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MAIN PAGE > Journal "Litera" > Contents of Issue ¹ 07/2023
Contents of Issue ¹ 07/2023
Baranova E.A., Bocharov I.I. - The problem of implementing the cultural-forming function in the Russian media pp. 1-14



Abstract: In the context of the development of the information and ideological war between Russia and the West, the role of the media in the formation of cultural values is increasing. It is directly related to ensuring national security. One of the most important problems of our time is related to the fact that culture in the media has ceased to be a powerful tool for shaping the value system of society. The article analyzes stories published during the period from December 2022 to May 2023 in the thirteen most cited Russiabn media (Rbc.ru, Russian.rt.com, Gazeta.ru, Lenta.ru, 360tv.ru, Kp.ru, Tsargrad.tv, iz.ru, Life.ru, Mk.ru, Aif .ru, Fontanka.ru, Mosregtoday.ru). Approximately 2,000 stories related to the topic of "culture" in these media were analyzed. The stories were analyzed for compliance with the culture-forming function, which consists in promoting and disseminating high cultural values in society, educating the masses on samples of global culture, contributing to the comprehensive humanistic development of man. The authors come to the conclusion that 1) samples of high, elite culture rarely come to the attention of the media. In stories on cultural topics, gossip, rumors, events from the life of show business stars are replicated. 2) On some media sites, there is no “culture” section at all. In the field of view of the reader who goes to the websites, cultural news rarely falls. 3) The same names appear in the news about culture, famous personalities from the world of show business predominate, and there is not a word about new, young, talented artists. 4) Culture on media sites covers large-scale events, Hollywood premieres, but news about regional festivals, the achievements of creative individuals, and folk crafts rarely get into the headings. 5) Culture on media sites is being replaced by entertainment.
Literary criticism
Yarovoy S.A. - Synthesis of Arts in N. V. Gogol’s “Evenings on a Farm Near Dikanka" pp. 15-26



Abstract: The article analyzes N. V. Gogol’s views, expressed in his articles of the 1830-40s, on the problem of interaction of painting, architecture, music, literature. The various functions that Gogol ascribes to art are determined by the main idea of the writer – serving the saving mission of literature. The article also deals with Gogol’s thoughts on the need to create a universal art, which would amaze reader's imagination by applying effects borrowed from other types of art. Thus, the goal of this article is to examine aesthetic searches of N.V. Gogol expressed in his articles about art, included in short story collection “Arabesques”, educe examples of the use of artistic techniques of the “new” synthetic art in the works of the cycle “Evenings on a Farm Near Dikanka”. In the course of the study, it is suggested that the writer had been developing stories from “Evenings…” in accordance with visual perception laws, had been using methods in prose including dramatic skill, for instance, unfolding the action by means of statements and characters’ acts, fast change of events and locations. The article established that in order to create a comprehensive world view which is meant to shock reader’s imagination and amaze him, Gogol develops his own unique manner of narration – he uses a fragmentary division of stories, saturation of episodes with actions, fully and brightly describes the details, which allows us to conclude that the writer uses the effects of the same “synthetic” art, theoretical basis of which were described by him in articles “Sculpture, Painting, and Music”, “On Present-Day Architecture”, “The Last Day of Pompeii” and some other essay.
Wang Z. - Traditions of N. V. Gogol in prose by Jia Zhifang pp. 27-42



Abstract: The subject of the research in the article is the features of the reception of the works of N. V. Gogol in the works of the Chinese writer of the XX century Jia Zhifang. The methods of comparative and structural-semiotic analysis using elements of cultural analysis are used in the work, the method of interpretation of a separate text, the analysis of individual stylistic elements is also used. In the era of the formation of a multipolar world, the study of the reception of the work of Russian writers in foreign-language cultures is becoming especially in demand. Russian classics, true to the traditions of preserving eternal values and giving the key to understanding the Russian national character, remains an object of scientific interest for domestic and foreign researchers. The novelty of the research lies in the fact that the name of the famous Chinese realist writer Jia Zhifang and a number of his works in their connection with the satirical traditions of N. V. Gogol are introduced into scientific circulation for the first time. The phenomenon of Jia Zhifang's "gogolization of prose" involves several components. At the level of the plot, these are direct or indirect references to the elements of N. V. Gogol's works (deceptive "demonic night", misleading the hero, ridiculing the "little man", piling up the "vulgarities of life", changing the "mimicry of laughter" to the "mimicry of sorrow"); roll call of details; the use of elements of fiction. At the level of stylistics, Jia Zhifang, in his novels and short stories, retains the techniques of Gogol's grotesque depiction of reality, the basis of which is the opposition of the "living-dead": puppetry in the portrayal of characters; the satirical technique of "reverse comparison"; the satirical technique of "the logic of the reverse". Preserving Gogol's traditions, Jia Zhifang transforms them, forcing them to work on the disclosure of the author's idea. He uses his own artistic techniques, which together with the details of the objective world allows him to represent the historical epoch, relying on the basic formula of Gogol's works "laughter through tears".
Abilkenova V., Galt L.Y. - The specifics of the coverage of the topic of creative industries in federal and district media pp. 43-57



