directly affected the situation and historical path, as well as the political results they produced.  
Fetyukov F.V. - Historical types of cooperation between the civil society and the government pp. 1-8


Abstract: The object of this research is the legal relations established between the civil society and the government in various spheres of social life. The subject is of the historical types of cooperation between the civil society and the government. Based on the analysis of scientific data about the regularities of cooperation between the civil society and the government in the XIX – beginning of XXI centuries, the author determined and examines two historical types of such cooperation: “social contract” and “social dependence”. At the same time, the author focuses attention on the flaws of the reviewed types and their inapplicability on the modern stage of development of the public relations. Scientific novelty consists in typification of collaboration between the civil society and the government in the XIX – the beginning of XXI centuries, as well as in substantiation of the conclusion about the current inapplicability of such historical types as “social contract” and “social dependency”. The main conclusion consists in the fact that in the foundation of such cooperation on the main state of development of the public relations lies the idea of dialogue communication, which allows expecting the mutual understanding and satisfaction of interests of both, the civil society, and the government.
Gerasimov G.I. - The past as an object of history pp. 1-19


Abstract: The subject of the study is the historical past, which, depending on the historian's ideological position, is either absent or appears as an objectively existing reality.The work is based on the principles of historicism and reliability, a whole set of methods is the methodological basis, among which it is necessary to highlight study and generalization, deduction and induction, abstraction, understanding, etc.From the positions of the idealistic approach, which the author adheres to, there is no real past. The past is a subjective image of a reality that it could be without those changes that took place with it later.The past is the fundamental concept of human thinking, which regulates the chaos of the real world in consciousness, in accordance with the main ideological ideas of the historian. An ideology determines not only a theoretical approach to explaining historical facts, but also actively participates in the process of creating the facts themselves. The idea always precedes the facts and participates in their creation.The scientific novelty of the research is the author's approach: the past is viewed from the point of view of the idealistic approach, according to which the historian does not so much study how much the past creates, relying on certain methods and his own worldview.The main conclusion of the article is that history influences a person to the extent that he allows to do this, and since modern man shares belief in virtue of the power of the past, history is actively considered as a way of controlling people, manipulating their actions.
Gerasimov G.I., Gerasimov A.V. - Quantitative and qualitative analysis of the structure of a historical text pp. 1-24


Abstract: The subject of this research is the historical writing technique, which allows creating convincing images of the past. The goal of this article is ti analyze the structure of texts written by the historians and covering the period from antiquity to the XXI century. The theoretical framework consists of the idealistic approach towards history developed by the author. This article is first to examine the structure of texts written by the prominent historians of the past, such as Herodotus, Nestor, Karamzin, Klyuchevsky, and some historians of the XX – XX centuries from the perspective of idealistic approach and the use of quantitative methods. For comparison, analysis is conducted on the literary texts of A. S. Pushkin and V. S. Pikul dedicated to historical themes. The article employs content analysis, structural analysis, and terarchical cluster analysis of the texts on the basis of their structure. This revealed that the structure of these texts consists of the factual and theoretical statements, where the firs prevailed until the mid XX century. The use of cluster analysis allowed building a matrix of similarity of the works. The main method of creating convincing historical text lies in selection and interpretation of the the facts in accordance with the dominant worldview or a widespread historical concept. Facts are subordinated to the theory and confirm the fundamental ideas and historical concepts, as well as depict a convincing image of the past. The conducted analysis indicates that theory plays the key role in creating a convincing historical text, while facts are secondary; no significant impact of historical methods is revealed. The major difference between the analyzed historical and literary texts consists in the fact that there is no theory in the literary works.
Miloslavov A.S. - Digital revolution: the experience of periodization and problems of forecasting pp. 1-9


Abstract: This article examines a complicated phenomenon that includes the epistemic and technological components, as well as multiplicity of social practices. Based on such approach, the author determines the significant stages of “digitalization” of various sides of social life; describes the problems impeding accurate forecasting of the processes of future development of information and communication technologies and their impact upon social life. Methodological patterns that should be followed by a researcher aimed at implementation of a forecasting function with regards to future transformations of sociotechnical digital world. Methodological framework contains the historical-comparative analysis that allows identifying problematic areas in the attempts to establish periodization of the development of computer science and desire to form forecast of the future flow of transformations in the “digital world”. Bases on the concepts “open exit project” and “medium zoom level”, the article reveals the capabilities and limitations for accurate realization of forecast functions with regards to further course of the “digital revolution”. The author substantiates the statement that in studying processes associated with future development of computer science, it is necessary to pay attention to socio-anthropological consequences of research and engineering activity.
Kozhevina M.A. - To the question of periodization of the history of Soviet educational law pp. 10-19


