Genesis: Historical research
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MAIN PAGE > Journal "Genesis: Historical research" > Contents of Issue 05/2019
Contents of Issue 05/2019
Beliefs, religions, churches
Shiller V.V. - The movement of Baptists-Initiatives in the 1960s as a response to the Soviet ethno-confessional policy (on the example of Kemerovo Oblast) pp. 1-7

DOI:
10.25136/2409-868X.2019.5.29692

Abstract: The object of this research is the ethno-confessional situation in USSR throughout the entire period of its existence. The subject is the movement of “Initiatives” as a response to ethno-confessional policy of the Soviet State on the example of Kemerovo Oblast during the 1950’s – 1960’s. Attention is focuses on the inner structure of the movement of Baptists-“Initiatives”, determining the two main wings with different confessional and ethic compositions and objectives. Alongside the use of general scientific methods of analysis, synthesis, induction and deduction, the author applies the historical-comparative method in diachronic aspect, and the elements of systemic analysis. The main conclusion of the conducted research lies in the thesis on the not always though out confessional and ethnic policy of the Soviet State, which provokes the origination, development and large scale of the movement. The movement of the “Initiatives” encompasses a number of Protestant confessions and representatives of different nationalities, including Germans, who had a significant impact upon the inner structure of the Protestant religious organizations.
Archeology
Astashova N. - The peculiarities of Anatolian pottery: based on the materials from excavation of the Panticapaeum pp. 8-15

DOI:
10.25136/2409-868X.2019.5.29689

Abstract: The subject of this research is the painted pottery of Central Anatolia. This category of archeological materials was determined fairly recently among the findings discovered during the excavation of the city of Panticapaeum. The majority of fragments, in accordance with the opinion of the leader of the Bosporan (Panticapaeum) archeological expedition V. P. Tolstikov, refer to the time foundation of the apoikia (late VII – early VI century BC); and therefore, the found samples of Anatolian pottery belong to the late Iron Age of Anatolia. The formal-stylistic analysis demonstrated that this group has a number of characteristic features: technological (color and composition of clay; glazing the surface), morphological (atypical for the archaic Greek pottery form of vessels), and purely stylistic. Among the latter, the author notes the common for the Phrygian pottery polychrome painting over the layer of white primer, as well as monochrome and bichrome painting with matt ink, typical for the cultures of central regions of Anatolia. This category of archeological materials is practically unknown artifact of the Northern Black Sea Region, and thus the topic of the peculiarities of Anatolian pottery remains relevant. The main goal of this work is to familiarize a wide range of experts, especially archeologists, working in the field, with the new type of pottery.
History of regions of Russia
Ivlev N.N. - Financial education in Chelyabinsk Region in the conditions of Great Patriotic War pp. 16-26

DOI:
10.25136/2409-868X.2019.5.29683

Abstract: This article examines the system of training and advanced training of personnel for financial institutions of Chelyabinsk Region during the Great Patriotic War. It is determined that the system of full-time educational establishments that prepared specialist for financial sector was destroyed at the beginning of the war, was destroyed and failed to provide the region with personnel. There was not a single educational establishment for preparing financial specialists. Mass conscription into the army, transfer of employees to defense factories, led to human resource crisis and threat to plans for mobilization of financial means. The author conclude that the way out of crisis situation with regards to shortage of personnel was found within the framework of the system of lectures, seminars and individual traineeship. Intensive work of financial branches and regional authorities allowed overcoming the human resource crisis by 1943, as well as retain financial stability in the region.
Factors of historical development
Shapiro B. - Russian cavalry after the Crimean War: main scenarios of development pp. 27-36

DOI:
10.25136/2409-868X.2019.5.29721

Abstract: The defeat in the Crimean War started one of the most controversial periods in the history of Russian cavalry.  Much of what became an inseparable part of military science by 1850’s, in the second part of the XIX century forced to raise a question about the role of cavalry in the theatre of war. Therefore, the goal of this research lies in the analysis of the dynamics of development of Russian cavalry during the reign of Alexander II, initiated by the defeat in Crimean War and subsequent reforms. The author attempt to restore the history of evolution of the Russian cavalry over the period from 1855 to 1881, as well as determine the landmark changes and their consequences. The focus is made on the three different development phases: after the end of the Crimean War; in the 1860’s; and in the 1870’s. The archival materials that allow tracing the roots of the crisis of Russia cavalry in the 1850’s, as well as the dynamic of overcoming the crisis during the reign of Alexander II (1855-1881), are introduced into the scientific discourse. The acquired results lead to the conclusion that in a quarter of century, Russian cavalry has significantly improved its situation. A benchmark for its future development becomes the Cossack Cavalry; the key development vectors – narrowly specialized training, including the strengthening of material and scientific base, advancement of military hippology, military equestrianism, and sport horse breeding.
History and Politics
Smetanina K.Y. - Problem of the legitimacy of authority of Catherine II and approaches to its interpretation in the school textbook of the XIX century on the history of Russia pp. 37-45