Abstract: The subject of the study is the specifics of the coverage of the topic of creative industries in federal and district media. The object of the research is creative industries as a subject of journalistic creativity. In our country, there is an increasing interest in the field of creative industries, as a sector of the economy that has high development opportunities. In this regard, the role of journalism is also increasing, which not only informs readers about this area, but also attracts the attention of investors, the state, and business to it. Therefore, an effective presentation of the topic of creative industries on the pages of the media is a fairly new and urgent task for both federal and regional communities. Moscow and the Khanty-Mansi Autonomous Okrug – Yugra are currently examples of successful development of the creative industries in the country. The article analyzes the materials published in the newspapers "Evening Moscow", "Arguments and Facts", "News of Ugra" and "Arguments and Facts – Ugra" from October 2022 to May 2023. The authors come to the conclusion that 1) in the federal media, when choosing a genre, preference is given to such a genre as news, the main goal is to entertain the reader, to demonstrate the level of support for local initiatives by the authorities. 2). In the district media, on the contrary, creative industries are often covered in the genre of reportage, immersing the reader in a creative atmosphere, familiarity occurs not only with the product, but also with the process of its creation, with the emotions that interaction with the product gives. 3). In the federal media, there is a tendency to focus on the consumer properties of the creative product, the profitability indicators of the project, the possibilities of using the product in a new area, compliance with trends. 4). There is a tendency in the district media to increase interest in local projects that are based on historical and cultural heritage and art.
Kuzin A.D. - Media information support of bank's credit activity: themes and key meanings pp. 58-68



Abstract: The article is devoted to the peculiarities of the media information content that accompanies the processes of bank lending. The author examines the key parameters of the credit policy through the prism of their coverage in specialized media texts from the point of view of lexical and semantic meanings. The subject of the study is the peculiarities of understanding the main lexical-semantic units (words and phrases) denoting the criteria and parameters of banking activities related to credit policy, the key concepts of the credit and financial sphere, which constitute the main content of media texts as a terminological and categorical apparatus, are required to be used, when promoting banking credit products, but require clarification for a mass audience in connection with the need to minimize credit risks. The article shows how semantic frames are formed, the most important thematic sections are systematized and keywords and expressions are suggested, including the terminological sphere. The most significant semantic positions have been identified and it has been determined that thematically framed textual media accompaniment, focused on the promotion of lending services, reduction of credit risks and credit information education of the audience, is becoming a critical condition for effective media management in the banking sector today. It has been determined that the media information policy of the bank, related to the text support of lending, should be based on the interpretation of key concepts, their intelligible explanation to the mass audience.
Si H. - Unrealized speech of A.P. Chekhov's characters in the aspect of family communication pp. 69-76



Abstract: The article presents an analysis of fragments of unrealized speech of A.P. Chekhov's heroes in the texts of novels and short stories written in 1888-1904: "Women", "Wife", "Neighbors", "Fear", "Black Monk", "The Story of an unknown person". Typical ways of introducing unrealized speech into the author's context are revealed. In the course of the study, it was found that unrealized speech conveys the innermost thoughts and emotional state of the main characters, being an important factor for understanding the essence of many events that occur in the adult life of A.P. Chekhov's characters. Unrealized speech is a significant component of the text that contributes to the correct interpretation of a particular situation that is associated with the family communication of Chekhov's characters. Unrealized speech, internal in nature, has an extra-verbal reason why it cannot be expressed verbally. In most cases, such a reason is the emotional state of the character, represented in the Chekhov text by a description of facial expressions or gestures, an out-of-speech situation that does not allow you to express the programmable so as not to offend the other. Analyzing fragments of stories from this period of Chekhov's work, representing family communication, one can come to the conclusion that unrealized speech actualizes the internal speech situation in the texts under study. Typical ways of transmitting unrealized speech are improper-direct, direct or indirect speech, thematic speech in the author's narrative is less common in this function. A typical input for unrealized speech is a modal verb with the meaning of desire or expression of will + an infinitive with the meaning of speech activity in a construction with a contrastive conjunction: I wanted to say, but ...; I wanted to say, but ...; I wanted to answer, but... etc.
Literary criticism
Pokhalenkov O.E. - The Comparative Analysis of the Image of the "German-Nazi" in the German Literature about the Second World War pp. 77-83



