Urban Studies - номер 1 за 2020 год
Urban Studies
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MAIN PAGE > Journal "Urban Studies" > Contents of Issue № 01/2020
Contents of Issue № 01/2020
Социология и демография
Koval'zhina L.S. - The concept of “Healthy Cities” and health-saving behavior of urban population: sociological analysis pp. 1-10


Abstract: This article presents analysis of concept and objectives of World Health Organization initiative “Healthy Cities”, developed in accordance with the Future Earth 2025 Vision. Attention is focused on the relevant documents and basic conceptual principles of the project. The WHO European Healthy Cities Network along with the peculiarities of Russian project are described. The author provides a forecast of the Federal Service for the Oversight of Consumer Protection and Human Wellbeing regarding the improvement of sanitary-epidemiological wellbeing of the population.  The article discusses the results of sampling observation of behavioral factors affecting public health conducted by the Russian Federal State Statistics Service in 2013, 2018, 2019; as well as fragment of the sociological survey results carried out by the author in 2013 and 2017 among the school and university students of Tyumen Region. The scientific novelty is associated with result acquired by the author from the analysis of secondary empirical data; as well as the formulated conclusions on the relevance of comprehensive approach towards preservation of health of urban population, need for creating equal access of all population groups to quality infrastructure, as well as prevention, diagnostics, treatment of diseases alongside restoration, preservation and improvement of health. It is recommended to use international and Russian experience of “Healthy Cities” initiatives for encouraging health-saving behavior of urban population, and development similar project “Healthy Village” for rural population.
Architecture and Environment
Kozyrenko S.M., Babenko S.N. - Analysis of formation of the environment of the Orthodox rehabilitation centers pp. 11-33


Abstract: The subject of this research is presented by the peculiarities of formation of special environment contributing to active rehabilitation of the addicts and their return to society. The study is dedicated to the impact of spatial and object environment of the Orthodox retreats upon those who desire to get free from addictions, and how it becomes an environment for active psychotherapy. The amount of Orthodox rehabilitation centers grows each year, so is the number of addicts who voluntarily choose the retreats for rehabilitation in the ascetic living conditions. The scientific novelty consists in viewing the Orthodox rehabilitation centers as a conceptual environment, encouraging the addicts to recovery. Religious experience of drastic changes in person’s life as a result of his functional isolation as an addict, and living in a conceptually arranged environment, creates motivation to recovery. The research offers a review of specialized rehabilitation centers that reproduce the characteristics of Orthodox settlements of secluded type. The nature of design solution, formed as a sacredly important visual text of an Orthodox monastery/settlement, is considered as determining the worldview values and capable of shifting the idea of repentance and further revival in faith, which reveals the semantic constructs of the design [1]. The main conclusions lies in the fact that the impact of architectural environment upon the emotional state and behavior of a person allows considering the practice of Orthodox seclusion productive for overcoming the crisis states of the people defined as a result of chronic alcohol consumption and stimulants.
Glatolenkova E. - Architecture of residential environment in the settlements along the Chinese Eastern Railway pp. 34-48


Abstract: This article examines the peculiarities of formation of residential areas along the Chinese Eastern Railway (CER); analyzes the pattern of settlements; and examines the architectural nuances of residential buildings. The object of this research is the architectural urban development peculiarities of Russian railroad stations on the territory of Northern Manchuria. The subject of this research is the residential environment in the settlements along the Chinese Eastern Railway. The chronological framework covers the first three decades of the XX century: beginning of construction and first years of exploitation of the railway, characterized by active urban development process and creation of full-fledged environment for accommodation of construction workers, railway workers, migrants from Russia, Southern Manchuria and mainland China. The theoretical foundation for this study consists in the systemic-axiological approach, according to which the culture defines the system of materialistic and spiritual values passed from one generation to another, and allows determining the value grounds of cultural interaction and its panhuman significance. The work explores the peculiarities of architecture and urban development in the settlements along CER. Study is carried out on the construction process of the railway and living conditions of first workers, approaches towards design of the stations of the main line and the southern branch, as well as architecture of residential building of the settlements. The author considers the impact of Russian environment upon the existing Chinese cities, and the use of the traditional Chinese approaches in the projects by the Russian engineers and architects.
Fedchenko I.G., Chui Y.V., Kamalova K.V. - Trends in formation of residential areas at the beginning of the XXI century pp. 49-67


