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MAIN PAGE > Journal "Psychologist" > Rubric "Developmental psychology"
Developmental psychology
Berezina T.N. - Analysis of the Length of Life of Famous Monozygous Twins From the Point of View of the Subjective Approach pp. 1-10


Abstract: The author of the article views the role of the personality factor (along with the factors of the genetic background and environment) that defines the individual length of life based on the example of the life path of famous monozygous twins. The personal factor means the factors of interaction between the organism and the environment. The author of the artile analyzes biographies of monozygous twins who were famous for their achievements in the spheres of culture, science, art ad politics and tries to define the factors influencing the length of their life. The author discovers that the average difference in the length of lives of famous monozygous twins is approximatelly 4 years while in cases of violent deaths and accidents it is 7.05 years. The author also defines factors that may reduce the length of life of a twin. The most important factor is the publicity. A more famous twin has more risks of the violent death or accident. At the end of her research the author emphasizes the need for more complete researches of the influence of personal, social and psychological factors on the length of life using the twin method. 
Tkachenko O.V. - Emotional State of Children When Playing Games pp. 1-18


Abstract: The article is devoted to the analysis of play as the leading activity of a child. The author proves that for a child, play activity is a full life with successes and failures. Failures make the play experience even more important because they guarantee personal development and socialization and create a foundation for future social features such as altruism, ability to ask for help and help out himself. The author of the article recommends not to interfere with the child's play as lmuch as possible, even in case of conflicts. Child's playing is full of true emotions, joy, delight and amazement. All these emotions allow not only to use the play for up-bringing and personal development of a child but also for psychological assistance of emotional difficulties and prevention of psychosomatic disorders. Noteworthy that the child's play is mostly social and therefore we can actually define what kind of relations a child has with th eother chidlren when we observe them play. The range of emotions experienced by children when playing games is very wide, from absolute indifference to the desire to support and retain social contacts outside the game. The author underlines that the most important task for an adult is to arrange for the best play environment in order to avoid negative emotions and aggression. 
Mordas E.S. - Deprivation Effects and Peculiarities of Play Demonstrated by Infants at an Orphan Home pp. 1-17


Abstract: Features of development of children in the conditions of a deprivation. Communication of experiences of emotional deficiency and reaction to inanimate objects. Toy as the object showing features of intellectual, emotional, personal development. Stages of development of reaction to a toy at the children who are bringing up in a family and children from orphanage: early stages (visualization, touch) and the differentiated behavior. Difficulties of development of interaction with a toy at babies from orphanage. Communication of a deprivational situation of development and violation of balance of comfort discomfort. That will disorganize the Ego of the child and promotes regress development. Shortage of maternal care is directly connected with violation of game activity of babies of orphanage. Theoretical analysis of psychoanalytic views of a problem of a deprivation J. Boulbi, R. Shpits, A. Freud, S. Provens, M. Mahler, etc. The object relations play the central role in development of the child. Not acceptance of the child, rejection, separation (loss) from mother is psychologically considered as the trauma, the generating sharp experience of a grief remaining during the long period of time. The situation of loss can be presented as intervention to development of the child. Intervention leads to an arrest of development, its distortion and desintegrates as a whole the identity of the child. The child who has transferred a mental deprivation, gets to group of risk of children with possibility of development of mental and somatic violations. Shortage of the corresponding balance between experiences of discomfort and comfort interferes with establishment of traces of memory of object and its constant катексиса. Because of insufficient катексиса human object, shift to inanimate objects that acts as effects of a deprivation is broken, can be observed in children's game of children.
Khizgiyaeva N.V. - Psychological Constitution of Preschool Communication Development pp. 1-18


