Genesis: Historical research
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MAIN PAGE > Journal "Genesis: Historical research" > Contents of Issue 04/2023
Contents of Issue 04/2023
Personality in history
Druzhevskii A.O., Eil'bart N.V. - Grozny and Batory in Epistolary Political Polemic pp. 1-9

DOI:
10.25136/2409-868X.2023.4.40135

EDN: RGHAII

Abstract: In the article, the authors analyzes the diplomatic messages of Ivan V to the Polish king Stefan Batory of 1579, 1581. It also considers methods of manipulation and persuasion by the king of the opponent, as well as methods of confronting this manipulation in the response of the Polish king Stefan Batory to the tsar of 14.11.1581. Conclusions are drawn about the great political erudition of Grozny, as well as about the infertility of the arguments presented by both sovereigns and did not contribute to the resolution of the military conflict.
Issues of war and peace
Prigodich N.D., Bogomazov N.I. - Foreign Purchases for the Needs of Russian Transport during the First World War: Problem Statement and Historiographical Aspects pp. 10-18

DOI:
10.25136/2409-868X.2023.4.40377

EDN: OCMKTU

Abstract: The article discusses general theoretical considerations about the factor of foreign purchases in solving the transport crisis in Russia during the First World War. At the same time, the main emphasis is placed on a historiographical review of the problem, which allows us to formulate a vector for further research. Since the end of 1914, it has become obvious to the political and military leadership of the country that the requirements of wartime in some industries significantly exceed the capabilities of domestic manufacturers. First of all, this applies to railways, front and rear, which constantly needed a huge number of new rails and fasteners to them, switches, bandages, wagons of various types, locomotives and other materials. The inability to produce the necessary materials in the right quantity at Russian enterprises naturally led to the need to purchase them abroad, primarily in the United States and allied countries - Great Britain and France. Since 1915, foreign procurement has been on a wide scale. Military and civilian authorities, trying to improve the operation of transport, which is critical in wartime conditions, are gradually expanding the range of goods ordered abroad for transport purposes, including cars, materials for aviation and the navy.
Historical time and space
Bertosh A.A. - Features of the formation of the Arctic tourism direction in Russia in the second half of the XIX early XX centuries (on the example of the Kola North) pp. 19-29

DOI:
10.25136/2409-868X.2023.4.40548

EDN: SBGPJD

Abstract: In the article are considered on example of the one of the Russian regions (the Kola North), the prerequisites and conditions for the formation and subsequent development of tourism in the Western Arctic at the turn of the XIXXX centuries. The author reveals the specifics of the region, which influences on the formation of a tourist destination on this territory, analyzes the state of the service and hospitality infrastructure that existed during the specified period, as well as the available communication routes connecting the Kola North with the regions of Russia and other states. Overview of factors, objects and phenomena that are attractive to tourists and are used to promote visiting the Arctic territories is also provides. Particular attention is paid to the development of steamship communications, which ensured the greatest transport accessibility of the region in these conditions. The main result of the study is the identification of the features of Russian Arctic tourism in the period of its inception (second half of the XIX early XX centuries). In the article is analyzed the activity of the Association of the Arkhangelsk-Murmansk Express Shipping Company as one of the main initiators and stakeholders in the development of tourism in the Russian Arctic, and also reviews the publications of that time, specially prepared to facilitate travel to the North. Based on the results of the study, it was determined that in Russia by the beginning of the XX century was formed the Arctic tourism direction, which had the potential for scaling and high-quality development, but these processes were interrupted by the First World War and subsequent revolutionary events.
Academic schools and paradigms
Kapsalykova K.R. - "Our Grand Inquisitor is a very good Man": to the Scientific Biography of Naum Abramovich Bortnik (1911-1977) pp. 30-40

