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Genesis: Historical research
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MAIN PAGE > Journal "Genesis: Historical research" > Contents of Issue є 12/2018
Contents of Issue є 12/2018
Culture and cultures in historical context
Lugavtsova A.P. - Ingen Ryuki (1592-1673) and his role in the history of Japanese culture of the Edo period (1603-1868) pp. 1-7


Abstract: The Edo period (1603-1868) holds a special place in the history of Japan. Despite the fact that since 1641, the Tokugawa Shogunate isolated Japan from the outside world, this period is known for significant transformation in various levels of social life. This article is dedicated to the changes in the religious and cultural spheres of the country during the Edo period based on the example of origination of the Obaku School, new movement of Japanese Buddhism founded by the migrants from China. Particular attention is given to the creative path and biography of Ingen Ryuki (1592-1673) as the founder of the school, who familiarized Japan with the cultural achievement of Ming China. The scientific novelty is defined by the absence of special works dedicated to the Obaku School and its founder in the national Japanese Studies. Therefore, the author focused on the writings of English and Japanese authors. Based on the example of separate aspects of Japanese cultural life, such as calligraphy, the author reviews the magnitude of cultural impact of Ingen Ryuki and his followers. The main conclusion lies in the statement that despite Japan’s isolation and conservative policy of the shohunate, the new cultural ideal borrowed from China and passed on through the monks-emigrants has entwined in the culture of Edo period. The emergence of “Chinese styles” in calligraphy and painting are the vivid illustration of the power of creative heritage of the Obaku teaching, as well as the talent and charisma of its founder.
Beliefs, religions, churches
Nesterkin S. - The main trends in the renewal movement of Russian Buddhism at the beginning of the XX century . pp. 8-15


Abstract: The object of the study is the renovationist movement in Russian Buddhism. At the beginning of the XX century, some part of the Buddhist community began the process of revising the organizational forms of its existence, revising its theoretical and practical baggage. The work focuses on defining the basic principles of the main directions of this movement, studying their goals and objectives and identifying differences in their approaches to reforming the Buddhist church in the context of the ongoing changes in the socio-political conditions of Russia at the beginning of the 20th century. As a result of the analysis of documents and archival materials, the author investigated the doctrinal and ideological foundations of the movements and their organizational forms. The study found that there were two significantly different movements that set themselves very different tasks and used fundamentally different approaches to solve them. On the one hand, the activities of Buryat enlighteners B. Baradin, Ts.Zhamsarano, etc., and such representatives of the clergy as A. Dorzhiev, Ch. Iroltuev, GanzhurovaвАУGegen were designed to develop an ideological basis for preserving the national identity of the Buddhist peoples of Russia in the conditions of ideological and political expansion. On the other hand, L.S. Tsydenov and his followers set themselves a significantly different task: to reform Buddhism in such a way that it could develop in a new socioвАУcultural environment, in the Western culture of Russia. The task here was not so much the preservation of national identity as the development of the Buddhist tradition in a new cultural space, which indirectly solved the first task.
Nikolaev E.N. - New materials on ferrous metallurgy of Yakuts in the XV-XVII centuries pp. 16-23


Abstract: This article contains the materials of excavations of the metallurgy production sites. Records of iron smelting were discovered in the territory of 2nd Zhemkonsky Nasleg of Khangalassky District of the Sakha Republic (Yakutia). The explored objects represent a set of smelters for bloomery process. During the field season of 2017, the indicated objects were explored by the archeological expedition of Institute of Humanitarian Research and Indigenous Peoples of the North of the Siberian Branch of the Russian Academy of Sciences. Three metallurgical complexes that contained smelting furnace and slag wastes were inspected. Methodological foundation contains theoretical insights into the research of the traditional economic and cultural complexes and industrial arts, based on the general scientific principles of historicism, systematicity and scientific objectivity. The scientific novelty consists in closing the existing historiographical gap, associated with insufficiency of target-oriented research of metallurgical production of Yakutia. The author describes the defining characteristics of the explored metallurgical furnaces, as well as provides the schematic reconstruction. Based on radiocarbon dating of samples, the time of existence of smelter constructs was determined. The acquired data allow concluding that the ancient metallurgies of Yakutia in the XV-XVII centuries used the small adobe furnaces with stone facing, built inside the piled elevation.
Regions of the world in the global historical process
Grigor'eva Y.G. - Mongolian-Korean relations in the XX century pp. 24-31


