Psychologist - 3 2020
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MAIN PAGE > Journal "Psychologist" > Contents of Issue 03/2020
Contents of Issue 03/2020
Question at hand
Kubyshkina M.L., Kazakova E.V., Prokhorova I.F. - Childhood emotional experience as a prerequisite for optimism and social activeness in senior age pp. 1-21


Abstract: The subject of this research is the childhood emotional experience of the people of senior age, i.e. the “children of war” generation. The author pursues the goal to study their emotional experiences associated with childhood that fell on the war period as the prerequisite for their life optimism and social activeness in the senior age. The analysis is bases on the materials of biographical narratives collected over the period from 2012 to 2019. The sampling included 34 men aged 75-85, and 57 women aged 75-90. The method of non-standardized biographical interviews became the means for collecting data. The acquired narratives were processed through the method of content analysis (for formalization of the variables “optimism”, “pessimism” and “social activity”), and comprising structured descriptions of emotional experience of the wartime childhood, summarizes in the basis of two highlighted nominations – socially active optimists and pessimists with low social activeness. It was determined that the positive emotional experience of the children of war contributed to formation of their optimistic perception of the world and subjective position on life, which remained until senior age and manifest in their social activeness and interaction with the surrounding world, while the negative emotional experience created the foundation for pessimistic worldview and contributed to formation of infantile position on life, which in senior age manifest in low social activeness, helplessness and complaints to the world. The author indicates seven characteristic of the positive and six characteristics of the negative childhood emotional experience, which can be viewed as the prerequisites for optimism/pessimism and social activeness/passiveness in the senior age.  
Sultanova I.V., Orlova T.E. - Theoretical aspects of impact of the phenomenon of post-truth upon cognitive sphere of personality pp. 22-28


Abstract: The subject of this research is the impact of information environment upon people’s psyche. Currently, the volume of information accessible to human vastly exceeds the ability to digest it. The emerging information overload leads to nervous exhaustion, worsening of memory, lapse of attention concentration, and stress. Thus, there are created favorable conditions for negative influences of the policy of “post-truth” upon personality, mentality, perception of the world, and system of relationship. Using the instruments of rationality, the policy of “post-truth” turns them against rational thinking of a person. Affecting emotions and referring to personal beliefs, “post-truth” enhances stigmatization not even denying the facts. The research methodology combines the methods of fundamental psychological mechanisms and patterns of the origin and functioning of human psyche; methods general psychological research; methods of studying mental processes, mentality and personality; methods of cognitive psychology; technologies of examination of cognitive processes and communication in computer networks. The main conclusion consists in the statements that in the conditions of information overload and time deficit for analysis, a person makes hasty decisions based on his previous experience; while “post-truth” can be countered only through the development of the ability of critical thinking, giving assessment, learning to analyze and form own opinion regarding events ongoing in the world.
Psychology of emergency
Chistiakova N.V., Aisuvakova T.P. - Metacognitive model of coping behavior of a subject during the COVID-19 pandemic pp. 29-36


Abstract: Mental experience is a necessary construct of self-regulation of behavior in a stressful situation. During the pandemics of a new coronavirus infection, metacognitive approach towards analysis of adaptation mechanism of regulation of behavior allows determining the resource potential of personality for the purpose of achieving social re-adaptation. Adequacy of cognitive assessment of a potential COVID-19 threat as a stressogenic factor characterizes the metacognitive model of coping behavior of a subject. Mental representations as coping resources of the system of self-regulation of personality define the nature of mental activity for overcoming a difficult life situation. In the conditions of COVID-19 pandemic increases the risk of mental disturbance due to cognitive dissonance in assessing the situation of potential threat as stressogenic factor. A destructive model of metacognitive activity as a method of regulation of stress resistance leads to maladaptive behavior of a subject based on cognitive distortions. As a factor of social disintegration, cognitive deteriorations negatively affect the subjective level of stress resilience, increasing the risk of chronification psychoemotional tension. The pilot research on the basis of Google platform involved 48 students. The assessment of acquired results is conducted with the use of correlation-regression analysis. It is determined that the adequate cognitive assessment of potential risk of coronavirus infection explains the internal constructive ensemble of the strategies of coping behavior with stressogenic situation of behavior. Therefore, the effective strategies of metacognitive regulation of behavior of a subject pertaining to COVID-19 contribute to social re-adaptation, associated with the need for inner transformation. Metacognitive model of dysfunctional fear regarding the threat of COVID-19 characterizes the external vector of destructive repertoire of coping strategies for regulation of behavior of a subject, and reflects negatively on the personal level.  Therefore, semantic field of metacognitive model of social re-adaptation by means of subjective control of behavior substantiates individual differences in the level of personal anxiety as a factor of stress resilience.
Personal motivation and spirituality
Ustinov D. - The problem of consideration of psychological constructs in formation of the concept of the motive of crime pp. 37-52