DOI:
10.25136/2409-868X.2023.4.40590

EDN: SKEWTQ

Abstract: The article is devoted to the scientific biography of the Soviet medievalist, Doctor of Historical Sciences, Professor Nahum Abramovich Bortnik (1911-1977). The author pays special attention to the period of the Great Patriotic War. Letters addressed to N. A. Bortnik are introduced into scientific circulation. The letter of the writer Isaac Sadykov, who worked a lot in Sverdlovsk during the Great Patriotic War, sheds light on the literary life of the city. Special attention is paid to the discussions, sometimes acute, emotional, devoid of academic chic, which flared up between M. Ja. Sjuzjumov and N. A. Bortnik. The article publishes the minutes of the meeting of the Department of General History of the Ural State University. The author comes to the conclusion that it is necessary to reconstruct the scientific biographies of Soviet historians. This work is important for the preservation of the scientific heritage of our country. The publication of sources, in this case, is the only antidote against the tenets of "cathedral historiography" and empty references "separated by commas" in the notes for the next anniversary date. The article is a continuation of the study of the biographies of historians who were part of M. Ja. Sjuzjumov's "inner circle" and represents an independent scientific problem. The complete opposite of M. Ja. Sjuzjumov was undoubtedly N. A. Bortnik (1911-1977). They were separated by many things. Thus, M. Ja. Sjuzjumov belonged to the last generation of pre-revolutionary historians. Naum Abramovich Bortnik was a representative of the first generation of Soviet scientists. Professor Sjuzjumov has been developing the theory of dialectical continuity all his life; Professor Bortnik followed the "romantic school", highly appreciating the role of the masses of the people. M. Ja. Sjuzjumov saw echoes of political struggle in heretical movements; N. A. Bortnik insisted on the most important role of the leaders of the masses.
History and Ideology
Lysenko M. - Ideological and political evolution of the Independent Social Democratic Party of Germany in 1920-1922 pp. 41-54

DOI:
10.25136/2409-868X.2023.4.39959

EDN: TAFNKL

Abstract: In this article, the subject of research is the internal ideological and political evolution of the Independent Social Democratic Party of Germany in the last years of its existence (1920-1922) to change the orientation of the party. The main emphasis is not on the organizational incapacity of the party, as was customary in historiography, but on the process of ideological shifts. This approach made it possible to identify the ideological crisis in the USPD in the conditions of the instability of the political system of the Weimar Republic, which turned out to be one of the most significant factors in the disappearance of the party. For historians who look to the experience of the Weimar Republic, the labor movement has always faced a choice between communism and social democracy, while the independents have, at best, the fate of an ill-fated utopian attempt at a "third way" in the post-war labor movement in Germany. The attention of scholars involved in the history of the USPD was mainly focused on the initial period of the party's existence from 1917 to 1920, namely on the reasons for the party's separation from the SPD in 1917 and the split in 1920, when most of the independents went to the KPD. The period from 1920 to 1922 was given a place where the survival of the USPD to the merger with the SPD was considered in an overview form, and there are no separate works devoted to this period of time at all.
History of science and technology
Vladzymyrskyy A.V. - Institutionalization of scientific researches in the field of distant automated diagnostics in the RSFSR (1970-1990s) pp. 55-74

DOI:
10.25136/2409-868X.2023.4.40545

EDN: QJDVIC

Abstract: Objective is the processes of formal structuring of scientific research in the field of remote automated diagnostics in the USSR. In the period under study, against the background of intensive processes of informatization of health care, a direction of scientific research was formed to create algorithms and programs for computer analysis of biomedical data in order to support medical decision-making. The low availability of electronic computers (due to objective technological and financial difficulties) prompted scientists to use telecommunication technologies to transfer data from practical health care institutions to large scientific and clinical centers equipped with computers. The initiatives of individual scientific groups were combined into the Republican target complex program for the scientific and practical development of automated advisory systems. The institutionalization of scientific research has reached a high level. At the expense of the state and administrative resources, systematic research was ensured - since 1979, the Republican Target Program "Development and Implementation of an Automated System for Remote Diagnosis of Certain Emergency Conditions" began in the RSFSR. However, by the mid-1980s due to a number of reasons (infrastructural, information-psychological and socio-economic), the biotelemetric component has lost its relevance and has almost completely disappeared from scientific topics. Research in the field of automated data analysis and biotelemetry itself has been divided into two separate areas.
History of public institutions
Kostrikov S.S. - I.N. Kuznetsov: "The sphere of management is a noble, lively, human activity..." pp. 75-83

