Genesis: Historical research
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History and Economics
Lyu Yu. - Economic legal system of PRC as the context of establishment of the Chinese investment law pp. 20-28


Abstract: This article analyzes the Chinese normative, doctrinal, and historical legal material regarding the questions associated with the establishment of the investment law in PRC. The author determines the states of economic development of China, key positions and spheres of the open policy reform, peculiarities of China’s economic development, trends of development of China’s economic legal system, as well as normative legal foundation of the investment law. Due to the differences in prevalence of one or another ideology affecting the development of economic system at various stages, in the structural sense, content, and management of economic and legal systems, the mechanisms of implementation alongside the impact of economic legal system significantly vary at each stage. The author underlines that since the establishment of People’s Republic of China in 1949, the Chinese economic legal system has undergone multiple and constantly transforming stages, which illustrate different peculiarities at each of the stages that manifest as a result of interaction between the changing economic system and legal ideology. For the first time in Russia is examined and generalized the experience of legal development of the investment legal relations in China, which are of great importance for the assessment and improvement of PRC’s legislation in the field of investment activity.
P'yankov S.A. - Agrarian agents of development: activity of agronomical and statistical services of Ural municipalities in the late XIX – early XX centuries pp. 42-62


Abstract: This article, based on the example of statistical and agronomical services of the Ural municipalities, analyzes the activity of intelligentsia aimed at cultural and socioeconomic development of a village. The author examines the process of establishment and development of the county statistics and agronomy under the conditions of Russian province of the late XIX – beginning of the XX centuries, as well as demonstrates the place of Ural governorates in this process. Special attention is given to the social origin, activity, and sociopolitical views of the prominent representatives of municipality, who were the founders of the county agronomical and statistical services. The work illustrates the mechanisms of interaction between the intelligentsia and peasantry and describes the difficulties that emerged on the path of implementation of the new agrarian technologies into the practice of peasant agriculture. Using the example of the county surveys, the author provides the options of peasants’ attitude towards the representatives of the county intelligentsia. Presented in the article process of transformation of the agrarian sphere are viewed in the context of modernization theory, which allows examining the agrarian development from the perspective of continuity, including separate aspects of the village life with consideration of specific historical peculiarities of the regional development. The conclusion is made that despite the evident complications in interaction between the intelligentsia and peasantry, the new agrarian technologies were gradually implemented into the practice of agriculture. Multidivisional agronomic service was established in the Ural governorates over the period of several decades; statistical research allowed the county specialists to systematize the data about economic need of the regional agriculture. An important role in formation of the principles of the work of county agronomy was played by the public views of the leaders, who considered their activity as the way “to serve the community”.
Tushkanov I.V. - Multi-sector economy of average size as the basis of agrarian entrepreneurship of the Lower Volga Region over the period of 1861-1899 pp. 43-52


Abstract: This article is dedicated to the agricultural entrepreneurship in Lower Volga Region over the period of 1861-1899. The subject of this research is the modernization process of the former landed estates (both, remained in the right of noblemen, as well as fully or partially passed into the hands of the representatives of other social classes) and open market of production distribution. The object of this research is the diverse economies (differ in size, belonging to the owners of various social classes), as well as the key statistical indexes of agrarian sector of the Lower Volga Region. The author turns attention to the development of primary industries (crop husbandry, animal husbandry, and forestry) in the conditions of post-reform Russia. Among the main conclusions is the evidence of transformation of the former serfdoms into the fairly profitable economies. The scientific novelty consists in describing and comparing the economies of various size and owners of different social classes, which allows talking about the objective character of agrarian modernization process.
Moreeva S.N. - Analysis of the foreign trade activity of Russia since beginning of the World War I until lifting of the economic blockade pp. 61-72


