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Philosophical Thought
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MAIN PAGE > Journal "Philosophical Thought" > Contents of Issue № 04/2017
Contents of Issue № 04/2017
Spiritual and moral search
Bykova N.I. - Detail as an artistic device in F. Kaufman's film "The Unbearable Lightness of Being" and the eponymous novel by M. Kundera pp. 1-12


Abstract: The subject of this research is the detail as an artistic device. The object the novel of the modern prose writer Milan Kundera "The Unbearable Lightness of Being" and the eponymous film by F. Kaufman. The author thoroughly examines the two art components used in the book and the film – black bowler hat and mirror. The author studies the question of creation of images of the main characters through the language of fiction and language of film, as well as the means the on-screen imagery. Special attention is given to the analysis of two characters, Tomas and Sabina, whose fates are the driving force of the plot. The main methods of this study are the comparative historical and analytical.  The author analyzes the conceptual aspects of artistic detail as an essential sense-making component. The scientific novelty of the article lies in examination of the artistic expression in M. Kundera’s novel "The Unbearable Lightness of Being" and F. Kaufman’s film. The article considers the spiritual-moral pursuits of the characters, as well as presents a comparative analysis of the artistic techniques that illustrate the features of the language of fiction and language of film.
The new paradigm of science
Gizha A.V. - The notion of information, content, and meaning: what lies in the foundation of information society? pp. 13-21


Abstract: This article analyzes the central notion of the post-industrial society – information, as well as underlines its categorical inaccuracy that reduces interpretation of information to its description using the terms of ordinary perceptions about the information awareness. Mathematical understanding of information is associated primarily with determination of the amount of information, while the creative and activity form of human cognitions appeals to the necessary consideration of the semantically saturated rows of contextual meanings. The abstract reasoning, in such case, work not for clarification of the topic, but rather form the scholastic body of texts. Methodology of the research is aimed at overcoming the established until present time phenomenon of theoretical mythologization, which although has the internally coordinated structure, but with the remaining unclarified initial notions, and thus, inefficient. The main conclusions of the conducted research consists in the positions that within the existing formalized reasoning about information, there is no brightly expressed the conceptual side of the information awareness. Mathematical perception does not capture the substantial features of information, which is viewed from the perspective of human-sized intentions. Such positions is expresses in a number of specific immanent qualities of historicity, target coherence, orderliness, and awareness. Without consideration of the aforementioned characteristics, the attempts to present the information concepts as the fundamental in social regard will remain in the area of the ideologically biased reasoning.
Tradition and innovation
Prokhorov M.M. - Ontology, gnoseology and ontognoseology pp. 22-36


Abstract: The subject of analysis is the relationship between ontology and gnoseology. The purpose of the study is to discover the unity, their mutual influence as the fundamental for the philosophical worldview. In the first chapter, the origins and development of philosophy are studied taking into account its interrelations with mythology and religion, which makes it possible to detect a trend towards ontognoseology as a unity of ontology and epistemology, which becomes fundamental precisely in philosophy. The second chapter reveals their relationship in the form of the basic question of philosophy. The third chapter describes the relationship between ontology and epistemology as a problem of modern domestic philosophy, in which the reduction of philosophy to ontology or to epistemology is preserved. Recently emerged, shown in the fourth chapter, the concept of existential materialism, reanimating, the author shows, the mythological worldview. The fifth chapter explores dualism, reductionism and dialectical models (abstractions) of the relationship of ontology and gnoseology, which are empirically (factually) supplemented by the restoration of mythological syncretism.As a basic method of research, the principle of objectivity and the unity of the historical and logical are used.
History of ideas and teachings
Markhinin V. - The origin of the word "philosophy" as a problem: to discussion of the concept of W. Burkert. Part II pp. 37-54


Abstract: This article considers the problem of origin of the word φιλοσοφία as it was formulated in the key article by Walter Burkert "Plato or Pythagoras? Origins of the Word ‘Philosophy'" ("Platon oder Pythagoras? Zum Ursprung des Wortes 'Philosophie'") (1960). It is noted that the concept created by Walter Burkert has had a large influence on the historiography of this issue and still remains topical. Walter Burkert believes that, contrary to the commonly shared opinion (based on reports of ancient authors, primarily Heraclides), it was not Pythagoras, but Plato who invented the word φιλοσοφία in its proper sense. This sense implies that a philosopher is not a man of wisdom (as only God is wise), but someone who “loves wisdom” selflessly not expecting honors or fame, someone who is devoted to the pursuit of truth about the world. The proposed paper reviews W. Burkert’s conception from the position of historical and genetic approach and the principle of philosophics (the term proposed by the author), which assumes that the most adequate means of studying the essence of philosophy is the scientific explication of its ancient archetype. The sources studied by Walter Burkert to address this problem are analyzed and a new critical look is taken at his linguistic and sociocultural hypotheses. It is demonstrated that, contrary to Burkert’s opinion, it is quite possible that the word φιλοσοφία was invented by any of the Pre-Socratic philosophers such as Pythagoras, Heraclitus and/or someone else. As reliable doxographical sources show, the style of life and thought implied by the word φιλοσοφία (though the word itself had not yet been invented) was demonstrated already by Thales whom the classical tradition originating from Antiquity calls (quite rightfully, as it seems) the first philosopher. The word φιλοσοφία was invented as a result of emerging understanding of this cognitive mode, and most likely it was first done by Pythagoras. The author of this article believes that the history of Pre-Platonic thought on the world order should be treated as the process of genesis of philosophy. It is concluded that Plato’s achievement was not the invention of the word φιλοσοφία, but assimilating this word from the existing tradition (mainly through Socrates) and developing its meaning into a doctrine of philosophy, thus completing the process of establishment of this way of living and thought.Keywords: φιλοσοφία, concept of Walter Burkert, Heraclides, Plato, Pythagoras, Heraclitus, Thales, sophists, genesis of philosophy, meanings, etymology.
Faritov V.T. - Nietzsche’s idea of eternal return: between philosophy and poetry pp. 55-69