DOI:
10.25136/2409-868X.2023.4.40575

EDN: QMBOZU

Abstract: The subject of the study is the process of formation of management education in Soviet times. The search for new solutions in production management in the conditions of post-war reconstruction and adaptation of industry to the conditions of NTR. Development of the fundamentals of domestic management science, introduction of automated control systems at industrial enterprises of the Soviet Union. Solving problems related to new industries and training qualified personnel for all sectors of the national economy. The creation of the first textbooks and manuals on management, the organization of research laboratories at enterprises, the creation of a Research Laboratory (NIL MGSNH) and the opening of the first information and computing center in the USSR at the Ordzhonikidze Moscow Institute of Engineering and Economics. The object of the research is the contribution of Igor Nikolaevich Kuznetsov to the development of the foundations of managerial education in the conditions of the socialist economic system and the scientific and technical revolution. His work is in the field of scientific organization of production management, evaluation of efficiency at enterprises of different industrial purposes, improvement of the internal structure of the enterprise, development of theoretical problems of management of socialist industrial production and in the field of research of patterns of economic development of socialist industrial enterprises. The basic principles of the introduction and operation of automated control systems are considered separately, the practice of improving the training of personnel in the field of industrial production management is shown by connecting industry enterprises and universities on a research basis.
Philosophy of history, historiography, chronology/source studies
Kostrikov S.S., Kostrikov S.P. - Consular Reports as a Source of Information for Periodicals of the Ministry of Finance of Russia at the Beginning of the Twentieth Century pp. 84-90

DOI:
10.25136/2409-868X.2023.4.40050

EDN: QDPCJP

Abstract: The author examines the reports of Russian consular services located in different countries, which served as important sources of various commercial and political information for periodicals issued by the Ministry of Finance of Imperial Russia at the beginning of the twentieth century. The subject of the study is the information policy of one of the leading government departments, which was one of the first to deploy a wide correspondent network around the world in order to obtain information about the most important events in the world economy and politics, analyze them and bring them to the main consumer the domestic business class, who was extremely interested in promptly obtaining this information. The scientific novelty of the publication lies in the fact that the reports of the Russian consuls, revealed during the analysis of archival documents containing correspondence between the Trade Department of the Ministry of Finance and the Editorial Office of the time-based publications of this ministry, have not yet been reflected in the scientific literature. Meanwhile, market, industrial, stock exchange, banking, socio-political information, which regularly appeared in the "Bulletin of Finance, Industry and Trade" and the daily "Trade and Industrial Newspaper", played an important role for the orientation of business circles not only in the processes on world markets, but also for the political development of the domestic bourgeoisie, understanding its role in the socio-economic and political life of Russia during the period under review. And the correspondent network of these publications, the use of technological innovations became the basis for the creation of first a Trade and Telegraph Agency under the Ministry of Finance, and then a government agency.The St. Petersburg Telegraph Agency, which initiated the formation of the state information policy.
Auxiliary historical disciplines
Kalimoldina Z.A. - Renaming of Settlements of the East Kazakhstan Region in 1900-1917 as a Violation of the Stability of the Toponymic System pp. 91-100

DOI:
10.25136/2409-868X.2023.4.39652

EDN: QGRBLK

Abstract: The object of the study is the toponymic space of the East Kazakhstan region in 1900-1917. The purpose of the article, based on the data of the State Archive of the Republic of Kazakhstan, is to identify the problems that provoked the change of the toponymic system of East Kazakhstan in 1900-1917. As the main method, we used descriptive-analytical, involving systematization, description and sequential analysis of toponymic material. Methods of etymological, morphemic and word-formation analysis were used. The analysis of documents of the Semipalatinsk regional administration related to the change of names of settlements of the East Kazakhstan region and the renaming of Russian-language names of some settlements is presented. According to archival documents of 1910, it is clear that the attempt of the local (Kazakh) population to preserve the former names by translating into Russian was not carried out (Orders No. 10030 of August 19, 1910 and No. 4397 of March 15, 1910), while the names of counties where new settlers arrived and Russian-language names associated with the natural specifics of the location of the settlement and the economy of the population. As a result of the study, we see that the names of toponyms of the indigenous population of the region in the period under review have undergone changes created artificially.
History of ethnicities, peoples, nations
Soblirova Z.K., Kumakhova Z.K., Lavrova N.S. - Formation of the System of protection of motherhood and childhood in Kabardino-Balkaria in the 2030s. XXth century pp. 101-108