Abstract: This article is dedicated to the research on current trends in formation of residential areas of the early XXI century. The dynamic of development of modern cities forms new perceptions on advancement of living spaces. The increase of mobility, multifunctionality, problems of social stratification, segregation, as well as growing dynamic of functional integration of production activity into residential environment and formation of socio-iconological worldview of society lead to visual transformation of residential areas. The global experience of city planning is being infiltrated by the newest 3D-planning solutions of residential development projects, forming new structural components of public spaces, and change social-functional characteristics of residential architecture, which is of particular interest for the modern theory of urban development. The article generalizes the development patterns of urbanized territories of large cities that impact the emergence of new forms of living spaces, new types of public spaces, and residential architecture. Characteristic is given to the modern principles of formation of residential areas. The research is carried out with financial support from the Russian Foundation for Basic Research in the context of scientific project No.18-312-00177.
Социология и демография
Breslavskii A.S. - Urbanization processes in the Sakha Republic (Yakutia): the dynamics of key parameters (1989-2018) pp. 68-81


Abstract: This article analyzes the key parameters of urbanization in the Sakha Republic (Yakutia) on the background of urbanization processes in other republics in the East of Russia during the period from 1988 to 2018. Attention is paid to the dynamics of demographic development of the cities and workers’ settlements, changes in the structure of urban localities in the republic associated to abolishment of the settlements and turning them into the rural localities. The article also demonstrates which factors affected density or urban population in Yakutia, as well as analyzes the sources and vectors of continuing urbanization. The research leans on the extensive corpus of official statistical data on 11 cities and 67 urban-type settlements acquires based on the results of All-Union Census of 1989, Russian Censuses of 2002 and 2010, and special statistical examinations of Rosstat and its regional branck in the Sakha Republic (Yakutia) conducted in 2011-2018. The conclusion is made on the overall deceleration of urbanization processes in the republic for the past 30 years. These changes were associated with restructuration of the regional industry, particularly reduction of urban-type settlement for 27 localities – from 67 to 40. At the same time, population of majority of the cities and settlements during the period from 1990 to 2018 was decreasing; however, the rapid demographic growth of Yakutsk partially compensated for these losses. It is concluded that urban population was concentrated mostly in the capital and its environs, as well as the largest cities of the republic – Neryungri, Mirny, Lensk and Aldan.
Architecture and Environment
Kozyrenko I.S. - Contemporary styles and images in Harbin architecture pp. 82-103


Abstract: The object of this research is the contemporary architecture of Harbin, which is currently developing as a megalopolis of the Northeast of China. The subject of this research is the architectural peculiarities of cultural public objects, built in the first decade of the XXI century. At the present time, Harbin determines the old districts of the Russian period of development of the city; new building imitating historical architectural styles; and unique objects of cultural designation. The authors of exclusive projects and the Chinese architectural firms that recently improves their rating not only in China, but also abroad. The scientific novelty is defined by the rapid construction rates in Harbin and formation of its new architectural image. The article is first to explore contemporary architecture of the unique objects for the purpose of determination of stylistic and imagery characteristics. This would allow forecasting future development of architectural environment of the “Russian Atlantis”. The main conclusion consists in the fact that Harbin actively develops cultural functions that increase its status as an international tourism center. Chinese and foreign architectural firms are attracted to design of the objects. Their works indicate the search of memorable and remarkable objects with attached profound semantic meaning. Contemporary architectural objects reflect history, culture and traditions of China, as well as innovative approaches to the formation of urban environment.
Question at hand
Vasil'eva E.Y., Frolova E.V., Rogach O.V. - Exercising the right to shelter for orphans and children abandoned by their parents in the Russian Federation pp. 104-121


Abstract: The object of this research is the Russian practice of providing shelter to orphans and children abandoned by their parents. The authors examine such aspects of the problem as availability and capability of timely provision of shelter to orphans after release from orphanage, as well as mechanisms of exercising right to shelter for this social group. Special attention is given to the dysfunctions in the work of regional and municipal authorities regarding creation of environment enabling orphans to exercise such right. The information framework for this research consists of federal and regional normative-legislative acts, as well as information and analytical data forwarded by the regional authorities to the Accounts Chamber of the Russian Federation for the period of 2014-2019. A conclusion is made that the modern practice of providing shelter for orphans is a prerequisite for development of social injustice regarding families, in which parents diligently carry out their obligations, lead socially acceptable lifestyle, but are unable to provide their children with separate housing. The solution to this situation can come from creation of housing that cannot be privatized or be subject to alienation and made available for social renting.
Babintsev V.P., Gaidukova G.N., Shapoval Z.A. - The phenomenon of sociocultural urban waste: to articulation of the problem pp. 122-133


