Genesis: Historical research
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History and Economics
Babkina N. - Stages of development of the basic methodology for transitioning companies to new terms of operation in the period of USSRТs economic reform of 1965 pp. 1-8


Abstract: The subject of this research is the process of development of methodology used for transitioning companies to new system of planning and economic incentive in terms of the economic reform of 1965 in Soviet Union. The article determines the two key stages of this process, as well as emphasizes the peculiarities of each one. The author analyzes the major differences of every new edition of the framework document (from the standpoint of transitioning) – methodological guidelines from the previous version. Particular attention is given to the process of their approval and subsequent amendments. The study leans on the principle of historicism (historical-genetic method) that allows examining each state in connection with the preceding and succeeding. The author also applies the system method for viewing methodology as an element of the unified system that affects its establishment and development. The main conclusion of the research consists in comprehension of the importance of Interdepartmental Commission of the State Planning Committee of the USSR in development of the practical aspects of the conducted reforms, as well as high role of the methodology for transitioning companies to new system of planning and economic incentive with regards to the question of implementation of the provisions of economic reform of 1965.  
Sukiasyan A.A. - The evolution of state investment policy in Russia during the late 1980Тs Ц 1990Тs: historical context pp. 14-24


Abstract: This article is dedicated to the historical experience of the establishment of state investment policy in Russia at the initial stage of market reforms. The subject of this research is the complex of conceptual, legal and social components on the Russian investment policy during the late 1980’s – 1990’s. The goal consists in description of the role of the Russian investment policy in the context of formation of the new sociopolitical and economic space of the country, including the peculiarities of the process of establishment of state investment strategy, as well as demonstration of the importance of investment problematic for the Russian business press, national business community, and others. The article is conducted on the basis of the principles of historicism, use of systemic analysis, methods of retrospect and actualization, and interdisciplinary approach. As a result, the author restores the image of the establishment and implementation of state investments policy in Russia during the late 1980’s – 1990’s. The scientific novelty lies in determination of the role and place of investment policy in the context of modernization transit of the 1990’s. The author comes to a conclusion that the indicated period in the history of Russian investment policy is characterizes by the intense creation of program documents and legal acts, the practical implementation of which was hindered by the fragmentariness of development of the market system as a whole. Herewith, the priorities of the modern Russian investment policy were formulated in the 1990’s.
Liu Y. - Economic legal system of PRC as the context of establishment of the Chinese investment law pp. 20-28


Abstract: This article analyzes the Chinese normative, doctrinal, and historical legal material regarding the questions associated with the establishment of the investment law in PRC. The author determines the states of economic development of China, key positions and spheres of the open policy reform, peculiarities of China’s economic development, trends of development of China’s economic legal system, as well as normative legal foundation of the investment law. Due to the differences in prevalence of one or another ideology affecting the development of economic system at various stages, in the structural sense, content, and management of economic and legal systems, the mechanisms of implementation alongside the impact of economic legal system significantly vary at each stage. The author underlines that since the establishment of People’s Republic of China in 1949, the Chinese economic legal system has undergone multiple and constantly transforming stages, which illustrate different peculiarities at each of the stages that manifest as a result of interaction between the changing economic system and legal ideology. For the first time in Russia is examined and generalized the experience of legal development of the investment legal relations in China, which are of great importance for the assessment and improvement of PRC’s legislation in the field of investment activity.
P'yankov S.A. - Agrarian agents of development: activity of agronomical and statistical services of Ural municipalities in the late XIX Ц early XX centuries pp. 42-62