DOI:
10.25136/2409-868X.2019.5.28183

Abstract:  Based on the materials of highly demanded and many times reissued textbooks on the history of Russia, which undoubtedly influences the formation of representations of several generations of Russian students about the past, this article analyzes the peculiarities of ascension to the throne of Catherine II. The author examines such topics as the ancestry of the empress and the circumstances of overthrow of Peter II in 1762. Special attention is given to the strategies, which allow the authors to substantiate the legitimacy of the reign of Catherine II. The article applies the principle of historicism for determining the dependence of the content and methods of translating information about the past events on the sociopolitical environment that affected the creation of school textbooks. The scientific novelty is defined by the fact that this article is fist to study the question of the legitimacy of reign of Catherine II on the materials of school textbooks of the XIX century. The conclusion is made that the authors were trying to bypass the problem of legitimacy either through concealing the circumstance of overthrow of Peter III and presenting the empress as the legatee of her husband; or by depicting the coup as an event contributing to the improvement of wellbeing of the Russian nation and enhancing the glory of the empire.
Salamatova M.S. - People's Commissariat for Internal Affairs (NKVD) and All-Russian Central Executive Committee (VTsIK): the role in organization of election campaigns in RSFSR (1917-1924) pp. 46-60

DOI:
10.25136/2409-868X.2019.5.29857

Abstract: The subject of this research is the involvement of the People's Commissariat for Internal Affairs and the All-Russian Central Executive Committee in organization of elections to Soviets and congresses of Soviets during the establishment of the Soviet State from 1917 to 1924.  Due to the absence of the nationwide specialized elective body, the key role in leading the election campaigns in RSFSR throughout the indicated period belonged to NKVD. The article describes the peculiarities of establishment and exercise of powers of People’s Commissariat in organization of elections. The scientific novelty lies in examination of the role of the supreme and central Soviet bodies in the organization of election campaigns during the establishment of the Soviet State based on the newly introduced to the scientific discourse archival materials and published sources. Soviet organization of elective bodies significantly reproduced the prerevolutionary model, and suggested the creation of specialized elective bodies at the local levels while retaining a substantial role of administrative branches under the authority of NKVD. The People’s Commissariat did not consider the organization of elections for Internal Affairs as a priority sphere of activity, which led to a chaotic and unsystematic exercise of powers in leading the election campaigns. Ineffective exercise of powers with regard to elections by the central apparatus of NKVD, as well as its territorial branches, logically led to reorganization of NKVD apparatus and delegation of these powers to subdivisions of VTsIK and executive committees of the Soviets.
Culture and cultures in historical context
Lugavtsova A.P. - Ōbaku art in the history of Japanese culture of Edo period (1603-1868) pp. 61-73

DOI:
10.25136/2409-868X.2019.5.29729

Abstract: This article examines the transformation of the cultural image of Japan of Edo period (1603-1868), associated with the emergence of Ōbaku School – a new movement of Japanese Buddhism, founded by the migrants from China. Special attention is given to the traditional types of art (painting, calligraphy, and sculpture), which brought the new crazes thanks to the Ōbaku artisans. The transformation of these cultural spheres affected by innovations of Ming China, vividly demonstrates the importance of contribution of the Ōbaku art to the development of artwork of Edo period. The scientific novelty is substantiated by the absence in the national Japanese studies of special works dedicated to Ōbaku School as a whole and its artistic legacy in particular; therefore, the author focuses on the studies of English and Japanese language authors. The conclusion is made that despite the isolation from the world, there still was a factor of outside borrowings that significantly affected the spiritual sphere of life of Japanese society. Ōbaku art, brought by the immigrant monks to the Japanese islands, made a sizeable contribution to the formation of the unique picture of Edo culture, turning into such driving motive that led to reforming of the traditional styles of painting, calligraphy, and other arts. Even a brief overview of the Ōbaku art illustrates the importance of its role in establishment of the cultural image of Japan of Edo period.
Zamotokhin P.P. - The impact of ideas of D. F. Strauss upon the establishment of philosophical worldview of N. N. Ge pp. 74-80

DOI:
10.25136/2409-868X.2019.5.29740

Abstract: This article explores the impact of works of the German philosopher David Friedrich Strauss upon the worldview of the Russian painter of the mid XIX century Nikolai Nikolaevich Ge. In the context of historical circumstances of painter’s creation of the canvas “Last Supper”, inspired by the work of D. F. Strauss “The Life of Jesus”, the author considers the question on the role of classical hermeneutics in the artistic method of N. N. Ge. The research determines the similarities in the general philosophical views of F. D. Strauss in form as they presented in his work “On the Old and New Faith”, and positions expressed by the painter. For studying the correlation between the philosophy and inner aesthetic mechanisms of the object are used the concept of M. M. Bakhtin. Taking into account the late enthusiasm of the painter with the religious ideas of L. N. Tolstoy, the author formulates a hypothesis on the specific place of the works of German scholar within the entirety of evolution of the philosophical views of N. N. Ge, as a somewhat transitional link from the positivist paradigm towards the philosophical ethical concepts developing Christian maxims.
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