Abstract: The subject of this research (carried out based on the results of scientific research work on the topic “Economic and legal aspects of foreign trade activity of Russia since the beginning of the XX century: past, present, and prospects”) is Russia’s foreign trade over the period from the mid 1914 until the early 1921. The author analyzes the transformation of the Russian foreign trade policy and transactions associated with the country’s participation in the World War I, as well as domestic events of the following years, trade and "golden” embargo of Soviet Russia from the side of the Western countries. The work traces the sequential changes in state regulation of the foreign trade activity: transition from the limited meddling of the government into foreign trade activity, towards the prohibitive-permissive system of regulation with the further establishment of state monopoly in foreign trade right after the October Revolution. Using the acquired statistical data, the author demonstrates how the participation in the WWI alongside the following domestic events affecter the trade balance of the country, volume and structure of export and imports, as well as the list of Russia’s trade partners.
Motrevich V.P. - To the question about the role of individual household in the incomes of collective farmers of Sverdlovsk Region during the period of 1940’s – 1950’s (according to the data of examination of the household budget) pp. 63-74


Abstract: The scientific novelty of this research consists in examination of the incomes of collective farmers of Sverdlovsk Region over the period of 1941-1958 based on the materials of budget inspection. The article provides the data on gross agricultural outputs within the individual households in value terms, dynamics, and structure of the annual average working hours of a family of collective farers, and time expenditure when working in the individual household. The author characterizes the structure of sowing in household plots, indicates the dynamics of agricultural production in the households of collective farmers, as well as defines the role of individual household in income in kind and cash of a peasant family. Methodology of the work suggests structuring the dynamic rows of the key indexes in functionality of peasant household on the basis of calculations of the annual average household budgets in accordance with the five-year circuit. This allowed grading the significant inclination of indexes of the peasant households in different timeframes, caused by the changes in the state agrarian policy alongside the natural climatic factors, as well as determining the trends of their development. The analysis of budget inspections testifies to the fact that throughout the indicated period, individual household in Sverdlovsk Region was the main source of income in kind and cash in a peasant family. Public economy satisfied the needs of the collective farmers only in cereal and fodder grain. Major portion of potato, vegetables, meat, dairy, and eggs came from the household plots. At the same time, most of the working time among the labor force accrued for the public economy. In the second part of 1950’s, due to the changes in Soviet agrarian policy, took place a noticeable growth in the incomes of collective farmers from the work in collective farms alongside the machinery and tractor stations; this resulted in decrease of the role of individual household in the village.
Yanik A.A. - Arrival of “young reformers” towards administration of the Russian economy: analysis of coincidences and regularities pp. 74-113


Abstract: The subject of this research is the analysis of events which resulted in the ascent of the community of young economists towards the management of the Russian reforms, who were later called the “young reformers”. A special attention is given to the examination of the facts within a broad historical context that helps to avoid falling into a trap of the popular narratives that lead to mythologization of ideas associated with the complicated processed of the Russian history of the late XX century. The goal of this work is to explore by what means the chain of events will gradually transform into a consistent and historically inevitable outcome, when the initial endless pi of the personal trajectories subsequently leads to the only possible way of realization of the collective historical drama. The author comes to a conclusion that under the conditions of crises, drastically increases the demand for the scientific knowledge on the management of public and economic development, and thus the responsibility for the quality of the events belongs to both, the government and the expert community. The history shows that by the end of 1991, only the “young reformers” were ready to operate in emergency conditions, which required increased efficiency and the ability to present scientific ability as the “product” for practical implementation.
Aleksandrova I.N. - Formation of the commitment to importance of the socially useful labor among youth during the time of “Thaw” pp. 75-91