DOI:
10.25136/2409-868X.2023.4.40431

EDN: QHAWYE

Abstract: The article is devoted to the study of the formation and development of the Soviet system of maternity and childhood protection as one of the main elements of social security of the population in Kabardino-Balkaria. Of particular interest is the strengthening of the role of the state in the education of the younger generation, which pursued the goal of displacing the traditional way of life in order to accelerate the involvement of women in production and replenish the number of working people. The purpose of the article is to study a set of archival documents, first introduced into scientific circulation, reflecting the inclusion of women in the Soviet socio-political and economic space. The work is based on the principles of analysis and synthesis, reliability, objectivity, the methodological basis of the study is the historical and genetic method. On the basis of archival materials, it is shown how the development of the law enforcement practice of the new Soviet family legislation was carried out. The scientific novelty of this study is represented by the representation, on the basis of factual material that began in the 1920s and 1930s, of the process of creating a network of preschool institutions, kindergartens and playgrounds designed not only for the more successful socialization of children within the framework of state ideology, but also equally necessary to free women's time for socially useful work. It has been proven that the removal of part of the educational functions from the management of the family and the transfer of them to the state made it possible to prepare personal space for a woman for self-realization in the socio-professional sphere.
Ethnography and ethnology
Krygin R.V. - German-speaking travelers of the XVIII-XIX centuries in the Crimea. pp. 109-115

DOI:
10.25136/2409-868X.2023.4.38253

EDN: QHOQBE

Abstract: The annexation of Crimea to the Russian Empire in 1783 is one of the most significant dates in the history of the Russian state. The unexplored lands of the Russian Empire aroused great interest not only among its rulers, but also among a large number of foreigners, including German-speaking travelers. Among them were writers, scientists, geographers, naturalists, encyclopedists. Among the foreign researchers of the Crimean nature, not a few Germans were observed. Germans appeared in the Crimea as early as 1805. In Simferopol county they found such colonies as: Neizatz, Friedenthal, Rosenthal (Wirtenbergers), in Feodosia County Heilbrunn, Sudak and Herzenberg. In the same year, the Swiss colony of Zurichtal appeared on the territory of the Crimean peninsula, and later, in 1811, another German colony, Kronental. The subject of the study are German-speaking travelers who visited the Crimea in the period XVIII-XIX. Despite numerous studies conducted in various periods, not only by domestic but also by foreign scientists, there are currently no historical and linguistic works of a German-speaking travelogue about the Crimea. The authors of the German - language travelogue about Crimea as informants can be divided into categories: a) chronology b) pragmatics. Due to the fact that Crimea has a unique and diverse nature, the region was often explored in the 18th and 19th century, not only by Russian researchers who had to expand Catherine II's knowledge about her state, but also by scientists of German origin. The region was explored by the Kippen family, Peter Simon Pallas, Moritz von Engelhart, Friedrich Parrott, Biberstein, and Karl Gablitz.
Historical facts, events, phenomena
Lapina D.A. - Social and political foundations of the formation of urban planning and architecture of the cities of Ancient Russia pp. 116-124

DOI:
10.25136/2409-868X.2023.4.37944

EDN: QTGMMK

Abstract: The subject of the study is the political and social aspect of the formation of town-planning scheme of ancient Russian cities. The object of the study is architecture, urban planning, street layout, urbanonims, social topography of cities such as Kiev, Novgorod, Vladimir, Ryazan. The author examines in detail the following aspects of the topic: the influence of the political situation on the architectural appearance of the city, the social and ethnic composition of the population of cities, the origin of ancient Russian urban toponyms. Particular attention is paid to architecture and urban planning as a source on social and political history, the process of evolution of urban development in the context of foreign policy relations, the influence of domestic political and social factors on it. The main conclusions of the study are that the following trends can be identified in the town-planning scheme of ancient Russian cities: chaotic development at the first stage of development and withdrawal to planning with the strengthening of political power, secondariness of streets in some cities of Ancient Russia, by means of urbanonims of ancient Novgorod, Vladimir and Kiev, it is possible to develop ideas about the social and ethnic composition of the city's population Ancient Russia, to trace the changes in its structure, in its political situation. A special contribution of the author to the study of the topic is the identification of a common architectural element between two religious buildings of different regions and different periods in the context of foreign policy contacts. This element is a promising portal in the Church of St. Paraskevi and in the church of Allenau in the village of Porechye, Kaliningrad region. The novelty of the research lies in the fact that urban planning and architecture of Ancient Russia can serve not only in the format of an art history discipline, but also as a visual illustration for political and social history. At the moment, the architecture and urban planning grid of ancient Russian cities is not considered as a serious source in research related to political power, international relations, and the history of social structures.
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