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MAIN PAGE > Journal "Arctic and Antarctica" > Contents of Issue 02/2024
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Contents of Issue 02/2024
Ground and Surface Waters of Cold Plains and Mountain Regions
Zemlianskova A.A., Makarieva O.M. - Modeling of runoff formation processes with aufeis feed in mountain cryosphere of the north-east of Russia pp. 1-20



Abstract: Aufeis are a key element in the chain of water exchange processes in the permafrost zone. The hydrological role of aufeis in the formation of river flow can be comparable to that of glaciers. Observations of aufeis during the construction of the Baikal-Amur Mainline showed that the share of aufeis runoff in the annual river flow can reach 35% for watersheds with an area of up to 500 km2. Despite the long history of studying aufeis and the results achieved, there are no methods for predicting the development of aufeis processes, as well as hydrological models that take into account the share of aufeis feeding in river runoff. This is due to the lack of observational data on the dynamics and development factors of aufeis. In the last century, long-term studies were carried out on some aufeis in Siberia and the Far East. One of these unique objects is the giant Anmangynda aufeis, which forms in the upper reaches of the Kolyma River basin. The aim of the research is to study the hydrological regime of the Anmangynda river basin and develop a method for accounting of aufeis runoff (module Aufeis) in the distributed hydrological model Hydrograph. The module Aufeis takes into account two factors of aufeis destruction under the influence of solar radiation and thermal erosion destruction. The input data is the area of aufeis at the beginning of the warm season and daily meteorological data. The calculation parameters are the coefficients of ice melting and evaporation from ice, as well as the coefficient of the relative area of aufeis depending on the period of destruction, calculated for the modern climatic period. The result of the calculation is the aufeis runoff and the characteristics of aufeis for a given interval. Based on historical data and materials obtained during own field research, the module Aufeis was tested. The deviation of the calculated and observed values was 210% and 19% for the maximum values of the area and volume of the Anmangynda aufeis, respectively. Results of numerical calculations for the period 19672022 revealed the dynamics of the contribution of the Anmangynda aufeis to the river flow in different seasons. The expanded functionality of the Hydrograph model has improved the quality of modeling for rivers where aufeis form. For the river basin Anmangynda average Nash-Sutcliffe coefficient and annual runoff error were 0,57 and 13,0% compared to 0,41 and 18,0% when the module Aufeis was not used.
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