Abstract: In the presented work, the author examines the German-language prose about the Second World War. The comparative analysis is carried out on the material of the novel by one of the most famous German prose writers and anti-fascist writers "Time to live and a Time to Die" by Erich Maria Remarque and the novel by the modern German prose writer Uwe Timm "By the example of my brother". The object of the study is the poetics of the above-mentioned works in a comparative aspect. The subject is the realization of the central image of the work - the image of a "German-Nazi" who is a participant in the Eastern campaign. The author dwells in detail on the realization of the image, including in the analysis the image of the artistic space of works and the motivic system. The main conclusion of the study is based on a different approach to the interpretation of the image of the "German-Nazi" by Remarque and Timm. In his novel, Remarque clearly points to the guilt of his compatriots in unleashing war and mass killings of civilians. The image of a "German-Nazi" is associated with the image of an ideological enemy. The modern German author adheres to a different point of view, which, in many respects, is based on his personal experience, because the hero of the novel is the writer's brother. The image of a "German-Nazi" in his work correlates with the image of a lost German who believed patriotic rhetoric and carried out an order.
Mysovskikh L.O. - Existential and psychological grounds of criminal behavior of the heroes of Mikhail Lermontov and Fyodor Dostoevsky pp. 84-93



Abstract: In the article, through the prism of the philosophy of existentialism and social psychology, the prerequisites of the criminal behavior of the main characters of the novels by Mikhail Lermontov "Hero of Our Time" and Fyodor Dostoevsky "Crime and Punishment" – Grigory Pechorin and Rodion Raskolnikov are investigated. The author of the article claims that the reasons for the criminal behavior of both Pechorin and Raskolnikov are intrapersonal. However, the personal characteristics of an individual are formed under the influence of the society in which he exists, which is demonstrated by the example of the main characters of the novels of Lermontov and Dostoevsky. Thus, the article clearly shows the main principle of the philosophy of existentialism in action: the existence of a person precedes his essence.   The author of the article comes to the conclusion that Pechorin and Raskolnikov have many similar character traits, and the main difference between them lies in the social status of the characters. In both novels, the writers decry the vices of Russian class society. The author of the article summarizes that from the point of view of religious existentialism, Pechorin's fate is much more gloomy than Raskolnikov's fate, since Pechorin's soul is taken away by an all-consuming nothingness, while Raskolnikov's soul gets a chance for salvation. Dostoevsky's heroes always have hope, because God shows them the way by which a person can come to grace. This is where the main difference between Lermontov and Dostoevsky lies.
Krasnikov Y.E. - Categories of hero and character in drama in the light of historical poetics (in the non-classical period of the epoch of modality) pp. 94-107



Abstract: The purpose of the proposed article is to consider the key trends occurring with the categories of the hero and character of the dramatic text in the third global period of historical poetics – the era of poetic modality (in its non–classical period), since it is at this stage of the literary process that the most attention is paid to the subjective sphere of the work. The author of the work, among other things, notes: transformations of images of actors caused by both actual social realities and crises of their identity; changes in terms of communicative interaction and speech of heroes and characters; transformation of dramatic conflict from external (event) to internal (personal), etc.   The key methods used in the work include comparative typological analysis, descriptive and hermeneutic. The novelty of this scientific research lies in the systematization of existing ideas concerning this issue, as well as in the breadth of the material concerned (from European and domestic dramaturgy of the turn of the XIX and XX centuries, plays of symbolists and absurdists to the domestic "new drama" of the XX – XXI centuries). A special contribution to the development of the poetics of dramaturgy is the theoretical justification and practical application of the term "image-silhouette" proposed by the author (by analogy with the concepts of "image-type", "image-character" and "image-personality" proposed in the concept of historical poetics by S. N. Broitman) demonstrated in the article.
Ding L. - Russian and Chinese phraseological units of religious themes with components-numerals five, seven and ten pp. 108-116