Abstract: This article, based on the example of statistical and agronomical services of the Ural municipalities, analyzes the activity of intelligentsia aimed at cultural and socioeconomic development of a village. The author examines the process of establishment and development of the county statistics and agronomy under the conditions of Russian province of the late XIX – beginning of the XX centuries, as well as demonstrates the place of Ural governorates in this process. Special attention is given to the social origin, activity, and sociopolitical views of the prominent representatives of municipality, who were the founders of the county agronomical and statistical services. The work illustrates the mechanisms of interaction between the intelligentsia and peasantry and describes the difficulties that emerged on the path of implementation of the new agrarian technologies into the practice of peasant agriculture. Using the example of the county surveys, the author provides the options of peasants’ attitude towards the representatives of the county intelligentsia. Presented in the article process of transformation of the agrarian sphere are viewed in the context of modernization theory, which allows examining the agrarian development from the perspective of continuity, including separate aspects of the village life with consideration of specific historical peculiarities of the regional development. The conclusion is made that despite the evident complications in interaction between the intelligentsia and peasantry, the new agrarian technologies were gradually implemented into the practice of agriculture. Multidivisional agronomic service was established in the Ural governorates over the period of several decades; statistical research allowed the county specialists to systematize the data about economic need of the regional agriculture. An important role in formation of the principles of the work of county agronomy was played by the public views of the leaders, who considered their activity as the way “to serve the community”.
Tushkanov I.V. - Multi-sector economy of average size as the basis of agrarian entrepreneurship of the Lower Volga Region over the period of 1861-1899 pp. 43-52


Abstract: This article is dedicated to the agricultural entrepreneurship in Lower Volga Region over the period of 1861-1899. The subject of this research is the modernization process of the former landed estates (both, remained in the right of noblemen, as well as fully or partially passed into the hands of the representatives of other social classes) and open market of production distribution. The object of this research is the diverse economies (differ in size, belonging to the owners of various social classes), as well as the key statistical indexes of agrarian sector of the Lower Volga Region. The author turns attention to the development of primary industries (crop husbandry, animal husbandry, and forestry) in the conditions of post-reform Russia. Among the main conclusions is the evidence of transformation of the former serfdoms into the fairly profitable economies. The scientific novelty consists in describing and comparing the economies of various size and owners of different social classes, which allows talking about the objective character of agrarian modernization process.
Kosykh E.S. - Joint companies in Soviet economy and foreign policy of the 1920Тs pp. 50-57


Abstract: The subject of this research is the activity of foreign concessions in form of the joint communities in Soviet economy of the 1920’s. The materials from central archives are used in the course of this work. It is noted that in terms of the political and economic boycott by Western countries, the solution was found in organization of joint companies. The author underlines that the joint companies were established in economic branches with highest profit ration – trade, forest industry, and transport. Using the comparative-historical and problematic-chronological methods, the author was able to determine the peculiarities of practical activity of joint companies in Soviet economy of the period of the New Economic Policy. The scientific novelty consists in demonstration of close correlation between the political and economic tasks in policy of the Soviet State pertinent to the joint companies. As a form of concessional entrepreneurship, the joint company implied the involvement of the state alongside the foreign entrepreneurs. A contract was signed with a foreign company, which defined the principal terms of its activity. Formally, the joint companies were established almost on the parity basis, but factually, the Soviet party was in privileged position. The activity of joint companies was strictly regulated; the profit ratio was established by the government. They played a role in breaking the economic blockade of 1920’s, as well as acquisition of deficit commodities and newest technology. Concession has existed until it was beneficial for the government. The majority of joint companies were liquidated beforehand.
Zadorozhnyaya O.A. - River agencies УAssociation of Western Siberian Shipping and TradeФ and organization of its activity in the Ob-Irtysh River Basin pp. 50-58


Abstract: The subject of this research is the process of formation of the model of river agency in the Ob-Irtysh River Basin on the example of “Association of Western Siberian Shipping and Trade”. The sources demonstrate the process of establishment of shipping lines through capital of the old and new entrepreneurial names, which strived for establishing the monopoly right over a specific sphere of activity. At the initial stage, the assistance of the local governments ensured such advantage, but the development of capitalist relations incited the distribution of competition. It necessitated finding a new way for remaining the largest shipping carrier, but by means of the separate production branches at the local level, strengthening their financial situation, increasing the staff and expanding administrative opportunities. The modern historical literature practically does not cover the problem of structural departments of river agencies of the Ob-Irtysh River Basin during the post-reform period, which is reflected on the unilateral approach to analyzing the activity of entrepreneurial organizations of the suburbs of the Russian State. The entrepreneurial companies of Western Siberia represented a fairly complicated type of the forming entrepreneurial organization due to the strong influence of both, family traditions and process of establishment of state capitalism upon the business world.
Brovina A. - The Soviet Academy of Sciences and industrial modernization of the country: historical experience of the development of near-Arctic territories of Russia (1920Тs Ц 1930Тs) pp. 57-65