Abstract: The idea of communicative culture developed in business psychology extends on the general psychology. In article the model of development of communicative culture at preschool age is developed. Methodologically the author relies on the cultural and historical psychology assuming development of the personality by overcoming of the age crises connected with transition of the child from one social environment in another. Also the author is guided by the concept of emotional safety of the educational environment approving need of creation of the safe environment in which at the child the main components of communicative culture allowing to establish the new optimum relations of the child with the world of adults, the contemporaries and younger will be created. In article stages of development of communicative culture of the preschool child at an age stage from 3 to 7 years are described. 2 main stages are considered, the first corresponds to crisis of three years, the second – to crisis is seven years and the intermediate period corresponding to age of five years. Traditional components of communicative culture are allocated: cognitive, motivational, behavioural and emotional and strong-willed. Specifics of development of each of components at the first and second stage formation of communicative culture are considered.
Peretolchina D. - The Role of Family Background in the Development of Teenager's Deviant Behavior pp. 24-51


Abstract: Object of research: research of features of family factors, features of deviant behavior of the teenagers who are in various contexts of a social situation of development (various on relationship and family functions, in the conditions of training at open schools of specialized type.It is possible to carry to family factors: unity, flexibility, satisfaction with marriage, interaction with the teenager, deviant behavior of teenagers to which can be carried: aggression, uneasiness, interaction with parents, and also low unity and flexibility of family system the teenager's eyes.Research methods:1. A questionnaire for interaction of parents with I. Markovskaya's children (option for teenagers and their parents).2. Diagnostics of unity and flexibility of family system D. Olson. (option for teenagers and their parents).3. Questionnaire of diagnostics of tendency to A. Bass and M. Perry's aggression.4. Scale of personal uneasiness A.M. Prikhozhan.5. Questionnaire of satisfaction with marriage V. V. Stolin.Comparison of two cultures always represents scientific interest. Features family, child – parental relations and psychological features of modern teenagers in the Russian and Uzbek culture, are very various.In the work we will try to understand as far as these distinctions influence a deviation in behavior at teenagers and whether influence in general. Conclusions: proceeding from the received results, it is possible to say that are made by us early hypotheses were confirmed, namely:General hypothesis: There is a communication between family relationship and features of education, and also unity and flexibility of family system, and such violations of behavior of teenagers and their features as: aggression, uneasiness, low socially - psychological adaptation, inadequate perception of the family relations and communications.Private hypotheses:1. Among the teenagers who are trained in specialized institutions in comparison with teenagers from mass schools with conditionally normal behavior, all types of aggressive behavior (physical aggression, anger, hostility), high uneasiness (school uneasiness, interpersonal uneasiness, self-estimated uneasiness, magic uneasiness) meet more often, for the first are characteristic more psychogenic situation of relationship in a family (both the teenager's eyes, and eyes of parents), special perception of conditions of family system (unity, flexibility).2. Psychological features of deviant teenagers from open schools (specialized) and the teenagers who are trained at mass schools in the city of Moscow and the city of Tashkent differ.3. Features of a family situation in families of teenagers from usual comprehensive schools of Moscow and Tashkent are various and are characterized by various profiles of educational competences of parents and various psychological features of teenagers.4. There is a communication between manifestations of deviant behavior at teenagers from specialized schools with a number of parental dysfunctions: an emotional distance, rejection, inconsistency, lack of cooperation, a dissatisfaction with marriage between spouses.
Serafimovich I.V. - The Role of Metacognition Characteristics of Professional Non-Contextual Thinking of Teachers in their Social and Psychological Health Promotion pp. 54-64


Abstract: The author examines the approach to forming non-contextual thinking (its metacognitive characteristics), making it possible to influence the change in the level of social and psychological health of teachers. The subject of this research is metacognition characteristics of non-contextual professional thinking. The target group consisted of school staff and pre-school institutions staff involved in the project promoting social and psychological health of teachers (Yaroslavl). Testing the course (aiming at formation of components of non-contextual thinking in the field of social-psychological health) lasted for five years and took place in more than 20 different educational institutions of Yaroslavl. More than 1,500 teachers took part in the training. Research involved two stages: first came empirical study of metacognition characteristics of non-contextual thinking and the study of the level of social-psychological health of teachers. Next, the formative pedagogical experiment was done. The results were processed (math-and-stats). The author concluded that, the self realization of non-contextual thinking is characterized by the commitment to social and psychological health promotion. The author also founded that the formative psychological and pedagogical experiment could actually influence the development of metacognitive components of non-contextual thinking (in particular, such components as active involvement, reformative position in the process of problem solving, and search for constructive solution). 
Ksenda O.G., Tatarko K.I. - Aging Through the Prism of Social, Psychological and Biological Changes pp. 55-65


