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MAIN PAGE > Journal "Litera" > Rubric "Interpretation"
Vorobei I. - The Concept of Lied (Song) in Rainer Maria Rilker's 'The Book of Hours' pp. 1-8


Abstract: Object of research of this article is language representation and interpretation of a poetic concept of "Lied" ("Song") in a cycle "The Book of hours" of the Austrian poet of the 20th century Ranier of Maria Rilke. Two types of language realization of a poetic concept in the text are considered by the author and methods of research of a poetic concept taking into account processes of dispersion and crystallization of sense are offered. The main contents of article are devoted to interpretation of the studied concept. Lexical and semantic structures of a concept are analysed, interrelations with other concepts of the cycle "Book of hours" are established. For research of a poetic concept the author offers the germenevtiko-linguistic method based on a combination of a method of text analysis of R. Bart, a method of predicate nests and a method of a hermeneutical circle. Novelty of research is that this work meets a lack in researches of poetic concepts in R. M. Rilke's creativity. Now the analysis and interpretation of poetic concepts isn't made yet and the complete kontseptosfera of the poetic world of the cycle "Book of hours" isn't simulated. Novelty of research consists also in the new technique of the analysis of the poetic text combining linguistic and hermeneutical methods.
Vorobei I. - The Concept of Lied (Song) in Rainer Maria Rilker's 'The Book of Hours' pp. 1-8


Abstract: The subject of the present article is the linguistic representation and interpretation of the poetic concept of Lied ('Song') in the cycle of poems 'The Book of Hours' written by an Austrian poet of the 20th century Rainer Maria Rilker. The author of the article describes two types of the linguistic representation of the poetic concept and offers methods for analyzing the poetic concept taking into account the processes of dissipation and crystallization of sense. The main content of the article is devoted to the interpretation of the concept under review. Vorobey analyzes lexical and sense bearing structures of the concept of Lied and establishes relations with other concepts from the cycle of poems. To study the poetic concept, the author offers to apply the hermeneutic-linguistic method that is based on the combination of Roland Barthes' method of textual analysis as well as the method of predicate nests and the method of hermeneutic circle. The novelty of the research is caused by the fact that the author fills the gap in researches jof the poetic concepts in Rainer Maria Rilker's creative writing. So far researchers have not analyzed or interpreted his poetic concepts, neither have they created a model of the entire concept sphere of the poetic world in The Book of Hours. The novelty of the research is also caused by the fact that the author creates a new method for analyzing a poetic text. This method combines linguistic and hermeneutic methods. 
Ol'shanskii D.A. - Psychoanalysis of Literature pp. 14-58


Abstract: It is known that psychoanalysis exists in three options – philosophical, clinical and applied. In the latter case it is about a peculiar research of art, political and mass and psychological processes. Psychoanalytic ideas can be used in the sphere of philosophy, sociology, art and religion. Freud laid the patography foundation – one of applied disciplines of psychoanalysis studying and interpreting biographies of writers, scientists, artists, politicians. Peru the founder of psychoanalysis possesses the known patografichesky researches devoted to Leonardo da Vinci, F.M. Dostoyevsky, V. Wilson. Patography – a specific method and a genre of the psychological and patopsikhologichesky analysis, description of life and creativity of charismatic persons, artists, scientists, writers, political and religious figures. Psychoanalysis of literature is presented in this case by a series of reviews of the author of performances, movies and other works of art. The author uses methodology of philosophical anthropology, psychoanalysis and a hermeneutics. He seeks to analyse works of art from the point of view of psychological mechanisms which are revealed by psychoanalysis. For the first time in domestic literature psychoanalysis is widely applied to studying of literary works. The author considers plots which formed the basis of performances, of movies and operas, investigates motives of behavior of literary characters, reveals secrets of mentality through a prism of psychoanalytic opening. It is possible to call each response to this or that statement a peculiar metaphysical sketch.
Bezrukov A.N. - Hierarchy of an Artistic Discourse pp. 45-53