Abstract: The subject of this research is the process of establishment and development of the Soviet educational law in the context of modern requirements towards improving the cognitive means of historical legal phenomena. Among such means is the periodization that suggests determining the timeframes with internal conceptual completeness, as well as indicates the qualitative change in the examined object in particular time. The object of this work is the educational law as a structural element of Russian legal system, which historically forms based on the genetic, structural, and functional ties that in certain periods undergo profound qualitative changes, resulting in qualitative changes in the legal regulation of relations in the area of education, and this conducing the transformation of legislative branch into another capacity – branch of law. Within the framework of retrospective approach, the author analyzes separate stages of development of the Soviet educational law, as well as defines the system-forming legislative acts. The choice of periodization criteria must not be arbitral, but rather stimulating the formation of integral vision of the object at hand. Asynchrony can be noticed inside the process of cultural structuring in the Soviet State consists of relatively independent cultural directions (among which are education and enlightenment). Each direction has its own development mechanism, and thus, its own periodization. One of the defining factors in development of the Soviet system of education is the level of education of population. Highlighting the stages of establishment of the state education system and educational law in Soviet Russia, first and foremost, it is necessary leaning on the key events in development of the comprehensive school, the status of which fully determines the development of career school. Periodization should be realized based on the criterion of legal regulation of the development of general education as an intrinsic factor for development of the entire educational system.
Tinyakova E.A. - Information and social needs for the new methods of teaching history pp. 12-21


Abstract: The object of this article is the historical knowledge and modern information and social requirements towards its quality and content. The author determines the three spheres of historical knowledge: Russian history as part of knowledge in human life; Russian history within the system of education, specifically in secondary educational professional institutions and high school; academic historical research. Brief characteristic is given to the interconnection between these three spheres of knowledge on the national history. The subject of this work is the improvement of educational process on national history in the secondary schools. The scientific novelty of the conducted research consists in the increase of social importance of teaching the national history, as well as impact of the Russian history as an educational discipline upon the establishment of political culture. Teaching the Russian history faces relevant tasks of civil upbringing. The author suggest expanding the educational materials on national history.
Moiseeva L.A., Chugunov A.M. - To the theoretical-methodological problems of the study of history of the Russian historical cinematography: on the example of Primorsky Krai (1938 June of 1941) pp. 28-45


Abstract: The subject of this research is the cinematographic interpretation of history and historical perception of the film: to the theoretical-methodological problems of the study of history of the Russian historical cinematography: on the example of Primorsky Krai (1938 – June of 1941). Based on the newly acquired historical knowledge, the author examines the establishment of the theory of cinematography during confrontation between Russian and foreign schools, directions, and concepts, as well as its transformation into the theory of Soviet cinematography that performed the ideological orientations of the All-Union Communist Party of Bolsheviks and Soviet authorities as the means of influence upon general public, encouraging them towards the collective labor heroism under the changing domestic and external conditions. The scientific novelty lies in demonstration of the structural-functional “nature” of Soviet cinematography along with the impact of the historical reality upon the Russian cinematography in the context of “history and cinema”. This article, based on the example of Primorsky Krai, is first to study the specificity of establishment of the functions of cinematography as a social institution, form of art, means of mass communication, and the necessity of using the historical experience in the modern circumstances.
Samokhin K.V. - Typical variety of modernization in modern historical paradigm pp. 56-67


Abstract: Typical variety of modernization in modern historical paradigm Based on analysis of the existing points of view, this article substantiates the possibility of application of modernization theory to the historical research for various countries, including the period of Imperial Russia. The author underlines that it is necessary to consider the peculiarities of modernization processes in the history of different states, as well as determines that the relevance of modernization discourse suggest the necessary examination of its diverse aspects. In particular, an important problem lies in highlighting and characterizing the types of modernization for revelation of its specificity in various countries. The methodology of this work is based on the classical interpretation of modernization (transition from the traditional society to modern) as the most applicable to historical research. The conclusion is made that most acceptable is the classification of the types of modernization based on the complex approach, which suggests the study of modernization manifestations in multiple spheres of social life. The author’s characteristic is provided of the specificities and processes that take place within the framework of economic, social, demographic, political, and spiritual modernization.
Kyrchanoff M.W. - Classic Theories of Nationalism in the Context of Minority Nationalism in Great Britain:
regional nationalist movements as a marginal subject of modern historiography of nationalism
pp. 59-75