Abstract: This article is devoted to the comparative analysis of the numbering phraseological units with a religious component in the Russian and Chinese linguistic cultures. The object of the study is phraseological units of the Russian and Chinese languages of religious themes containing components-numerals five, seven and ten. The subject of the study is the linguistic and national-cultural features of Russian and Chinese phraseological units with a religious component. In order to identify and describe the similarities and differences in the vision of the world peculiar to the Russian and Chinese peoples, such research methods and techniques as linguistic and cultural analysis, comparative method, descriptive method, etymological analysis, etc. were used. The tasks of this article are carried out with the help of linguistic and cultural analysis of some fragments of the national mentality reflected in the mirror of phraseology. The scientific novelty of the work consists in a detailed study of numeral phraseological units with a religious component in two languages. It seems that Russian phraseological units containing components- the numerals seven and ten, mainly carry a connotative meaning, denoting completeness and perfection. In Chinese, phraseological units with the above components have a closer connection with Taoist teaching than with Buddhism and Confucianism. The comparative study of numeral phraseological units in both languages contributes to the penetration into a different cultural reality, the understanding of the ethnocultural specifics of the numerical code associated with the religious sphere.
Dousti Niri Z.M., Sheykhi Jolandan N. - Semantic analysis of the words denoting the term "reason" in Persian pp. 117-125



Abstract: The term "reason" refers not only to linguistics, but also to a number of other sciences, including philosophy and logic. In Russian and Persian there are different words denoting the cause. However, each of them has a specific shade of meaning that distinguishes it from the others. These words include: علت ( ellat), سبب ( sabab), and دلیل ( delilah), the reason, cause, etc. And there are also some cases when it is possible to replace these words, and in some cases it is impossible to replace them with each other. This work is devoted to the semantic properties of Persian words denoting the cause, as well as their relationship with similar Russian words. Here we briefly talk about the words that denote the term "reason" in Persian and their relationship, as well as the difference between them, and also compares them with Russian equivalents. This study will help Russian-speaking students who study Persian in understanding of different Persian words - synonyms, as well as help Russian and Iranian translators to choose an adequate words when translating texts from Russian into Persian and vice versa.
Kaverina V., Wang Y. - Criteria for writing compound nouns (contact-hyphen) in modern Russian orthography pp. 126-138



Abstract: The subject of the study is the regularities of the distribution of merged and hyphenated spellings of complex nouns in modern rules. Special attention is paid to identifying the main criteria for the design of the words of the studied group in the "Rules of Russian spelling and punctuation" of 1956, which still have the status of a set of spelling norms of the state language. Since the current rules are outdated, the work also considers the prescriptions of updated, but not having an official status, academic rulebooks: the complete academic handbook of 2006 and the newest electronic resource of OROSS "Spelling commentary of the Russian Dictionary" by E. V. Beshenkova, O. E. Ivanova, E. V. Tenkova. The novelty of the study lies in the fact that for the first time it analyzes the modern rules of spelling of complex nouns and the criteria underlying them. The established inconsistency of codification of these norms originates in the "Rules of Russian Spelling and Punctuation" of 1956 and is further developed in modern reference and educational literature, in particular in the complete academic handbook of 2006. As a result, it is concluded that it is necessary to include in the basic set of spelling rules a section containing the basic rules for distinguishing between merged and hyphenated spellings, set out briefly, simply and clearly.
Ou M. - Non-Euclidean Geometries as a Source of Faith in God for F.M. Dostoevsky and His Characters (on the Example of Ivan Karamazov) pp. 139-150



