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MAIN PAGE > Journal "Philosophical Thought" > Contents of Issue 04/2023
Contents of Issue 04/2023
The history of humanitarian science
Kryuchkova S., Kryuchkova E.V. - The Art of Argumentation in Ancient China pp. 1-18



Abstract: The subject of the study is the ideological heritage of ancient Chinese thinkers, one way or another related to the theoretical understanding of the practice of public debate. The process of institutionalization of the dispute in Ancient China is considered in detail, it is substantiated that its prerequisite was the existence of a specific argumentative discourse in the form of the so-called "beliefs" - teachings, edifying speeches of advisers to their rulers. Arguments against the occurring identification of "beliefs" with real public disputes that were widespread during the Zhangguo period - the "Rivalry of a Hundred Schools" are considered. It is shown that a number of ideas developed during this period will subsequently acquire a normative status and become the hallmark of the Chinese dispute. During the consideration of various types of disputes, techniques specific to the Chinese type of argumentation were identified: the method of associations, references to precedents, the use of the last word; the role of examples as the basis of inductive reasoning is shown. Based on the consideration of the Confucian concept of "correction of names" and the Mohist doctrine of the correct use of language, it is shown that the socio-political context and practical considerations played a decisive role in the theoretical understanding of the art of argumentation. The productive methodological ideas of the ancient Chinese "Dispute Program" are revealed. The role of analogy and examples as topoi of the ancient Indian dispute is shown. The theory of reasoning and the theory of dispute of the late Mohists are analyzed, the conclusion is substantiated that the principles of justification and persuasion, as well as the rules for conducting a dispute contained in them, are applied logic, the normativity of which allows us to consider it as the first theory of argumentation.
Philosophy and culture
Kotliar E.R., Puntus E.Y. - The Cultural Code "Bestiary" in the Jewish Pictorial Semiosis pp. 19-50



Abstract: The subject of the study is the cultural code "Bestiary", which combines symbolic images of animals and chimeras in the Jewish pictorial semiosis. The object of the study is traditional symbolism in Jewish pictorial practice. The article uses the methods of semiotic analysis in deciphering the meanings of the elements of the traditional pictorial Jewish semiosis, the method of analyzing previous studies, the method of synthesis in substantiating sets of signs. In their work, the authors consider the following aspects of the topic: the main codes of the Jewish pictorial semiosis are highlighted, their morphology, interrelationships, key meanings and the main code are substantiated. The Bestiary code, its features, etymology and reading are considered in detail. The main conclusions of the study are: 1. Based on the study of Jewish traditional culture, five main codes of pictorial semiosis in Judaism were identified, uniting a group of symbols: skewomorphic (subject), phytomorphic (plant), zoomorphic (animal), numeric. The primary source of all codes and the unifying code is the Sefer code (Book). The interactions between the codes are revealed, the key meanings are the symbolism of Creation, Paradise, Torah persons and Messianic aspirations. The semantic center of the codes the Torah and Aron Hakodesh, as a repository of the Torah, is revealed. 2. The Bestiary code considered in detail represents the symbolism of traditional images of animals and chimeras, which is connected with the prohibition in Judaism on the image of a person. Images of representatives of the world of animals, birds, fish, as well as mythical creatures in the Jewish reading convey the meanings of human virtues and negative qualities, and also indicate Messianic hopes laid down in the Torah and especially in the Midrash Talmud.The scientific novelty of the study consists in the fact that for the first time a culturological analysis was carried out and the interrelationships of cultural codes in the Jewish pictorial semiosis were structured, with an emphasis on the Bestiary code.
Zhou Z. - The Metaphysical Analysis of the Chinese Taoism of Immortality: Case Study on Continuity and Changes of Ancient Excavated Jade Artifacts pp. 51-68