Abstract: This article is dedicated to examinatio of the philosophical and poetic features of F. Nietzsche’s idea of eternal return, which explicates the cosmological and anthropological, mythical and philosophical aspects. The metaphysical and post-metaphysical nature of this teaching is underlined. The author provides the examples of the idea of an eternal return in the artistic prose. The doctrine of eternal return is also considered as the principal and universal motive of poetry. The author analyzes the idea of eternal return using the material of the Russian poetry. The main conclusion of the study consists in the position that poetry, along with myth, manifests as one of the sources of the idea of eternal return. The author substantiates the thesis that the poetry presents the idea of eternal return as a synthetic unity of various aspects, which subsequently acquire development in the philosophical reflection.
Social philosophy
Lagunova I.S. - What is modernity for a modern person pp. 70-83


Abstract: Man has always been interested in his future, looking for his roots in present day, modernity - the only time in which he could act, change the world and his fate. The Age of Enlightenment initiated the creation of the concepts of "modernity" that determine the state and mission of the society existing in it in the history of mankind. Subsequently, the content of the concept began to expand, acquiring new meanings. However, at whatever angle of view the notion of "modernity" is considered, it has always been used to assess reality and determine the potentials for the development of society (in the case of postmodernism, their absence). The present work is devoted to the study of existing ideas about the concept of "modernity", as well as the characteristics of "our" modernity. In the course of the research of the problem of the present, the evolution of the concept development, the change of its semantic properties is analyzed. Accordingly, the main methods of scientific knowledge used in the article are comparative-historical, specifically sociological, formal-logical. In conclusion, the basic tendencies of understanding of "modernity" are defined, among which there are concepts unacceptable for the development of personality of the society. The work also highlights the most significant, in the author's opinion, global problems and achievements that exist today. The author makes a conclusion about the complexity and interconnectedness of various phenomena and processes of the present and calls for a conscious choice of the future of mankind on the basis of analysis (and not escape from) reality.
Philosophy of history
Demin I.V. - Principle of historicism in the context of classical philosophy pp. 84-98


Abstract: This article examines the main interpretations of the principle of historicism in the context of classical philosophy of history: “romantic” historicism, Hegelian historicism, and Marxist historicism. It is demonstrated that the principle of historicism has the constitutive meaning for the philosophical historical reflection, however, in various versions of the philosophy of history, such principle attaint different and at times incompatible with each other interpretations. Namely such representation of the principle of historicism in many ways substantiates the specificity of one or another concrete version of the philosophy of history. Historicism can be combined and/or contradict the other fundamental principles of European philosophy and science – substantialism, transcendentalism, teleologism, determinism, objectivism, reductionism, universalism, and presentism. Classical historicism represents a fundamental ideology of the metaphysical (speculative) philosophy of history, the paradigmatic examples of which are the theories of the historical process of Hegel and Marx. The following key features are inherent to the classical historicism: linear conception of time, idea of development (progress), finalistic determinism and teleologism, presumption of existence of the universal regularities of historical development.
Theological foundations of being
Vlasova V.B. - Modernization of socio-religious orientation of culture in Biblical texts pp. 99-117


Abstract: This article base on the material of Bible examines the questions that in one or another way align with the globalization and modernization processes, which in the author’s opinion, have been taking place back in the ancient Jewish culture. Moses had given the Commandments to previous generations, which are still followed by the entire civilized humanity. He teaches us how to coordinate the means and goals of social practice in order to make it efficient. As far as Jesus, he discovered for the humanity the new ways of moral and intellectual improvements, as well as indicated the social ideals to the world achieved only through altruism and nonviolence. And most importantly, he is the first out of the thinkers of Ancient East to understand the need for unification of people all over the world on the basis of humanistic principles, which today are applied in globalization politics by both, the believers and atheists. Texts of the Old and New Testaments manifest as the specific examples of reasoning of the socio-philosophical nature. At the same time, the author uses the information accumulated by the historical science. Special attention is given to the examination of the indicated process as a necessary consequence of the religious-political (the times of Moses) and religious-ethical (the era of Christ’s ministry) practice. The article analyzes the similarities and differences of the work of the Prophet and the Messiah. The study of this question was carried out in the aspect of globalization-modernization paradigm.  
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