Abstract: Ivan Karamazov's nightmare reflects his deep ideological crisis. In the story of Ivan Karamazov's "rebellion" against God, his arguments about recently discovered non-Euclidean geometries play a major role. Confessing that he cannot understand and accept the idea of non-Euclidean geometry and the idea of worlds arranged according to different laws than our world, Ivan therefore denies the possibility for himself to sincerely believe in God. The strange connection between non-Euclidean geometry and belief in God is confirmed by an episode in The Brothers Karamazov, in which Ivan has a vision of the devil. In describing paradise, the devil uses the latest scientific concepts and non-Euclidean geometry, clearly demonstrating that new scientific theories can help a person find faith. This connection, important for the story of Ivan Karamazov, can be explained by the fact that in Dostoevsky's philosophical worldview the existence of "other worlds" plays a very important role as an expression of an unusual interpretation of the idea of immortality. If we accept the idea of people's existence after death in "other worlds", then scientific theories about "other worlds" can be seen as revealing those dimensions of being, where man will visibly understand the existence of God and the possibility of immortality.
Author's view
Lyubimov N.I. - The image of the grove as a means of expressing the author 's axiological concept in the lyrics of Z. Dudina pp. 151-162



Abstract: This research is connected with the analytical consideration of the system of poetic images of a natural philosophical orientation in modern Mari philosophical lyrics. The aim of the work is to identify the ethnocentric semantic components of the mythopoetic image of the grove in the lyrics of Zoya Dudina and the ways of their artistic embodiment. The research material was the poems included in her collection "Kuanyshym, kuem ӧndal ..." (She was delighted, hugging a birch ...) (2012). The methodology of the research is determined by the structural and semantic analysis of lyrical texts, which allows to identify and describe the main structural components of the poetic image, as well as to understand their interrelationships and semantic organization at the level of the author's axiology. In the article, the author of the study proved that in the lyrics of the Mari poet Zoya Dudina, the multifaceted image of the Mari grove is recreated. In particular, it is presented as part of the divine world, often concretized and given in the form of a sacred tree. The central place in the image of the grove is assigned by the author to the ethnically significant and sacred content and mythopoetics, which does not limit him in the expression of individual creative aspirations, in the assertion of universal values. The grove for the lyrical heroine Zoya Dudina is a symbol of hope, spiritual and moral support, salvation of the soul, as well as the preservation of the Mari people.
Ma R. - Metatext as a means of expressing the linguistic personality of the author-narrator in the text of the memoirs pp. 163-172



Abstract: This article is devoted to the consideration of the linguistic personality of the author-narrator in the text of the memoirs by means of metatextual means used in it. The subject of the study is the linguistic personalities of the authors of the two memoirs selected by us - K.K. Rokossovsky in the memoirs "Soldier's Duty" and M.T. Kalashnikov in "Notes of the designer-gunsmith". The objects of research are metatext tools that participate in the structural organization of the text and reflect the author's attitude to the world around him and his narrative. The author pays special attention to meta-textual means with subjective modality, in particular meta-means with the verbs "to speak-to say", "to name". The main conclusions of the conducted research are the identification of metatectological means used in memoirs as a genre and characteristic of a particular author, determined by his personality, his activities, traits, experiences, etc., and the linguistic personalities of the authors of the memoirs under consideration manifested in these means. The novelty of the research lies in the consideration of the meta-textual means used by the author in the narrative in the first person, taking into account the genre features of the memoirs and the individual realization of the author himself. The author's special contribution to the research of the topic is the identification of two constants of the linguistic personality of the author of the memoir text - the constant of logic in the message of events and the constant of the presence of the author-narrator, in which metatextual means play an important role.
Chaplik V.A. - Lexicological features of modern french-speaking media pp. 173-182



Abstract: This article is devoted to the analysis of current trends in the political and public discourse of the modern French language. The subject of the research conducted on the material of French-language periodicals is lexical innovations found in the language material of the modern press. It should be noted that some topics attract neology more than others, in particular, politics, which is directly due to its dynamics: the constant emergence of movements, groupings, ideas and ideologies that get their name. In this context a paradigm that includes units formed from proper names seems particularly productive. The main focus of the research is on the word-formation and semantic aspects of such neologisms, on the analysis of the most frequent examples of such lexical neoplasms. The results of the study allow us to state the wide prevalence of eponymous neologisms in the political and social French-speaking discourse, as well as to track the actual use of these lexical formations in the press using the Néoveille platform.
Arinova B.N. - Written judicial discourse: mechanisms of discursive interaction between the author and the reader pp. 183-192