Abstract: The subject of the research is the interdependence between the language and verbal communication, language and thinking, language and various types of discourse, assessment and analysis of a discursive writing. The object of the research is the specification of gnoseological mainlines involved in the process of objectivation of both the meaning of an available text, hereinafter - discourse, and decoding the reader's contextual artistic reality. The author of the article examines the  hierarchy of the discourse, the structure of the meaning in the practice of discursive creative writing formed by the combination of diametrical meaning points under conditions of transformational dispositions. Such aspects of the topic as the control over the reader's mind, systematisation of artistic forms, immanent variants, intratextual relations, semantic allocation, structuring and reception of the concept as a unit of the mental frame-based scheme, and registers of discursive practice methodologically complete the research and reveal the topic at the most. The author pays special attention to the analysis of discursive paradigm that is incomplete, tends to have infinite borders and, which is very important, regulated by the social historical environment and individual personal priorities. According to the author, cognitive approach is the most accurate research method providing that the composite research methodology prevails. Interpretation based on the aforesaid approach is close to the ontological correction of the meaning and statement of multiple connotations. Consequently, cognitive reception algorithms of the artistic discourse reversibly reveal possible paths for decoding all the volume of meanings. The novelty of the research is caused by the fact that for the first time in the academic literature the author views artistic discourse as a form of connection of nominative corpus units from the side of the author and the sphere of constant actualisation of meanings from the side of the reader. This allows to conclude that artistic discourse is a hierarchically normalized process. Unlike text, discourse performs the function of the language functional allocation. Communication manifests the model of the special relationship between the author and the reader, the recipient and the person who produces a literary text. The hierarchy of the discourse is not a literal composition but the interplay of paradigm language forms that functionally exist in the reader's mind. Conceptual modification of elements co-organise the matrix of of the cognitive evaluation of reality. The main conclusion fo the research is that artistic discourse should be perceived as a climax of a concretized aesthetic thought, narrative style, mind's marker, and evaluation method, in a word, everything that is axiologically correct for the author and recipient and formally correct at this or that historical stage. 
Iakovleva E. - Modern Views on the Interpretation Model of a Text pp. 57-66


Abstract: The research is focused on the interpretation of texts as a rather difficult process which includes numerous components such as cultural and historical environment, actual events, symbolism, polysemy of words, dependence on the meaning and context, personal qualities of the Author and Interpreter, etc.). These components are dialectically interwined and each time they create new configurations which causes a modern concept of the interpretation model as a rhizomatic network spiral. In the course of her research Yakovleva has defined that the Interpretation Bridge connecting Point A (Author, Text, or beginning of the interpretation journey) and Point B (Interpreter, Life/Situation, ending of the interpretation journey) is just an external construct. If we go deeper into the intepretation process, it will look like a spiralling and extending rhizomatic network. The aforesaid issue is viewed by the author of the article on the basis of the dialectical, phenomenological and hermeneutical methods as well as the principle of intentional analysis allowing to construct the interpretation model.  The interpretation process externally looks like the Bridge and internally like a rhizomatic network spiral. This allows the interpretation process to be flexible and variably mobile and extending in any direction. The key figure of the interpretation process is a recipient who sets the existence of the text through his or her Self-position and changes in the course of interpretation. Interpretation as a spiritual practice of Self combining the objective/subjective, conscious/unconscious, rational/sensual, fiction/reality brings us to the Other Self. This contributes to better understanding and extension of the horizon. Provisions and conclusions of this study can be used for further research of the interpretation process and reflection as part of the interpretation process as well as for analysis of all kinds of texts.  
Kolobova K.S. - Metafiction Game in Gunter Grass' Novel 'My Century' pp. 59-65


Abstract: The subject of this research is metafiction or metafiction game in literary writing. The object of the research is the methods that actualize a metafiction game in a structure of a literary writing at all levels of a text: composition, content and theme. The author of the article views the category of metafiction in relatino to the category of fiction/fabulousness. The theory of metafiction has become the ground for a number of literary researches. Analysis of the category of metafiction allows to better understand a message and the world created by the author. The methodological basis of the research is the method of contextual interpretation as well as description including a set of observation techniques, comparison and theoretical generalisation of linguistic analysis results. The novelty of the research is caused by the fact that Kolobkova analyses this literary writing in such terms for the first time in the academic literature. The researcher's special contribution to the analysis of Gunter Grass', German writer's, works from the point of view of metafiction. 
Fedorova Y. - Avicenna and Attar of Nishapur: two versions of the legend of the legend of the birdТs/soulТs on the quest for God pp. 62-90


Abstract: This article is dedicated to the research of the stories of two Persian authors: the philosophical proverb “Tale of the Bird” by the most prominent representative of philosophy Avicenna (980-1037), and the “Conference of the Birds” by the illustrious poet and one of the leading representatives of the Persian philosophical Sufism Attar of Nishapur (1145/46-1221). A special attention is given to the comparative analysis of several key episodes of the stories by Avicenna and Attar: introduction to the proverb and the poem, the story of the quest in search of their King, as well as the description of the meeting between the birds and the King. Using a complex of methods of historical-philosophical and textological analysis, as well as the method of philosophical interpretation of literary text, the author successively examines how the similar story of the quest of the soul-bird for God is realized by the philosopher in a small proverb and a poet in a big poem-Masnavi, and determines a number of topics and concepts of Sufi theory and practice, referred to by the separate elements of the story in the proverb and the poem. The author concludes that the allegoric form elected by Attar and Avicenna to relate the theoretical ideas does not pose principle difficulties for understanding of the philosophical concept of both authors. Attar attempted to demonstrate the path of the human soul to God (Sufi method of cognition of God), while Avicenna attempted to describe his own spiritual experience and irrational method of learning the truth.
Migranova I.K. - Gender Aspect of Perceiving Scientific Texts pp. 65-70