Abstract: The object of this research is the consolidated concept of the motive of crime, as well as important from the perspective of multifaceted motivational concepts psychological components that determine its structure, such as the personal inner motive and its source, relevant needs and criminal way for their fulfillments, attribute of conscious and subconscious in the criminal motive. The article also examines the system of the described psychological components and their correlation in formation of definition of the concept of motive of crime designated for assistance in identification of such psychological institution, analysis and consideration in everyday activity by the experts of psychologically oriented applied disciplines. Systematic review of literature, existing theories and concepts dedicated to the problems of motivation of criminal behavior, utilization of definitions and concepts allowed solving the tasks set in this research. The author substantiates the use of such components as intrapersonal motive, needs, and important attributes; argues the importance of criminal ways of fulfilling the needs that allows classifying the motive of crime as a specific pattern of human behavior. Special attention is given to the factors that complement the dominant signs of the motive of crime with the attribute of subconscious. The author formulates the definition of the motive of crime that includes broadened motivational components, and simultaneously has specific features and clear boundaries.  
Professional psychology
Matyushina M.A. - Interrelation between professional identity and creativity of students of psychological disciplines pp. 53-62


Abstract: This article is dedicated to the analysis of interrelation between professional identity and creativity of the students of psychological disciplines at different stages of educational process. The subject of this research is the correlation of professional identity and creativity of the students of psychological disciplines. The goal consists in determination of the structure of interrelation between the statuses of professional identity and creativity parameter of the students at different stages of educational process. The conducted survey included 124 students of psychological disciplines from Novosibirsk State Technical University and Siberian State Transport University of 1st, 2nd, 3rd and 4th years of education. For data collection, the author used the following psychodiagnostic tools: E. P. Torrance’s test of nonverbal creativity; S. Mednick’s test for “Diagnostics of Verbal Creativity”; A. A. Azbel’s and A. G. Gretsov’s methodology for studying the statuses of professional identity; L. B. Schneider’s methodology for studying professional identity. The research demonstrates the presence of correlations between the parameters of verbal creativity (uniqueness) and vague status of professional identity parameters of imagery creativity (resistance to reservations) and formed status of professional identity; parameters of imagery creativity (development and resistance to reservations), and imposed status of professional identity. It was determined that the structures of interrelation between the statuses of professional activity and creativity parameters differ among the students of different years of education. The senior students show stronger correlations between the statuses of professional identity and creativity parameters.
Psychology and pedagogics
Kulikova T.I., Stepanova N.A. - The study of personal factors defining the emergence of victim behavior among teenagers with intellectual incapacity pp. 63-74


Abstract: The subject of this research is the personal factors defining the emergence of victim behavior among teenagers with intellectual incapacity. The object is the victim behavior of teenagers with intellectual incapacity. The goal consists in examination of personal factors defining the emergence of victim behavior among teenagers with intellectual incapacity, and possibilities of forecasting the behavioral type of a victim – active or passive. The authors analyze such aspects as behavioral disorders of teenagers with intellectual incapacity, heightened victimization as predisposition of teenagers with intellectual incapacity to becoming a victim of crime, or personal traits of teenagers of this category determining victim behavior. The novelty of the conducted research consists in identification of personal factors of victim behavior of teenagers with intellectual incapacity, expressed by combination of personal traits determining the behavioral type of a victim. The dominant personal factors include emotional, volitional, and behavioral. As a result of regression and correlation analysis, the author determines the direct close interrelation between the emotional and behavioral factors; direct moderate connection between volitional and behavioral factors; and reversed moderate connection between emotional and volitional factors. The acquired data allowed determining personal traits of the active and passive victims. An active victim is characterized with high level of frustration, impulsiveness and low level of self-control. A passive victim is characterized with high level of anxiety, insecurity and helplessness that form low self-esteem. Among the teenagers with intellectual incapacity such traits exceed the boundaries more often than among neurotypical age mates, which substantiates the presence of risk factors affecting their psychological security and lead to disorientation in social environment.
Clinical psychology
Kadyrov R.V., Elzesser A.S., Bartkovskaya N.S. - Patients anxiety at the different stages of genesis of myocardial infarction pp. 75-86