Abstract: The subject of this research is the history of establishment and dynamics of Mongolian-Korean relations, changes in the form and line of cooperation, as well as the peculiarities of bilateral interaction in the XX century. The establishment and development of Mongolian-Korean relations in the XX century took place in the terms of the replacement of several international systems, world wars and revolutions. Historical studies of the cooperation between Mongolia and the Republic of Korea in the XX century is of prime importance for examination of the evolution and current situation in the Mongolian-Korean relations. Methodological foundation contains the general scientific and special research methods: comparative-historical analysis allowed familiarizing with the problem state according to the materials from various sources; contrastive-comparative method allowed conducting synthesis, analogy, systematization of facts, events and phenomena, as well as generalization of data that illustrates the vector and dynamics of development of the relations between Mongolia and the Republic of Korea; chronological method was aimed at determination of the stages of establishment and advancement of cooperation, and qualitative changes in this process; logical method defined the problems and trends in studying the history of Mongolian-Korean relations. The scientific novelty consists in introduction of historical analysis of the Mongolian-Korean relations in the XX century using the relevant and insufficiently studied material in Mongolian and Russian languages. This allowed to objectively assess the process of establishment and development of bilateral cooperation, as well as observe its new facets.
History of regions of Russia
Yunina E.A. - To the question of use of the photographic materials in reconstruction of everyday life in Western Siberian province of the late XIX Ц early XX century, based on the example of regional photo collection pp. 32-57


Abstract: The goal of this article is the synoptic characteristic of the photographed visual sources applied in the process of reconstruction of everyday life of the residents of Russian periphery, as well as models of everyday routine of the diverse social, professional and age groups of urban population of the late XIX – early XX century. For detailed and gradual examination of this topic, the range of sources was limited by photo collections of Tobolsk and Tyumen. This article is first to describe and introduce into the scientific discourse of the set of photos of several local collections preserved in the state museums, as well as private and family archives. Methodological foundation contains the principles of historical anthropology and visual history, combined with the micro-historical approach towards exploring the local photo collections of various types. Micro-historical approach is specified by studying the local collections, with application of systemic and structural-functional analysis, comprehensive and descriptive approaches, historical-typological method, as well as paramount in working with photo collections method of museum classification and attribution. The scientific novelty is defined by the use of photo documents as the backbone and independent sources in studying the history of everyday life of Western Siberian cities during the period of rapid growth of photographic industry in Russia, which fell on the turn of the XIX – XX centuries.
Historical time and space
Mikheev D.V. - The insight into nature and geography in testimonies of the participants of Francis DrakeТs circumnavigation of the earth pp. 58-66


Abstract: This publication is dedicated to the events related to the course of circumnavigation of Francis Drake. Special attention is given to the reports on nature and geography made by the participants of expedition. The remarkable natural phenomena, new specimen of animals and plants, aboriginal lifestyle in the remote countries aroused genuine interest among the explorers. They describe the flying fish, astonishing bids that cannot fly, and meticulously analyze the expedition route, weather conditions and geographical peculiarities of the visited places. The research leans on the historical-genetic method that allows tracing the formation of perception of the circumnavigation participants on nature and geography; the comparative method helps to determine the common features and specifics of the New World and other foreign territories formed in the mind of Drake’s companions. The Age of Discovery opened an unfamiliar world for the representatives of the Old Continent, which they were eager to cognize and explore in the XV-XVII centuries. The discoveries made in Francis Drake’s circumnavigation helped to describe the previously unexplored by the Europeans parts of the globe, unusual natural phenomena, and little-known specimen of plants and animals. Testimonies of the participants can be rightfully considered an important source on the history of geographical discoveries of the XVI century.
History of law and state
Kodan S.V. - Methodology of historical-legal source studies: goal orientations, functional focus, level of organization of cognitive resources pp. 67-80


Abstract: This article presents the original perspective on the fundamental problems of understanding of goal orientations, functional designation, and methodological structure of the historical-legal source studies. Leaning on the general philosophical comprehension of methodology and the approaches towards definition of methodology in the historical source studies and legal science, the author focuses attention of the place, role and peculiarities of methodology as the tool for studying the carries of state legal information. Attention is also given to the overall arrangement of methodological material based on determining the levels as the model of specialized historiographical methodological knowledge. The five levels-subsystems of methodology of studying the carriers of state legal information are described: methodological principles, methodological approaches, specific scientific methods, methods and technique of research. The scientific novelty of this article consists in the fact that its materials are aimed at generalization and systematization of theoretical knowledge of methodology of the historical-legal source studies as a system of knowledge, cognitive coordinated and instrumental foundation for studying the types and varieties of information carries on the history of state and law.
Rakhimova G. - Roman Law in England: history of influence demonstrated in the Constitutions of Clarendon of 1164 pp. 81-91