Abstract: The subject of this research is the historical role of the Russian Academy of Sciences in academic exploration of the near-Arctic territories of the European North of Russia during the 1920’s and 1930’s. The author analyzes the sociopolitical reforms that led to inclusion of the Academy of Sciences into the Soviet industrial-political project. Special attention is given to the expeditionary work of the Academy of Sciences that unfolded in the 1920’s – 1930’s on the territories of Kola Peninsula and Northern Krai and led to a number of discoveries, valuable for the development of separate disciplines and geography overall, as well as nature and population of the northern territories of the country. The article proves that the industrial development of the North within the framework of industrial modernization of the country is considered one of the tasks that was proclaimed by the Bolshevik authorities and “imposed” upon the Soviet Academy of Sciences. The academic community of the country proposed and implemented a number of interdisciplinary promising projects on the Kola Peninsula and Northern Krai that resulted in discovery of the immense mineral deposits in the European North, opening the vast prospects for the economic and cultural development and potential status of one of the important economic regions of the country.    
Moreeva S. - Analysis of the foreign trade activity of Russia since beginning of the World War I until lifting of the economic blockade pp. 61-72


Abstract: The subject of this research (carried out based on the results of scientific research work on the topic “Economic and legal aspects of foreign trade activity of Russia since the beginning of the XX century: past, present, and prospects”) is Russia’s foreign trade over the period from the mid 1914 until the early 1921. The author analyzes the transformation of the Russian foreign trade policy and transactions associated with the country’s participation in the World War I, as well as domestic events of the following years, trade and "golden” embargo of Soviet Russia from the side of the Western countries. The work traces the sequential changes in state regulation of the foreign trade activity: transition from the limited meddling of the government into foreign trade activity, towards the prohibitive-permissive system of regulation with the further establishment of state monopoly in foreign trade right after the October Revolution. Using the acquired statistical data, the author demonstrates how the participation in the WWI alongside the following domestic events affecter the trade balance of the country, volume and structure of export and imports, as well as the list of Russia’s trade partners.
Motrevich V.P. - To the question about the role of individual household in the incomes of collective farmers of Sverdlovsk Region during the period of 1940Тs Ц 1950Тs (according to the data of examination of the household budget) pp. 63-74


Abstract: The scientific novelty of this research consists in examination of the incomes of collective farmers of Sverdlovsk Region over the period of 1941-1958 based on the materials of budget inspection. The article provides the data on gross agricultural outputs within the individual households in value terms, dynamics, and structure of the annual average working hours of a family of collective farers, and time expenditure when working in the individual household. The author characterizes the structure of sowing in household plots, indicates the dynamics of agricultural production in the households of collective farmers, as well as defines the role of individual household in income in kind and cash of a peasant family. Methodology of the work suggests structuring the dynamic rows of the key indexes in functionality of peasant household on the basis of calculations of the annual average household budgets in accordance with the five-year circuit. This allowed grading the significant inclination of indexes of the peasant households in different timeframes, caused by the changes in the state agrarian policy alongside the natural climatic factors, as well as determining the trends of their development. The analysis of budget inspections testifies to the fact that throughout the indicated period, individual household in Sverdlovsk Region was the main source of income in kind and cash in a peasant family. Public economy satisfied the needs of the collective farmers only in cereal and fodder grain. Major portion of potato, vegetables, meat, dairy, and eggs came from the household plots. At the same time, most of the working time among the labor force accrued for the public economy. In the second part of 1950’s, due to the changes in Soviet agrarian policy, took place a noticeable growth in the incomes of collective farmers from the work in collective farms alongside the machinery and tractor stations; this resulted in decrease of the role of individual household in the village.
Pu J. - Contribution of the Soviet specialist into the restoration and development of PRC in the late 1940Тs Ц 1950Тs: stages and their main characteristics pp. 66-72