Abstract: The subject of the research is the issues related to perceiving scientific texts taking into account gender particularities of their authors and readers. The author of the article demonstrates an opportunity of various gender-related personality types to interact in the process of creating scientific texts. The author of the article analyzes particularities of male and female perception of scientific texts, describes essential verbal stereotypes, defines significant gender differences in perception and interpretation of such terms as 'masculunity', 'femininity', and androgyny, which is often associated with the factor of subjectivity in the process of scientific information evaluation. This research is based on a number of research methods including historical-genetic, linguistic, formalisation, socio- and psycholinguistics methods. The novelty of this research is caused by the fact that the matter viewed by the author creates a new understanding of the gender component in modern texts. The author's special contribution to the topic is her argumented conclusion that perception of scientific information is based on professional knowledge and skills of an individual, i.e. presupposition. Consequently, gender is not a dominating factor in the process of writing scientific texts because individuals of both sexes may demonstrate the entire range of gender particularities.  
Iakovleva E. - The Phenomenon of Fear in Literature: Interpretation of Fernando Pessoa's The Book of Disquiet pp. 67-74


Abstract: The object of the research is the autobiographic collection of aphoristic expressions The Book of Disquiet written by a Portuguese author Fernando Pessoa. The aim of the research is to interpret the contents of The Book of Disquiet from the poin of view of fear, the phenomenon often realled by Pessoa in his diary essays. Pessoa's introversion and artistic fixation of his own moods allow to demonstrate a wide panorama and dynamics of emotional states accompanying fear. In Pessoa's works the main character Bernardo Soares, a 'semi-heteronym' of the writer, describes different forms of existential fear and anxiety, concern, uncertainty, etc. The total nature of fear makes the hero fear life and expect death. Such artistic presentation of fear allows the author and the reader to understand many sides of existentia and reduce the intensity of fear. The matter under research is analyzed by using the method of hermeneutical analysis that allows to reveal many sides of fear in human existence. For the first time in the academic literature and as part of philosophical and cultural studies, the researcher interprets The Book of Disquiet written by Fernando Possoa from the point of view of fear as an existential problem of human existence. The conclusions and results of the research can be used for further research of the representation of fear in literature and art as well as the phenomenon of fear in human existence in general. 
Krotovskaya N.G. - V.Nabokov. Lectures on Don Quixote (translated) pp. 82-127
Abstract: In his lectures before the Harvard audience in 1951-1952, Vladimir Nabokov attempts to unveil the true work of Servantes, stripping it of sanctimonious nonsense that turned a harsh narrative into an easygoing tale about appearance versus reality, which layered on the novel due to centuries of misinterpretation. In truth, Don Quixote remains a traditional piece of old Spanish literature, depicting cruelty towards an old man that acts like a child in his senile dementia. This book was written in an age when the sick and the crippled  were laughed at, when heretics were burned alive in public, when mercy and kindness were seemingly extinguished forever. In time, however, the world saw the novel in another light. The character that started off as a target for ridicule, became a saint over the centuries.
Kulagina-Yartseva V.S. - Nabokov, V.V. Lecture on Charles Dickens (translation) pp. 96-221


Abstract: This lecture is a part of the course on "Masters of European Prose", which was prepared by V.Nabokov for the students at the Wesley College and the Cornell University, where he taught from 1940s to 1950s. In this lecture V.Nabokov, being a thinking reader, and a perseptive and interested researcher, gives his students a lesson on attentive reading, with due attention paid to the artful details and paradoxical visions of the world of Charles Dickens
Korshunova E.A. - Sergey Durylin about Alexander Pushkin's 'The Captain's Daughter': Value Interpretation Issues pp. 115-121