Abstract: This article examines the history of English Law and the impact of the Roman legal tradition upon its evolution. In order to determine the level and depth of such influence, the author attempts to comprehensively analyze the combination of historical records, legislative bills of England and studies of the historians of English Law, who in his opinion, testify to the profound infiltration of the Roman legal culture into the English. The author particularizes the essential and formal indications of the impact demonstrated in the Constitutions of Clarendon of 1164 as an example of England’s Law of the Anglo-Norman era. A conclusion is made that the Constitutions of Clarendon, likewise the historical mirror, confirm the search for systemic approaches in establishment of English Law namely in the Roman legal culture. The fact that English Law formed its concept and mechanism on the basis of the Roman legal tradition and Christian religion, testifies in favor of the historical and essential relation between the Anglo-Saxon and Continental legal systems, which questions the substanuation and purposefulness of the traditions of their contradistinction.
West - Russia - East
Kolpakov M.Y., Mikheev D.V. - Pskovian land in testimonies of the English and French diplomats of the XVI Ц XVII centuries pp. 92-98


Abstract: This article presents an overview of the data on the history of Pskov and Pskovian land, collected on the basis of English and French diplomatic testimonies of the XVI – early XVII centuries. The author analyzes the routes of ambassadorial missions, diplomatic ceremony, geographical records and descriptions of the city of Pskov, data on military events and trade provided by the foreign diplomats who visited the Tsardom of Russia. For the first tie is examined the attendance of Pskov by Charles Howard, 1st Earl of Carlisle in July 1664. The source foundation contains the official documents, reports, and diaries of the participants of French and English diplomatic missions to the Russian State. The applied historical-genetic method allows tracing the evolution of representations of the English and French diplomats about the Pskovian land as a part of the Tsardom of Russia throughout the XVI – XVII centuries. Located on the border of Muscovy, Pskov and Pskovian land often attracted attention of the foreign diplomats due to its economic and military potential.
Cultural heritage
Babich I.L. - Church of Our Lady of Life-Giving Spring in Tsaritsyno: the beginning of path (XVII-XVIII centuries) pp. 99-109


Abstract: The object of this research is the Church of Our Lady of Life-Giving Spring in Tsaritsyno, while the subject is the beginning of its establishment in the XVII-XVIII centuries. The goal of this work lies in the analysis of the key aspects in formation of the new religious institution and Orthodox congregation (status, funding, characteristic of the clergy and perish, etc.). The three archives are involved in the research Moscow Central State Archive, Russian State Archive of Ancient Documents, and Kazantsevs’ Family Archive (the priests who ministered in this church during the late XIX – early XX century). The newly introduced into the scientific discourse archival materials are analyzed trough the method of historical reconstruction and presented in chronological order – from XVII to XVIII century. The history of the church under consideration only once was the object of research within the academic community. The article of the workers of Tsaritsyno Museum – A. A. Baranova and A. A. Glashevich – was published 15 years ago. It was based only on the archival materials from the Russian State Archive of Ancient Documents. Leaning on this valuable article, the author continued studying the fate of the church using primarily the two other aforementioned archives.
Historical sources and artifacts
Trifanova S.V., Soenov V.I. - Bone ornaments among Altai population of HunnoЦSarmatian period pp. 110-123


Abstract:   This article is dedicated to the results of examination of bone ornaments from the Altai cultural heritage of Hunno–Sarmatian period as the information source on the material and spiritual culture of population. More than 300 of archeological findings out of nine necropolises and a hillfort, collected in Altai over the year by the authors and other scholars, serve as the material for this research. Particular attention is given to the results of study of the more popular artefacts: bone beads, shell badges, animal tooth and claw necklaces. The article is based on the systemic approach and principle of historicism. The authors apply the methods of morphological analysis of the varieties of bone ornaments, as well as reconstruction of manufacturing process. This category of inventory allows acquiring information on the types of economic activity of the population, as well as the outlook upon social phenomena and relations. The scientific novelty lies in the fact that there is no special studies dedicated to examination of bone ornaments of Altai population of Hunno–Sarmatian period and their classification; the unpublished collections presented by the items from the tombs Ayrydash-1, Stepshka-2 and Top-Uimon are introduced into the scientific discourse. It is concluded that the bone-carving art was one of the well-developed branches of the local craftwork due to availability of materials that were mostly the remains from consuming the meat of wild and domestic animals.  
Social history
Asochakova V., Chistanova S. - Missionary work as a factor of the development of Siberia in the XVII-XIX centuries pp. 124-130