Abstract: This article generalizes the data and materials regarding the main characteristic and peculiarities of contribution of the Soviet specialists to China during the second half of 1940’s – a950’s, based on which the author determines the stages in the work of Soviet specialists, as well as the USSR’s aid to China altogether. The overall situation in the field of personnel training in PRC; the stay of the Soviet specialist in China and certain difficulties emerged in the course of their activity are described. The article contains the archival materials collected by the author in the Russian State Archive of Socio-Political History, compilations of the published documents and materials, as well as examines the historiography of the topic. A conclusion is made on the existence of stage-by-stage approach applied by the Soviet specialists in providing aid to China. The first stage (second half of 1940’s) marks the sporadic nature and latent character in the help of Soviet specialists; the second stage (first half of 1950’s) notes a large volume of the invited specialists from USSR and significant coverage of the areas they were involved within; the third stage (second half of 1950’s) the number of the invited specialists is replaced by the quality of their selection and involvement into the solution of high-tech tasks of the China’s industrial sector.
Bespal'ko D.N. - The problems of labor management in the hunting and fishing industry in the northern Chita Region during the 1930Тs Ц beginning of the 1950Тs pp. 66-76


Abstract: The subject of this research is the initial period of establishment of the hunting and fishing industry in the territories of northern Chita Region. The harsh climatic conditions and mountain-taiga landforms substantiated the specific development of the new economic branches, among which stood out the most ancient industry – hunting. The importance of the development of the riches fur resources encouraged the vigorous activity of Soviet people, and the subsequent collectivization led to the creation of regional system of planned use of all assigned to communal farms hunting areas. One of the urgent problems throughout the entire chronological timeframe examined in the article was the management of hunting labor, which affected all indexes of the extraction of down and fur raw materials. This article is the first to introduce into the scientific discourse of the previously unstudied archival materials from the State Archive of Zabaykalsky Krai, as well as the comprehensive approach towards examination of the problems of history of the development of hunting and fishing industry in the region. Based on a broad circle of sources, the author concludes on the erroneousness of the initial hunting establishment and its consequences.
Yanik A.A. - Arrival of Уyoung reformersФ towards administration of the Russian economy: analysis of coincidences and regularities pp. 74-113


Abstract: The subject of this research is the analysis of events which resulted in the ascent of the community of young economists towards the management of the Russian reforms, who were later called the “young reformers”. A special attention is given to the examination of the facts within a broad historical context that helps to avoid falling into a trap of the popular narratives that lead to mythologization of ideas associated with the complicated processed of the Russian history of the late XX century. The goal of this work is to explore by what means the chain of events will gradually transform into a consistent and historically inevitable outcome, when the initial endless pi of the personal trajectories subsequently leads to the only possible way of realization of the collective historical drama. The author comes to a conclusion that under the conditions of crises, drastically increases the demand for the scientific knowledge on the management of public and economic development, and thus the responsibility for the quality of the events belongs to both, the government and the expert community. The history shows that by the end of 1991, only the “young reformers” were ready to operate in emergency conditions, which required increased efficiency and the ability to present scientific ability as the “product” for practical implementation.
Aleksandrova I.N. - Formation of the commitment to importance of the socially useful labor among youth during the time of УThawФ pp. 75-91


Abstract: The object of this research is the Soviet youth (mostly the citizens of 14-30 years of age residing in the European part of Russia). The subject of this research is the efficiency of state youth policy in the area of labor. The Komsomol is viewed as a distinct “ministry of youth” Chronological framework of the study cover the period from the mid 1950’s until the first part of the 1960’s. This is the period of modification in the technique of administration and control over society, which revealed the forms of social creativity from the latent state. The efficiency of state youth policy in the area of labor is being evaluated with the help reminiscences of the veterans, examination of letters of the youth of 1950’s – 1960’s in newspapers, secondary analysis of the sociological surveys of the Institute of Public Opinion of “Komsomolskaya Pravda”. The author concludes that the labor education during the studied timeframe was aimed at increasing of social optimism, and thus, performed the role of adaptation mechanism that encouraged the molding of personality. Not glossing over the flaws in the state youth policy in the area of labor, the author believes that one of its notable positive results consisted in introducing collective labor to the youth, creative self-expression, development of the feeling of involvement into the large-scale social processes, as well as interest in career growth.
Shakhin I. - Impact of the business competition upon the centrifugal processes in Yugoslavia (1952-1963) pp. 118-125