Abstract: This article is devoted to the problem of operationalization of aging. In connection with the improvement of the conditions of life of an individual, respectively, with increasing life expectancy, it is necessary to reconsider the understanding of the process of human aging. The necessity of formulating a new and precise definition, appropriate to modern realities. Existing definitions on this phenomenon emphasize certain of its aspects (biological, social and psychological) or consider it as a sum of three components. The article presents the main characteristics of each component. Despite the fact that the biological signs of aging begin to appear in the period of middle adulthood, they become most pronounced in late adulthood. Therefore, social and psychological aging mainly associated with this period. The methodological basis was the theory of E. H. Erikson: personality in its development goes through certain stages in connection with the influence of the tasks set before her by society. We support the idea that the operationalization of aging of the individual is necessary to consider three elements (biological, social and psychological). However, we have come to the conclusion that society plays a decisive and crucial in the biological component of aging and patterns of human behavior to changes occurring in its body, and in the social sphere.
Chernov D.N. - pp. 56-70


Kuz'mina A.S. - Non-Variable and Variable Parameters in Students' Self-Attitude Structure pp. 57-65


Abstract: The article is devoted to the results of analyzing dynamic changes in the structure of students' self-attitude. The research is based on the longitudinal study. The self-attitude structure includes non-variable and variable parameters of self-attitude. The author of the article analyzes changes in self-attitude parameters of the first-, second-, third- and forth-year university students. The aim of the research is to define non-variable and variable parameters in students' self-attitude structure at different stages of their university life. The object of the research is students' self-attitude. The subject of the research is variable and non-variable parameters of students' personal self-attitude parameters at different stages of their university studies. The methodology of the research includes L. Vygotsky's cultural historical approach, V. Klochko's and O. Krasnoryadtsev's systems approach, S. Pantileev's and V. Stolin's concept of self-attitude as well as S. Pantileev's and V. Stolin's Self-Attitude Inventory. The methods of mathematical statistical analysis include analysis of variance (ANOVA). Obtained data was processed using a statistical data software SPSS 17.00. The novelty of the research is caused by the fact that the author demonstrates the correlation of variable and non-variable parameters in students' self-attitude structure. The main conclusions made by the author are as follows. In the course of university studies when a student starts a new year at a university, such self-attitude parameters as self-guidance, self-accusation, self-understanding change, meanwhile such self-attitude parameters as integral self-attitude, authosympathy, and self-interest reman the same, i.e. can be considered unchangeable (non-variable) parameters. 
Aron I. - Features of the Cognitive Readiness for Professional Self-Determination of Students with Special Social Situations of Development pp. 70-78


Abstract: Object of research is cognitive readiness for professional self-determination of orphan teenagers, teenagers with deviant behavior and teenagers with endowments signs. Work is directed to theoretical and empirical justification of need of the differentiated approach to development of cognitive readiness for professional self-determination of teenagers with special social situations of development. The importance and the maintenance of cognitive readiness in structure of psychological readiness for professional self-determination is defined. The works of psychologists allowing to reveal content of cognitive readiness for professional self-determination of orphan teenagers, teenagers with deviant behavior and teenagers with endowments signs are analyzed. The negative features of cognitive development of orphan teenagers and teenagers with deviant behavior leading to inadequate idea of teenagers of world around, relations of people, the world of professions, inadequate idea of the opportunities, capabilities, skills necessary for successful professional activity, not sensibleness of the professional choice come to light. The high cognitive potential of teenagers with endowments signs promoting successful professional self-determination is noted. Results of own empirical research conducted based on educational institutions of the Republic of Mari El of different type are provided. Research had comparative character. Selection was constituted by three primary groups of examinees (the teenagers who are trained in special educational institutions) and group of comparison (pupils of comprehensive school). Methods of testing and questioning were applied to detection of specifics of cognitive readiness of teenagers for professional self-determination. Handling of results was performed with use of methods of mathematical statistics. Results of empirical research confirm data of the theoretical analysis on differences in formation of cognitive readiness for professional self-determination of teenagers with different social situations of development and reveal earlier not studied high-quality specificity of cognitive readiness of the researched groups of teenagers, first of all, on indicators of a sinergichnost, creativity, informative requirements and self-understanding. Based on the received results the conclusion about need of the differentiated approach to the organization of psychology and pedagogical maintenance of forming of cognitive readiness for professional self-determination of teenagers with different social situations of development and development of special technologies of psychological maintenance of professional self-determination of these categories of teenagers is drawn. What will increase success of their professional self-determination and professional formation.
Erzin A.I., Gerashchenko N.A. - Successful aging image in the minds of students pp. 76-95