Abstract: The subject of this research is the anxiety of patients at different stages of genesis of myocardial infarction (MI). It is a proven fact that the high level of anxiety leads to reoccurrence and unfavorable course of disease both, in combination with other factors or regardless of them. However, the influence of separate aspects of anxiety into reoccurrence of MI remains insufficiently studied, which actualizes determination of the components of anxiety at different staged of emergence of this disease. The article presents a comparative analysis and description of the level of manifestation of various components of anxiety among the following empirical groups: 33 persons without myocardial infarction in past medical history, but in the group of risk by its genesis; 29 patients undergoing 2 to 5 days of hospital treatment for recovering after MI; 27 patients that have already received post-hospital therapy after MI. The observational group included 30 technically healthy persons. The following conclusions are formulated: 1) Anxiety components, such as asthenic, phobic, emotional discomfort are vivid among the patients who have survived MI, as well as persons in the risk group. However, an additional longitude research is required for proving the influence of anxiety into the genesis of myocardial infarction.2) The currently conducted rehabilitation of MI patients reduces the overall level of situational anxiety, practically avoiding such its components that in the future can prompt recurrence of MI. 3) High level of anxiety is characteristic to all IM patients. The recommended programs for prevention and rehabilitation should be focused on long-term reduction of the level of personal anxiety, such as cognitive-behavioral psychotherapy.
Starosel'tseva O.V. - Criminal activity of the accused in grave crimes in the context of disorders in motivational and target levels of regulation of activity pp. 87-102


Abstract: The subject of this research is criminal activity of the accused in grave crimes in with various disorders in motivational and target levels of regulation of activity. Content of the concept of “regulation of activity” is reviewed. Attention is paid to the peculiarities of regulation of activity at the target and motivational levels among persons accused in grave crimes. The author analyzes the key characteristics of criminal activity in the context of various disorders in motivational and target levels of regulation of activity. The sampling involved 20 men aged from 20 to 58, average age 37.7 years, who are currently under the forensic psychological and psychological expertise. As a contrast, the survey involved a group of 24 men with socially normative behavior, who have never been held criminally liable. It is established that those accused in grave crimes more often were incapable to adequately correlate the subjective moments of activity with the objectively existing circumstances of actual reality, independently organize the process of goal-setting, and efficiently exercise the control function. The author also determined the key characteristics of criminal behavior in terms of disturbance of motivational and target levels of regulation of activity. The scientific novelty consists in the description of characteristics of criminal behavior of the persons accused in grave crimes with various disorders in motivational and target levels of regulation of activity. The obtained results may be used for solution of the questions of forensic psychological expertise, as well as in the course of correctional work with persons prone to unlawful behavior.
Developmental psychology
Smirnova Y.K., Yanova N.G. - Comparative research of imitational ability in atypical development in the preschool age pp. 103-117


Abstract: This article discusses deficit of the model of psychological (from standpoint of difficulties) translation of prospects of actions of another person to the prospect of own actions in the process of imitation. The goal of this research consists in the analysis of group distinctions and comparison of imitational abilities of the children with typical development and children with developmental delay, as well as determine the degree to which the changes in the level of psychological model and identification of direction of the views would related to changes in imitation. The survey 124 children of preschool age. Comparison was conducted on the development of psychological model and imitation in the three contrasting groups: children with typical development, children with developmental delay, and children with delay in speech development. The group differences of imitation in relation to the psychological model were detected. It is demonstrated that the problems associated with imitation cam manifest as the universal symptoms for explanation of deficit in the development of psychological model. Analysis of the obtained results allow concluding that for effective accomplishment of imitational patents, it is necessary to understand and distinguish the mental states of another person.
Socionics up close
Kovalenko R.K., Zvonareva N.A. - The study of correlation between socionic type and coefficients of empathy and systematization pp. 118-130


Abstract: The subject of this research is the validity of scales used in socionics. The authors view socionics as a typological concept that describes predisposition of an individual to learning within the framework of one of another type of information using the method of modeling. Special attention is paid to the relevance of examination of the concept of socionics, its scientific substantiation from the perspective of differential psychology. The article explores one of the socionic characteristics – “logics / ethics” and its interrelation with the coefficients of empathy EQ and systematization SQ. In the course of this research, the authors applied the methodology of determination of socionics type, EQ and SQ coefficient tests, as well as statistical comparison of two groups. The scientific novelty consists in the fact that the authors are first to acquire results confirming the hypothesis on correlation between socionic characteristics “logics / ethics” and coefficients of empathy EQ and systematization SQ. According to socionics, the people of “ethic” type are more predisposed to high level of empathy and low scores on the scale of systematization; while the people with “logic” type are predisposed to high level of systematization with low values of empathy coefficient.
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