Abstract: This article examines the link between the business competition and disintegration processes in Yugoslavia over the period of 1953-1962 that indicates the two large waves of economic reforms conducted in the country. The subject of this research is the direct competitive relations between businesses and their associations, as well as relations mediated by the participation of the union and republican governing bodies. Particular attention is given to intervention of the republican governments. Methodology of the work leans on the materialistic understanding of history. The author systematically analyzes the economic foundation of the attenuation of the unity of Yugoslavian peoples and aggravation of interethnic tensions. The emerged in the early 1950’s business competition became the factor of this process just because of the existence of certain conditions, among which are the manifestation nationalistic moods within corporate management and protection by the republican government of business in their republics, considering the economic gain. This led to the weakening of economic relations between the republics and disruption of functionality of some economic sectors. At the regional level, it was most noticeable in Slovenia, as well as existed in Croatia and Serbia.
P'yankov S.A. - The Ural agricultural societies in the late XIX Ц early XX centuries: the process of establishment, functions and social structure pp. 137-148


Abstract: This article based on the data of the administrative statistics, country documentation management, and periodical materials, analyzes the mechanisms of organization of the agricultural societies in the Ural region. The author presents the dynamics of formation of the agricultural societies in Russia, as well as demonstrates the place of Ural governorates in this process. The social structure of the founders and rankers of the public associations are being examined. Based on the example of separate societies, the work analyzes the vectors of the work, number of the participants and areas of their activity, ways and nature of interaction with the representatives of authorities and local self-governance. Special attention is focused on the role of county agricultural personnel, which is one of the main actors in the process of establishment of the agricultural societies in the Ural region. The author makes a conclusion that the agricultural societies were in the sphere of influence of the agricultural services of the government and county council. The growth in the number of agricultural societies was not directly linked to the high social activity of the peasant population, and in many ways acted as the result of the reformation process in agricultural sphere from the outside. The established as the result of the external influence agricultural societies performed the interlink function between the agriculturists and peasantry, playing the role of re-translators of the new production technologies.
Ippolitov V.A. - Activity of Komsomol as a factor of strengthening of a collective-farm system in the first half 1930 Ц x years pp. 408-422


Abstract: In article activity of provincial Komsomol in area organizationally – economic strengthening of collective farms in the first half of the 1930th is analyzed. The following activities of members of the union are considered: elimination of an obezlichka, piecework introduction, strengthening of a brigade form of the organization of work. For studying of historical and Komsomol problems the theory of nationalization of Komsomol according to which the Komsomol is considered as peculiar Soviet "the ministry of youth", a link between the state and youth became basic. The basis of istochnikovy base of article was made by unpublished archival materials of funds of the State Archive of Socio-political History of the Tambov Region. Objectivity of approach of the author was shown in aspiration to overcome ideological stereotypes as in studying of a social and economic situation, and Komsomol, in search of the methods of source study criticism allowing to overcome biased submission of information in official documents. Scientific novelty of article consists in reconsideration of a role of provincial Komsomol in an organizational and economic ukrpeleniye of collective farms at the beginning of 1930 – x years. As a result of research the author comes to a conclusion that Komsomol members played the major role in strengthening of a collective-farm system. As a result of collectivization the provincial Komsomol became the organization collective-farm. Nevertheless, use of All-Union Leninist Young Communist League in various economic campaigns contradicted the main functions of the organization.
Belkovets L., Belkovets S.V. - Economic policy of the Soviet Russia (USSR) during the period of 1920-1930 pp. 560-691


Abstract: The subject of this research is the process of establishment of the Soviet State economic policy during the period of 1920-1930. The author thoroughly examines the legislation on commercial enterprises as the protectors of economic interests of Russia abroad, as well as the consolidation of their status in the international treaties. The author gives characteristic to the new economic policy and concessions as means of attracting the foreign capital into the country. A special attention is given to the fight of the Soviet State for implementation of foreign trade monopolies as one of the ways to preserve the Soviet regime. An objective analysis of the legal acts, international agreements, as well as other diplomatic documents, allowed the author to propose his own unique conception of events associated with the development by the Soviet government of the economic line on the international arena. It became the embodiment of the “socialistic” reforms program in Russia with all characteristic to it positive and negative aspects.  This article creates a close to the objective truth image of historical reality.
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