Abstract: The object of this research is the Soviet youth (mostly the citizens of 14-30 years of age residing in the European part of Russia). The subject of this research is the efficiency of state youth policy in the area of labor. The Komsomol is viewed as a distinct “ministry of youth” Chronological framework of the study cover the period from the mid 1950’s until the first part of the 1960’s. This is the period of modification in the technique of administration and control over society, which revealed the forms of social creativity from the latent state. The efficiency of state youth policy in the area of labor is being evaluated with the help reminiscences of the veterans, examination of letters of the youth of 1950’s – 1960’s in newspapers, secondary analysis of the sociological surveys of the Institute of Public Opinion of “Komsomolskaya Pravda”. The author concludes that the labor education during the studied timeframe was aimed at increasing of social optimism, and thus, performed the role of adaptation mechanism that encouraged the molding of personality. Not glossing over the flaws in the state youth policy in the area of labor, the author believes that one of its notable positive results consisted in introducing collective labor to the youth, creative self-expression, development of the feeling of involvement into the large-scale social processes, as well as interest in career growth.
P'yankov S.A. - The Ural agricultural societies in the late XIX – early XX centuries: the process of establishment, functions and social structure pp. 137-148


Abstract: This article based on the data of the administrative statistics, country documentation management, and periodical materials, analyzes the mechanisms of organization of the agricultural societies in the Ural region. The author presents the dynamics of formation of the agricultural societies in Russia, as well as demonstrates the place of Ural governorates in this process. The social structure of the founders and rankers of the public associations are being examined. Based on the example of separate societies, the work analyzes the vectors of the work, number of the participants and areas of their activity, ways and nature of interaction with the representatives of authorities and local self-governance. Special attention is focused on the role of county agricultural personnel, which is one of the main actors in the process of establishment of the agricultural societies in the Ural region. The author makes a conclusion that the agricultural societies were in the sphere of influence of the agricultural services of the government and county council. The growth in the number of agricultural societies was not directly linked to the high social activity of the peasant population, and in many ways acted as the result of the reformation process in agricultural sphere from the outside. The established as the result of the external influence agricultural societies performed the interlink function between the agriculturists and peasantry, playing the role of re-translators of the new production technologies.
Ippolitov V.A. - Activity of Komsomol as a factor of strengthening of a collective-farm system in the first half 1930 – x years pp. 408-422


Abstract: In article activity of provincial Komsomol in area organizationally – economic strengthening of collective farms in the first half of the 1930th is analyzed. The following activities of members of the union are considered: elimination of an obezlichka, piecework introduction, strengthening of a brigade form of the organization of work. For studying of historical and Komsomol problems the theory of nationalization of Komsomol according to which the Komsomol is considered as peculiar Soviet "the ministry of youth", a link between the state and youth became basic. The basis of istochnikovy base of article was made by unpublished archival materials of funds of the State Archive of Socio-political History of the Tambov Region. Objectivity of approach of the author was shown in aspiration to overcome ideological stereotypes as in studying of a social and economic situation, and Komsomol, in search of the methods of source study criticism allowing to overcome biased submission of information in official documents. Scientific novelty of article consists in reconsideration of a role of provincial Komsomol in an organizational and economic ukrpeleniye of collective farms at the beginning of 1930 – x years. As a result of research the author comes to a conclusion that Komsomol members played the major role in strengthening of a collective-farm system. As a result of collectivization the provincial Komsomol became the organization collective-farm. Nevertheless, use of All-Union Leninist Young Communist League in various economic campaigns contradicted the main functions of the organization.
Belkovets L.P., Belkovets S.V. - Economic policy of the Soviet Russia (USSR) during the period of 1920-1930 pp. 560-691


Abstract: The subject of this research is the process of establishment of the Soviet State economic policy during the period of 1920-1930. The author thoroughly examines the legislation on commercial enterprises as the protectors of economic interests of Russia abroad, as well as the consolidation of their status in the international treaties. The author gives characteristic to the new economic policy and concessions as means of attracting the foreign capital into the country. A special attention is given to the fight of the Soviet State for implementation of foreign trade monopolies as one of the ways to preserve the Soviet regime. An objective analysis of the legal acts, international agreements, as well as other diplomatic documents, allowed the author to propose his own unique conception of events associated with the development by the Soviet government of the economic line on the international arena. It became the embodiment of the “socialistic” reforms program in Russia with all characteristic to it positive and negative aspects.  This article creates a close to the objective truth image of historical reality.
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