Abstract: The purpose of this study is to analyze the possibility of classical theories of nationalism use in analysis of the minority nationalisms histories in the British historiographical situation. The author analyses the complexities of integration and assimilation of the ideal models of Ruritania and Megalomania as imagining nationalising and modernising societies proposed by Ernest Gellner, as well as Miroslav Hrochs periodisation of nationalism as ideal interpretive models in the contexts of British historiography. The subject of the article is classical modernist theories of nationalism, the object is the possibility of their application in British historical research. It is assumed that the processes of nationalist modernisation and the development of regional nationalisms, on the one hand, are perceived through the prism of a constructivist approach. On the other hand, the author believes that the British historical material is characterised by a significant degree of resistance and therefore the use of classical theories of nationalism in the context of the conservatism of the historiographical imagination in Great Britain is debatable. The article analyses the difficulties of integrating the history of regional minority nationalisms and English nationalism into the contexts of sociocultural modernism of classical theories of nationalism. The results of the study suggest that the modern British historiographical situation is simultaneously characterised by an interest in the problems of the social history of regional nationalisms and significant conservatism, which expresses itself in ignoring classical theories of nationalism, despite the effectiveness of their interpretive models.
Kyrchanoff M.W. - Three-stage periodization of the history of nationalism of Miroslav Hroch as an "ideal model" and the prospects for its application to Iranian historical studies pp. 80-92



Abstract: The author analyzes the features and contradictions in the development of Iranian nationalism historical forms in contexts of the ideal models proposed in modernist historiography. The article focuses on the problems of nationalisms inability to become the dominant political force that constructs the main features of the societal and state developments in Iran. The article is an attempt to transplant classical theories of nationalism into Iranian historical and cultural contexts. The author uses a three-stage ideal model of the development of nationalism originally proposed by Miroslav Hroch. Using the modernist approach of Miroslav Hroch, the author presumes that since the 19th century, traditions of political and ethnic nationalism developed in Iran when Qajars and Pahlavi dynasties actualized various strategies of nationalist modernization. The article presents a comparative analysis of various historical forms of Iranian nationalism in the context of the constructivist approach, formulated in the three-stage periodization of Miroslav Hroch. It is assumed that the nationalist modernization of the Qajars and Pahlavi in Iranian historiography is perceived through the prism of a constructivist approach. Therefore, the causes and forms of the crisis of the nationalist project in Iran are also analyzed with use of the ideal chronology of nationalism formulated by M. Hroch in contexts of the competition between the political principles of the nation and the religious ideals of the Ummah.
Zagvazdin E.P. - From grave to archive: to the problem of studying genealogy of Siberian clergy pp. 109-119


Abstract: The subject of this research is the genealogy of Siberian clergy. The object of this research is the Druzhinin family. On the example of studying the members of monastic family who served in the St. John Vvedensky Covent near Tobolsk during the 1860s – 1923, the author reviews the key underlying problems related to the search and examination of genealogical ties. The personas of Druzhinin family represent a typical example of fragmentation and incompleteness of  biographical records. Based on the number of archaeological, written, and archival sources, the article seeks the ways for restoration of genealogical information. The article indicates a number of sources used in the course of research, as well checks accuracy of the revealed records. An algorithm for searching and critical understanding of information on the Druzhinin family reflected in a number of archival sources, newspaper and reference publication is described. The article is dedicated to the relevant trends of historical research –  genealogy. Examination of family ties is a complicated process with certain nuances. Despite the fact that the concepts of biographical and genealogical information are similar, the genealogical research often relies on the available biographical data, as well as presents new facts on the family (or member of the family). In searching ne information on the historical figures, comprehensive historical research that cover a wide variety of archaeological and archival sources come to the forefront. Therefore, the presented experience of searching the information on the Druzhinin monastic family can be extrapolated to genealogical research with similar problem areas as in searching information on the Siberian clergy.
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