Abstract: The article reports the results of validation the measure successful aging image in the students. The authors identified 6 subscales of the questionnaire: "Health", "Wealth", "Social interactions", "The time perspective", "Job and Hobby", "Personal growth and Positive emotions". Cronbach's alpha score (0.908) indicates an internal consistency of the test items. Structural equation modeling showed that respondents valued the successful aging components such as job and hobbies, social interaction and health. The lowest value for the students is financial well-being. Factor analysis revealed 6 factors which include activity and optimism, self-esteem and self-sufficiency, search for opportunities, self-education and quality of life, sense of purpose and pleasure of communicating. The next step will be to assess test-retest reliability and normalization the method in the various samples. Overall, the results indicate the reliability of the test and create the prospects for its further standardization.
Spektor D.M. - The Nature and Education adn the Culture of Play (On the Cultural Studies of Childhood) pp. 79-105


Abstract: As outline of research the relation of "nature", traditional for the subject "developments" (in this case the child's nature) and "cultures" acts (as to it the traditional and external improving beginning). Under "development" the new ontologic base based on unusual interpretation of a phenomenon of emotions is brought. The last on the basis of phylogenetic reconstruction are treated as certain "settings" (moods) allowing to subordinate spontaneous reaction of a community of its manifestations (to bring unity of motives under similar manifestations). The emotional reaction (distinguished т.о. from affective) takes shape of cultural reaction in game (in a phylogeny - within "sacred game"). In game, т.о." true spontaneity" (transcendence) is opposed to a community of reactions (transcendental and esthetic settings), playing including accents of "spontaneity" and "rules". Without having special respect for theories of reconciliation, the author sees known methodological potential in comparison the logician filo-and ontogenesis, identification of those "beginnings" which scoop the bases in "nature" (instincts), but instincts unusual (initiating spontaneous reactions), unusually used (provoking reactions collective) and unusually (randomly) initiated. The view of the nature of game is reconsidered in the light of the new anthropological model developed by the author. The accepted dichotomy "the nature - culture", traditionally prevailing over understanding, is replaced new within which the "nature" presented by instincts reflexive is opposed to "nature" of spontaneous reactions. In such communication "the nature – the culture" is opposed to a paradigm a paradigm "spontaneity (cultural conditions of its generation and support) – (natural and cultural) conditionality".
Nurmukhamedov T.F. - On the Question of the Cognitive Component of Self-Identity in Adolescence pp. 89-95


Abstract: The subject of research is the cognitive component of self-identity in adolescence. The author examines such topics as the concept of "self-identity", the structure of self-identity, the age range of adolescence, the factors that influence the formation of the cognitive component of self-identity in adolescence (relations with the reference groups, mental development, various types of activity). Particular attention is paid to the content of the cognitive component of the self-identity in adolescence, the author points to the correlation of cognitive self-identity component with cognitive sphere of personality. Methods of research are theoretical analysis and synthesis of literature on self-identity (cognitive component), the peculiarities of adolescence. The main conclusions of this research are the positions under which the period of adolescence is described by the sensitive to the cognitive component of self-identity. Causes of the sensitivity are peculiarities of the personality development and the external conditions. Personal and professional self-determination is expressed in changing self-understanding (the cognitive component of self-identity).
Bozhenkova K.A., Bokhan T.G. - Openness of the Psychological System as the Factor of Life Quality in Terms of Gerontological Violence Problems pp. 102-116