Abstract: This article reviews the phenomenon of sociocultural waste as a special type of waste inevitably forms in the process of metabolism of the modern urbanized areas. It is noted that the idea of studying the phenomenon of waste applicable to the sphere of culture not only retains its importance, but is constantly put to the forefront due to mass sociocultural activity and its transformations, affected by implementing into the urban life of newest technical systems, and associated with them information technologies and increase of ecological factor in the development of urbanized environment. In methodological regard, the work leans on the concept of social metabolism, viewed as a system of dynamic transformations of social reality under the influence of factors that have social, technical-technological and biological nature. The urban sociocultural waste is defined as a complex of products of cultural activity of the residents, which under the certain conditions cannot be used for restoration of city and urban community based on the principle of social conjunction, remain non-demanded by the majority of residents, not attributed to as value and are potentially or actually socially destructive (“socially toxic”). The author substantiates the criteria for determining waste among all: dysfunctionality, limited demand, public devaluation, potential destructiveness. A conclusion is formulated that municipal authorities and community for the benefit of development of urbanized environment would objectively have to determine the target strategy for social waste.
Historical culturology
Sal'nikova M.Y., Bulatova E.K. - Peculiarities of formation of comfortable urban environment (on the example of Magnitogorsk) pp. 134-147


Abstract: The subject of this research is the historical stages of creation of the beautification elements of urban environment of the city of Magnitogorsk. The object of this research is the periods of construction of recreational system objects since the XX century until the present. The authors examine such aspects of the topic as construction of recreational areas at each development period; all engineering and construction works at each historical stage pursued the key goal – quickest possible construction and bringing into service the largest metallurgical plant.  The authors propose a method of historical periodization of formation of recreational structures since the late XX century until the presents. The main conclusions lies in the results of analysis of beautification level of urban territories at different stages of its development. The elimination of such flaws would lead to a truly comprehensive beautification and creation of full-scale in functional, constructive, planning and artistic regard urban environment. The main factors of rational organization of a comfortable urban environment are determined.
Социология и демография
Polyakova A.G., Akhmetshin E.M. - Digital monitoring of socioeconomic situation of urban population pp. 148-154


Abstract: The subject of this research is the socioeconomic situation of urban population and its response to the processes ongoing within the urban environment. Special attention is turned to digital sociology ensuring the due theoretical-methodological framework and toolset for diagnostic and determination of responses based on formation and processing of big data array extracted from the digital environment represented by social media. Digital environment has potential related in inclusion of new research algorithms and technologies into studying social processes unfolding within urban space. Solution of the task of monitoring of socioeconomic situation of urban population is realized through operationalization of big data using network analysis. The article proposes the procedure for creating in midterm perspective of innovative information system for monitoring the quality of life and socioeconomic situation of urban population based on the comprehensive information maintenance of collection and processing of big data arrays of socioeconomic nature. The author described the components ensuring functionality of the suggested information-analytical system.
Ordynskaya Y. - Methodological toolset for regulation of development of border areas based on comparative analysis of urban development systems of various zones of Russian borderland pp. 155-165


Abstract: Research is conducted on the border region, examining existing and forming systems of populated areas of Russia – Kazakhstan and Russia – China. In this case, the category of boundary (as one of the definitions of border) is a core element of transboundariness, while demarcation of the space serves as the main feature of the studied transboundary region (V. A. Kolosov was one of the first to introduce this concept into the Russian academic discourse) [5]. Transboundary region is viewed as a modern form of border cooperation. It is established that development of Russian borderlands (within the zone of research) takes place at different paces, which is associated with distinction by level of intensity by the border cooperation and integration ties. The work outlines vast differences in the level of development of the territory – border space is diverse and requires overcoming the existing disproportions. The scientific novelty lies in the fact that the author is first to determine and compare typological groups of the systems of resettlement characteristic to the border zones of Russia – Kazakhstan and Russia – China. The work also explores the specificity of development of these territories, based on which the author determines the methodological toolset for their possible further development. Analysis is conducted on the transboundary interconnections and formation of the systems of resettlement in the border area. The research outlines the meso-regions in the borderlands, defining development of promising settlements – hubs of border cooperation.
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