Abstract: In this article, the author examines the written judicial discourse of Great Britain. The subject of the study is the law report – a brief report on the judicial decision, published in open sources and judicial collections. These texts record the most important decisions of the highest courts. A detailed legal analysis and interpretation of the applicable sources of law in a court decision take the form of a compact, concise text, with an accurate and consistent presentation of the court's arguments. The texts of court reports are an example of a modern written legal language, in which the principles and norms of common law are updated again and again. As a unit of discourse, a judicial report is, on the one hand, a complex speech act, on the other hand, it is a text that carries a certain rhetorical (pragmatic) impact on the reader. Using the method of linguistic analysis, the author analyzes the representation of an event during argumentation and identifies various discursive mechanisms of interaction between the author and the reader. The author believes that such characteristics can be divided into retrospective and prospective, depending on their rhetorical impact on the reader. In particular, the author analyzes the functional status and pragmatic significance of such phenomena as indirect speech, subordinate clauses, verbs of epistemic modality. According to the author, the analysis of such characteristics can significantly complement the study of the intertextuality (dialogicity) of written judicial discourse, and accordingly expand our understanding of the formation and influence of the legal context.
Kuzmina Y.A. - "The babbitry of professors' humble abodes": Representation of Everyday Life of the "Positivist Father" in Memoirs of Russian Symbolism pp. 193-203



Abstract: The formation of symbolism as an artistic and worldview phenomenon took place in intellectual and cultural opposition to the tradition of Russian academic positivism. In the article positivism and symbolism are viewed as two discourses competing for influence in the Russian intellectual environment, the competition of which often took on the features of a conflict between "fathers and children". One of the ways of " battle for the authority" was the construction of the image of "father-positivist" in memoirs and diary notes by symbolists. The object of the study is the representation of the everyday culture of the conventional "father" in the memoirs of A. Beliy, G. I. Chulkov, V. Y. Brusov, N. Petrovskaya, B. M. Runt and Z. N. Gippius. The subject is those discursive mechanics, through which the representation of otherness and "othering" of such everyday life are achieved. The methodology of the work is built around the optics of the translation turn, which allows us to look at the scenes from the memoirs as "third space", where the battle of discourses unfolds at the expense of representational practices. The novelty of the research is manifested both in drawing attention to this problem and in the development of an actual methodological base. Based on the results of the analysis, the following mechanics of "othering" were identified: unification and generalization, binarity and asymmetry, giving the Other the status of timelessness and non-historicity, the use of pejorative categories, the narrative technique of double representation and concealment. The aim of the fathers "othering" was the construction of personal identity and selfhood, as well as the attempt to define oneself through the constitutive Other.
Comparative-historical studies of literature
Kartasheva A.O., Kikhnei L.G., Osipova O.I. - Towards the Communicative Strategies of Russian Modernism: the Poetic Correspondence of V. Bryusov and A. Bely pp. 204-219



Abstract: The object of this article is the poetic correspondence of Valery Bryusov and Andrei Bely in the 1900s. The analysis allowed us to draw a number of conclusions about the communicative strategies of Russian modernism. Firstly, in the structure of the correspondence, the dominant genre setting for dialogue with the addressee is identified, which allows identifying these poems as messages. This, on the one hand, makes it possible to fit the messages of Bryusov and Bely into the all-symbolist poetological and communicative context of the early twentieth century, when this genre was a kind of mainstream. On the other hand, the analysis of genre dominants allows us to identify their genre renewal associated with the formation of an original metastructural cycle resembling a "novel in letters", the heroes of which are Bryusov and Bely, simultaneously combining the roles of author and addressee. Secondly, in the titles of the poems under consideration ("Balder Loki", "Balder II", "Ancient Enemy", "Magician"), mythological codes are revealed, genetic links are established with Christian apocrypha and Scandinavian legends, in which the author's "I" and "you" of the addressee are associated with images of light and dark forces rooted in religious and pagan traditions. Thirdly, with the help of the biographical method, the parallels of the lyrical plots of the poems with the life and creative relationships of the poets are established. As a result, the poetic correspondence of the masters of symbolism is interpreted as a philosophical duel implicitly realizing dramatic situations of personal and "workshop" relationships, with a clear separation of aesthetic and ethical roles, these roles structure the plot of an epistolary "novel", the vicissitudes of which are reduced to binary oppositions of "light" and "darkness", heavenly and earthly, divine and demonic principles. However, at the same time, this exchange of messages appears as a dialogue about the poet's role in symbolist discourse, a dialogue reflecting different vectors of creative aspirations of symbolists and, consequently, the ambivalent tendencies of the current towards both consolidation and separation.
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