Abstract: This article is dedicated to the analysis of missionary work as one of the forms of religious migration in Siberia. Settlement of Siberia for a long time was a paramount geopolitical and economic objective of the Russian government. The state policy with regard to Siberia alongside the forms and methods aimed at proliferation of Orthodoxy among the Siberian population were undergoing transformations throughout the period from XVII to XX century. The authors determine the six stages in state policy of Christianization, since the initial familiarization with Orthodox faith until the transition towards the policy of Russification. The article analyzes the process of Christianization of the indigenous dwellers in the context of solution of the political and economic issues of the Russian State, as well as demonstrate the changes in state policy from violence to religious tolerance. In the space of two centuries of missioners’ activity in Siberia, the forced methods of Christianization were replace by the tactics of tolerance and enlightenment in terms of retaining monopoly of the Russian Orthodox Church.
Stepanov M.G. - The role of civil aviation of the Republic of Khakassia in development of internal migration of population (mid 1940Тs Ц late 1980Тs) pp. 131-139


Abstract: The subject of this research is the impact of civil aviation upon internal migration in the Khakassia Autonomous District of Krasnoyarsk Krai during the mid 1940’s – late 1980’s. Special attention is given to the development of aircraft infrastructure, expansion of flight geography, renewal of aircraft fleets, growth of labor migration due to the construction of Sayansk territorial industrial complex. A conclusion is made that with the opening of medium-range flights of the Abakan Airport led to the increasing interest in culture and history of Khakassia, and thus the growing tourist flow. In the course of this study, the author applied the following research methods: historical-comparative, historical-generic, historical-systemic, historical-structural and historical-typological. The scientific novelty lies in the fact that this article analyzes the impact of civil aviation of Khakassia upon the growth of internal migration of population, as well as introduces the materials from the National Archive of the Republic of Khakassia into the scientific discourse, which were classified until 2015 and were not available for examination.  
Drozdov A.I., Karachakova O.M. - Work of the national cultural centers of Khakassia during the 1990Тs pp. 140-151


Abstract: The object of this research is the interethnic relations in the Republic of Khakassia over the 1990’s. The subject of this research is the main directions in the work of the regional national cultural centers during this time period. The goal of the study is to analyze the process of establishment of the national cultural centers of the Germans, Poles, Cossacks, Tatars, Shors, Uzbeks, Tajiks during the 1990’s. The author explores such aspects of the topic as the change in the number of representatives of the national communities of Khakassia, the activity of associations such as “Wiedergeburt”, “Polonia”, “Duslyk”, Abakan Cossack Hundered (Sotnia), “Shoria”, Center for Tajik and Uzbek Culture “Sogdiana”. The scientific novelty lies in introduction into the scientific discourse of the new factual data, generalization and systematization of the material, within the framework of the topic under consideration, from the perspective of systemic approach and the concept of “resettlement society”. The main vector of the activity of the national cultural centers of Khakassia in the 1990’s became the revival and preservation of language, development of national culture, customs and traditions, strengthening of interethnic relations, friendship between all peoples, and establishment of the atmosphere of mutual respect. The listed national cultural centers were an important form of development of the national relations, and contributed to interethnic harmony.
Personality in history
Shapiro B. - Nikolai Nikolaevich Romanov Senior: cavalryman, horse breeder, collector (based on the documents from the State Archive of the Russian Federation) pp. 152-167


Abstract: This article depicts the general field marshal, general cavalry inspector general Grand Duke Nicholas Nikolaevich Senior as a horse breeder and collector of hippology materials. The goal of this work is to reveal the importance of N. N. Romanov’s pursuits for the history of Russian cavalry. The author attempts to restore the history of life and activity of the Grand Duke Nicholas Nikolaevich Senior, and describe the pattern of its development. The personal biographical, property and record keeping materials of N. N. Romanov from the State Archive of the Russian Federation became the source for this research. The use of historical-biographical and chronological-problematic approaches allowed describing the life story, as well as highlighting the landmarks and patterns of development of certain events. The attention is focused on the results of activity of Grand Duke in the context of their significance for the advancement and improvement of the Russian cavalry. The acquired data complements the already known history of life and work of Grand Duke Nicholas Nikolaevich Senior, as well as the everyday life of the Russian imperial house of the late XIX century and Russian military history.
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