Abstract: Taoist philosophy and metaphysics show an important role in ancient and modern Chinese society with its thinking about the value and meaning of life and has become an important resource for both traditional Chinese philosophy and modern. This article discusses the concept of immortality in Taoism from the point of view of metaphysics. The goal was to metaphysically analyze the symbolism of the immortality of jade artifacts found during archaeological excavations. The object of the study is the Taoist symbolism of the immortality of ancient jade artifacts, the subject is the continuity of Taoist symbols. The article is intended to expand knowledge in this direction. The author gives an idea of the metaphysical system of jade culture, at the same time considering Taoism from the point of view of metaphysics, as well as religion and an indispensable attribute of everyday life. Based on the analysis of 20 jade artifacts, the main characteristics of the symbols of Taoist immortality were revealed. The author comes to the conclusion that the theme of Taoist immortality, expressed in jade artifacts, accompanied the evolutionary process of inheritance, continuation, change and universal life and in a certain way influenced it. In different historical periods, people understand the Taoist thought of immortality in different ways, use different practices in different ways, regulate jade mining, so in different historical periods for Taoism, jade culture is a different form, reflecting the aesthetics of the characteristics of the ancient Chinese era and the pursuit of eternal thought and continuation of Taoism. The conclusions are discussed in three aspects: 1) the embodiment of the metaphysical worldview system of Taoism using the theme of "eternal life" and "immortality" in popular culture; 2) the embodiment of the metaphysical system of the ideology of jade culture; 3) takes into account the analysis of the continuation and change of the process of mutual integration of Taoist and jade culture. Thus, from the perspective of man and soul, the universality of the continuation of Taoism in jade can be clarified in order to fill the academic gap in this field.
Philosophy and art
Gaynutdinov T.R. - The Restitution of Truth in Painting: Vincent Van Gogh's "Shoes" and their Explication in the Philosophy of Jacques Derrida. pp. 69-86



Abstract: Using Jacques Derrida's polylogue "Restitution, From truth to size" as a starting point of analysis, the article examines the problem of truth in painting. Derrida, referring to the famous dispute between Martin Heidegger and Meyer Shapiro over Vincent Van Gogh's painting "Shoes", not only reconstructs the details of this correspondence discussion, which stretched for many years, but also makes a sharp criticism of academic discourse, both philosophical and art criticism, equally limited in its total claim to knowledge truth in painting. Derrida comes to the conclusion that despite the external differences and internal opposition, the positions of Heidegger and Shapiro are completely in tune. Recreating the main directions of Derrida's analysis, the author reveals the idea of the "restitution of truth" in painting, embedding it in a more general philosophical context of the deconstruction of art. Restitution is inevitably associated with the appropriation and re-attribution of the meanings and images of an artistic work. This is exactly what happened in the "mirror speculation" of Heidegger and Shapiro, who sought to appropriate the truth of the "shoes" from Van Gogh's painting. Heidegger puts the shoes "on the ground", gives them to a peasant woman, Shapiro writes about their belonging to the artist Vincent himself, but, in the end, both famous professors only project their own identity onto Van Gogh's painting and force them to tell their truth, while embedding it in the framework of academic discourse.
Philosophy of science and education
Grevtsev A.V. - Interpretation of the Concept of Social Constructivism by L. S. Vygotsky through the Semiotics of Education, the Theory of Transcendence in Education and the Theology of Personality by V. N. Lossky pp. 87-106



Abstract: The subject of the work is the theses of the concept of developmental learning, semiotics of education, theory of transcendence in education, and theology of personality. The aim of the research is to develop a practical pedagogical method based on the discussed concepts. The author demonstrates the key positions of the concept of developmental learning, such as the zone of proximal development and scaffolding; reveals the understanding of education as a semiotic system and the participation of transcendent reality in it; and outlines the main theses of the theology of personality by V.N. Lossky. Then the author combines the aforementioned theories to create a pedagogical method, which he defines as an integration of the developmental learning approach with the position of the theology of personality. The author's special contribution is the generalization of scattered concepts into unified conclusions and the development of a practical pedagogical method, which includes a number of theses, specific components of a case for conducting a lesson as a template, and instructions for implementing the case in accordance with the generally accepted stages of a lesson also in the form of a template. The author concludes that the developed case is universal and can be applied at different levels of education. The author also notes the value of the material based on which the method was developed for further study of each of the presented areas of science. The author emphasizes that the application of the method is not limited to the religious context, as the method was developed based on non-religious research, and the positions of Orthodox theology of personality correspond to the presented theories of modern philosophy of education.
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