Abstract: The aim of the research to identify the relationship of indicators of openness / closeness of the psychological system with indicators of the quality of life in the elderly with the experience of gerontological violence. Special attention is paid to identifying the indicators of openness / closeness of the psychological system as a mediator factor in the quality of life in people with experience of gerontological violence. The authors assume that the experience of various types of gerontological violence may be associated with a deterioration in the quality of life of older people, where the indicator of openness / closeness of the psychological system can act as a mediating factor. The following diagnostic tools were used: a questionnaire aimed at studying the psychological content of experiencing gerontological violence; questionnaire degree of openness / closeness of the psychological system adapted for the research task; questionnaire quality of life SF-36. Research methodology: system approach in psychology, system anthropological psychology, trans-perspective analysis. The total number of respondents was 277 people aged 55 to 85 years. Based on the obtained empirical data, three types of persons with the experience of gerontological violence can be distinguished, where the nature and degree of openness of the psychological system is connected with the possibilities of coping with the experience of gerontological violence and the quality of life of the elderly. The obtained types of closedness / openness of the psychological system can be included in the targets of differentiated psychological prevention of gerontological violence and crisis psychological assistance of the elderly people. 
Shcherbinina O.A., Ignatova T.N. - The Role of Mother's Treatment of a Teenager in Teenager's Experience of Loneliness pp. 115-125


Abstract: Based on the review of the latest empirical researches, the authors of the present article examine and specify the role and importance of the parents' treatment of teenagers in the development of teenager's basic mental formations and solution of the most important psychological goals of their age. When describing substantial features of the aforesaid stage of human ontogenesis, special attention is paid to the subjective feeling of loneliness experienced by a teenager. The emphasis is made on contradictory interpretations of this phenomenon in modern academic literature. The authors provide a theoretical basis of their empirical research. The research involves 56 school students (teenagers). The authors analyze the relationship between their subjective experience of loneliness, their mother's and father's treatment and the quality of their social-psychological adjustment. The authors have used such methods of psychological diagnostics as: The Subjective Loneliness Scale by S. V. Dukhnovsky, Teenagers about Parents of E. Shafer as adapted by L. I. Vasserman, I. A. Gorkovsky and E. E. Romitsyn, and The Test of Social-Psychological Adjustment by C. Rogers-R. Diamond adapted by T.V. Snegireva. The main conclusions of the research: the subjective feeling of loneliness experienced by a teenager within the average values is normal and caused by teenager's reflection processes and age; the mother's treatment of a teenager conditions the relationship between a teenager's subjective experience of loneliness and the quality of his or her social-psychological adjustment; the subjective feeling of loneliness experienced by a teenager correlates to his or her mother's Hostility and Inconsistency; and the quality of social-psychological adjustment of a teenager correlates to his or her mother's Directivity and Positive Interest. The research results allow to define goals for further research in order to find out whether it is possible to use the subjective feeling of loneliness experienced by a teenager as an indicator of his or her psychological problems and risks of deviant behavior providing that qualitative and quantitative characteristics of his or her feeling of loneliness have been clarified in terms of their relationship with the social situation where a teenager grows. 
Svistunova E.V., Lizunkov O.B. - The Image of the Future Developed by Teenagers from Socially Maladjusted Families pp. 126-134


Abstract: The authors of the present research analyze the image of the future developed by teenagers from families with different social statuses. The authors provide a general insight into specific perception of the image of future by teenagers coming from socially maladjusted families. Based on the analysis of their perceptions, the authors predict whether kids will be successful or not as adults. The subject of the research is the features of the image of the future demonstrated by teenagers from maladjusted families. The object of the research is the process and conditions for developing such an image by teenagers. The research methods used by the authors included the Draw-A-Person Test when a person is made up out of geometrical shapes and a structured interview 'Complete a sentence' The main conclusion of the research is that teenagers from socially maladjusted families do not have a clear image of their future. The authors' contribution to the topic is that they define specific features of the image of maladjusted teenagers. These include positive prospects without depicting particular means to achieve these goals. 
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