Abstract: The subject of the research is the concept of value interpretations of the novel “The Captain's Daughter” by A. S. Pushkin, in particular, the unexplored critical diary notes of the writer, the critic S. Durylin (1886-1954) from the book In his Corner (1924-1939).Durylin's interpretation was noted in literary criticism in the article by V.E. Khalizev “Typology of characters and“ The Captain's Daughter ”. Durylin as a critic and literary scholar articulates a very important idea that the value meaning of Pushkin's story is not in clarifying the “correct” political position, but in a completely different place, which has not been found in literary criticism for a long time - the harmony and integrity of personal being. To solve the set tasks, the method of integral analysis, descriptive-analytical and comparative-typological approaches to the study of literary texts were used. Speaking about the uniqueness of the heroes of the Pushkin story, Grinev and Maria Ivanovna, Durylin anticipates Khaliyev's interpretation. Durylin pointed out not only the eternal significance of the Pushkin story in the history of Russian literature, but also explained the core of this meaning: Christian in content. Here the author uses his favorite method of a backward-looking worldview, calling him a “magic lantern”, which he writes about in another passage “Corners”. He uses the technique of "reverse perspective" in the literary-critical analysis. Offering the reader “The Captain's Daughter” as an eternal reading, Durylin tries to “reveal” the previously unaccented deep layer of the work: reading the story in the light of Orthodox axiology. This interpretation of the story by S.N. Durylin does not cancel the existing literary readings of the story, but complements them, expanding the range of possible interpretations of the work.
Markasova O.A. - Remark Transformation in Drama and Screenplay (the Case Study of Evgeny Schwartz' Works) pp. 139-148


Abstract: The object of this research is Evgeny Schwartz' plays 'The Novel About Young Mates' and 'The Ordinary Miracle' and his screenplay 'Don Quixote'. The subject of the research is the main structural and semantic means used to create remarks in drama and screenplay. The author of the article examines such aspects of the topic as the quantitative correlation of remarks, functions of inter-replica remarks and pacelled constructs, peculiarities of the composition structure and semantic organisation of remarks in Schwartz' works. The author of the article focuses on the analysis of the remark tranformation mechanisms in different types of texts. The research has involved such methods as the analysis of the material considering the communicative, semantic and functional orientations of syntax. The research covers the areas of philological and art historical intrepretation of texts. The novelty of the research is caused by the fact that the author defines the frequency of the use of remark lexical contents in drama and screenplay. The main conclusions of the research are the following: in drama and screenplay remark and replica have relations based on conplementarity, interdependence and counteraction and semantic contents of remarks are concentrated within the limits of the transfer of what is seen or heard. 
Poulaki P. - Visual Poetry in Ancient Persian Poetry pp. 183-192


Abstract: This article is devoted to the analysis of visual peotry in the literature of ancient Iran as well as the relation between ancient Persian literature of the Xth century and European (French) poetry of the XIXth - XXth century, in particular, the influence of the latter on the former. Based on the example of calligrams of a French avant-garde poet Guillaume Apollinaire the author of the article studies the hypothesis about European authors borrowing graphical forms and visual techniques from ancient Persian sources. Pulaki focuses on such genre of Persian visual poetry as توشیح (toshih) and its kinds. In addition,the author also views the phenomenon of visuality in the Azerbaijani style of Iran poetry of the XIIth century. The researcher analyzes forms of visual poetry in the literature of ancient Iran as well as analyzes the relation between ancient Persian literature of the Xth century and European (French) poetry of the XIXth - XXth century expressed as the influence of the former on the latter based on the examples of calligrams of a French avant-garde poet Guillaume Apollinaire. 
Vered V.T. - Comparative Analysis of Phraseological Units in a Literary Text (the Case Study of F. Scott Fitzgerald's Novel The Great Gatsby) pp. 185-194


Abstract: The matter under research is linguistic and and author phraseologists used by F. Scott Fitzgerald in his novel The Great Gatsby and variants of their translation to the Russian language. Vered analyzes the problems that may arise in the process of translation and use of phraseological units in a literary text. The researcher also solves the problem of what would be the best way to preserve the form and contents of an an original established expression when the expression is transferred to another socio-cultural environment. Vered focuses on translation strategies and the method of semantic 'adaptation' of phraseological units taking into account their pragmatic and aesthetic orientation. The main research methods used by the author of the article include contrast analysis of phraseological units in the  English and Russian languages. To specify the degree of semantic difference between conditionally equivalent units, the researcher has used the method of dictionary definition as well as contextual analysis that allows to discover functional features of phraseological units in a literary work. The novelty of the research is caused, on the one hand, by insufficient degree of development of expressive means translation and, on the other hand, by the need to study peculiarities of this category comparing Russian and English versions of a literary text. The choice of translation strategies depend on the degree of semantic contiguousness of components that constitute a phraseological unit as well as the nature of figurality of a particular language unit determined by culture and national peculiarities. 
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